African Scholar Journal of Built Env. & Geological Research Vol. 26 No. 4


VOL. 26 NO. 4 SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2196-1789



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Assessment of Nupe Cultural Features in a Multimedia Studio in Bida, Niger State


Jiya John Ninma; & Charles Makun

Department of Architecture, School of environmental technology, federal university of technology Minna, Niger state.



The constant evolution of culture has created new hybrids between art, film, media, advertising, journalism, architecture, and many other spheres that have an impact on human culture. These hybrids sometimes call for a paradigm shift or at least challenge our cultural philosophies or ideologies. As a result of technological transformation through industrialization, most public buildings in Nigeria are beginning to lack its indigenous Architecture within their cultural context. In addition, Studies have shown that most public buildings in Nigeria are lacking indigenous people’s spatial needs and cultural values and they are profound among the minority ethnic groups. As such, a public building such as a media house ought to reflect the culture of its location. This study focuses on evaluating the application of Nupe cultural features in the design of a multimedia studio in Bida. Media houses were selected randomly in Bida, Niger state to know how modernization has influenced the rich culture of the Nupe people. The research method employed in this study is the qualitative research method and the process of observation has been employed for gathering data. An observation schedule was used as an instrument for data collection and these data were sampled using the non-random sampling method. These data were analyzed through content analysis and the findings showed that the cultural feature has not been properly adopted in multimedia designs. The study concludes that a public building such as a media house should reflect the culture of its location and this can be achieved by prioritizing cultural artistic inputs on building by professionals and by extension, promoting the culture and art of its people. 

KEYWORDS: Nupe cultural features, Hybrids, Public building, Multimedia.




Development of Model for Implementation of Safety Measures for Small and Medium Sized Construction Firms in Abuja, Nigeria using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling


Jibril Adamu Muhammad; Abdullateef Adewale Shittu; Yakubu Danasabe Mohammed; & John Ebohimen Idiake

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



The construction industry is a very important sector of the Nigerian economy. It contributes significantly to the Gross National Product. Poor H&S performance remains at high levels as evidenced by a high number of injuries and work related illnesses. As a result, there has been increased need for adopting H&S safety measures that could help improve the situation.  Therefore, this paper is aimed at developing a model for implementation of safety measures for small and medium sized construction firms (construction SMEs) in Abuja with a view to improving the safety performance of construction firms using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). . The findings revealed that use of First aid kits   with MIS of 4.28 is the most effective safety practice required on construction sites. It was also found that low level of compliance with occupational H&S regulations with MIS of 4.21 is the most severe challenge affecting the implementation of safety measures by construction SMEs. Cost of workmen’s compensation with the MIS of 3.79 is the most significant effect of implementation of safety measures on the cost of accidents. While H&S provision in condition of contract with MIS of 4.15 was ranked as the averagely implemented regulations for enhancing effectiveness of safety measures. The findings reveal that the PLS-SEM is a model that evaluates a data as a collective entity.

Keywords: Implementation, Model, PLS -SEM, Safety measures, SMEs.




Property Records Management among Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Kaduna, Nigeria


Peace Swatcham Mordecai; & Yusuf Luka Gambo

Department of Estate Management, University of Jos



The paper investigated property record management practices among Estate Surveying and Valuation firms with a view to identifying the most appropriate and contemporary means of keeping records among Valuation firms in Kaduna. The study adopted a quantitative approach in administering 70 questionnaires to Estate Surveying and Valuation firms. The research employed both descriptive and inferential statistical tools to analyze the data. The study explore into the types of records culture, the challenges associated with record keeping and the extent to which property records management affects real estate practice. It was found that 72% of Estate Surveying and Valuation firms utilize the manual method of record keeping, 28% adopt the digital method and 32% adopt both manual and digital methods of record keeping. Some challenges associated with property record management are ineffective means of retrieving information, insufficient space for records management, lack of adequate knowledge on how records are to be managed and client complexity. Good property records help protect necessary records, aids accountability and help preserve value. It was recommended that property record managers should be properly trained on how to manage records. Firms should also adopt the use of the electronic method of records keeping as well as develop the habit of updating on the current trend in property records keeping.

Keywords: Digital record, Estate firms, Manual records, Record keeping, Kaduna, Nigeria




Effect of Quality and Adequacy of Campus Accommodation on Students’ Academic Performance in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU) Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria


*Umar Auwal1, Nwachukwu Onyekachi Daniel1, Nafisa Abubakar Barau2, Abdullahi Isa Bunu2

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, P.M.B. 044, Katagun LGA, Bauchi State, Nigeria



The status of commercial environment in students’ lifecycle cannot be exaggerated; as such the extent of availability, appropriateness and functionality of hostel accommodation as the main feature in the fortitude of students’ satisfaction and performance. This study aims to discover the effect of quality and adequacy of on-campus accommodation, and its link with academic performance of students in ATBU Bauchi. The study involved the use of quantitative method and 351 respondents randomly selected. 5-point Likert scale questionnaires was used to collect data, which was subjected to data analysis using SPSS using mean ranking, frequency tables and regression analysis to determine effect of quality and adequate of on-campus accommodation and the relationship with academic performance. The study revealed that respondents were dissatisfied with the adequacy of some services such as emergency response services, size of rooms, internet, waste disposal and bed space. The study recommended that management, as well as the governing council of the university need to improve on the above-mentioned services. These will ensure an improvement in satisfaction and performance.

Keywords: Students, On-Campus Hostel Accommodation, Academic Performance.




Assessment of Nupe Cultural Features towards Establishment of Tourism Destination at Nupeko, Niger State


*Mohammed Amina, Ayuba Philip & Muhammd Isa Bala

Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.



The success of tourism in a community depends largely on the ability of the community to develop, create, manage and market tourist facilities within. It has been established that the need to harness tourism potential in Nigeria as a whole is of enormous concern. There is therefore need to showcase tourism through architecture in the country. The Nupe ethnic group, native in the Middle Belt of Nigeria is identified to be culturally rich in arts and crafts.  However, previous studies have revealed that in spite of the natural human and physical resources available, tourism within the area is still at an appalling level, as these resources are left to lie fallow without any form of development. Tourism on the other hand requires that the residents of such communities are carried along towards showcasing their unique cultural attributes. To achieve this, questionnaires were distributed to selected family heads to generate information on key attributes of the people, as well as focus group discussions carried out with elderly members of the community in order to obtain data on historical cultural values and perception, spatial and cultural attributes of the people, in order to obtain unique characteristics. Also the findings showcased unique cultural attributes of the Nupe community. The data obtained was analysed using content analysis for the qualitative data on spatial analysis. The study conclusively identified the possibility of integrating cultural features, values and perceptions in the design of tourism destination at the historic town of Nupeko in Niger State, Nigeria.

Keywords: – Community, Cultural features, Destination, Nupe, Tourism




Assessment of the Impact of Some Selected Quarry Sites on the Atmospheric Air Quality in Abuja Municipal Area Council, FCT, Nigeria


Whingan Oloyede Matthew; & Ahmed Abubakar Sadauki

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna



Abuja Municipal Area Council is one of the locations in Nigeria that is generally associated with environmental degradation resulting air quality depletion from unsustainable natural resources exploration activities like quarrying. Quarrying in some part of the study area is intense with a lot of associated gases released into the atmosphere. The aim of this paper is to assess the impacts of quarry sites on the atmospheric air quality in Abuja Municipal Area Council, FCT, Nigeria. The sources of data used include primary and secondary. The primary data include air pollutants samples, reconnaissance survey, questionnaire administration and oral interview. Secondary data were sourced from the gazettes, internet facilities, text books, journals, published and unpublished thesis from University library with regards to the impacts of quarry sites on the atmospheric air quality in Abuja Municipal Area Council, FCT, Nigeria. The methods of data analysis used include both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods. The result shows that during the dry season, Wumba district ranked the highest in edges sample data with 900µg/m3 and the least was located in Garki village with 400 µg/m3. In 750m away from the quarry sites, Wumba district and Dutse ranked the highest with 270 µg/m3 while Garki village ranked the least with 120 µg/m3. This revealed that PM10 values in dry season tends to decrease with distance away from the quarry sites of the study area. While during the rainy season, Guzape ranked the highest in edges sample data with 300µg/m3 and the least was located in Garki village with 180µg/m3. In 750m away from the quarry sites, Dutse ranked the highest with 70µg/m3 while Garki village ranked the least with 20µg/m3. This revealed that PM10 values in rainy season tends to decrease with distance away from the quarry sites of the study area. The finding also shows that decrease agricultural yields ranked the highest with 40%, yellowish of some agricultural plant leaves ranked second with 29.3%, destruction of farmlands ranked third with 21.3% and inadequate germination of agricultural seeds ranked the least with 9.4% of the respondents. This shows that the major impact of quarry air pollutants on agricultural activities was decrease agricultural yields. An understanding of the source of the air pollutants is very important in the control and prevention of atmospheric emissions especially from point sources. The paper discovered that there was significant disparity in the observed concentrations of the atmospheric pollutants under consideration at different times within the study location. The study observed remarkable spatial and temporal variations of PM10, CO, VOC, SOx and NOx across the study area. The values of PM10, CO, NOx and SOx showed elevated concentrations of these pollutants in the dry season when compared with rainy season, indicating significant anthropogenic inputs which may include higher vehicular movement, quarrying activities and emissions due to industrial activities within the study area.

Keywords: Quarry sites, Air quality, Quarrying and AMAC




An Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction with Facilities Management Practice of Provided Services in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi


*Salawu Olukayode Adewuyi; **Tinufa Anthony Abbey; & ***Ademu Okpanachi Yusuf**

*Estate Management Department, Kaduna State University. **Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic Idah. ***Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic Idah **



Facilities management are activities carried out with the key role of integrating people, process, place and technology to minimise costs and maximise value and competitive advantage. In Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (A.T.B.U) Bauchi, provided services such as libraries, information technology centres, laboratories, hostels, green areas, shops, retail outlets, services, facilities, environment, are provided and are managed in ensuring that those provided services do not impede the activities and outcomes of students and staff of A.T.B.U. Bauchi. This academic work examined the level Students’ Satisfaction with Facilities Management Practice of Provided Services in A.T.B.U. Bauchi. Research survey was conducted using questionnaire with close-ended questions, open-ended questions and Likert-scaled questions. Data analysed with S.P.S.S © package version 25, revealed that students of A. T. B. U. Yelwa Campus in Bauchi were more satisfied with facilities management pactices employed in managing Electricity supply, security services, Computer Business Centres, Food Canteens, Internet Services, which were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively.




Evaluation of the Cooling Performance in Convention Centres; Thus Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings in Nigeria


Menegbe Micheal Majiyebo; & Zubairu Sarah

Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.



A lingering energy demand in buildings has become a difficult issue all over the world. More than 40% of energy consumption is due to buildings. With the need to improve indoor environmental quality and conditions various strategies and methods were applied in buildings. Cold countries been concerned about keeping the space warm, whilst countries with high temperatures are worried about keeping their spaces cooler. With exceptional increase in the utilization of artificial cooling mechanisms such as; air conditioning system, air coolers and fans for cooling in buildings. Increased energy consumption being one of the major reasons that have led to emission of greenhouse gases causing environmental pollution resulting to global warming and ozone layer depletion. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the cooling performance in convention centres; thus reducing energy demand in buildings in Nigeria, with a hypothesis placed that building orientation, location and regional temperature, will generally influence the effects of the cooling performance of convention centres, various cooling systems used in and within the building were determined, an evaluation of their performance was carried out to determine its effects. This research therefore embarked upon an empirical study of a convention centre in Minna Niger state with the view to explore the challenges of energy use with its antecedent challenges of both the building owners and the users, using qualitative research approach. This entail participants’ observation and conduct of interviews. The findings showed that the use of active cooling techniques involving mechanical energy in one or other forms are used to cool mainly the interior parts of the building (Air-Conditioning (A/C), Air handling units, Ceiling fans) which requires a power source, creating adverse effect on the environment by increasing energy used by these buildings, The research recommends that in designing for convention centres, the use of natural cooling methods and practices in buildings is least expensive, and it would mainly depend on interaction of building and its surrounding thereby reducing energy demand in buildings.

Keywords: Cooling Performance, Energy Demand, Environment




Flood Vulnerability Assessment in the Gbako River Basin, Niger State, Nigeria


Alfa, Mohammed Alhaji; & Suleiman, M.Y.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna



Floods are among the most devastating natural disasters and cost many lives every year. It is reported that flood disasters account for about a third of all natural disasters (by number and economic losses). Nigeria is no exception to countries that experienced flood in recent time. Flood vulnerability of the communities inhabiting the flood plain of the Gbako River, Niger State, Nigeria was investigated. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approach such as field survey, interview, questionnaire and geospatial techniques to achieve the objectives. The geospatial techniques was utilized to generate flood vulnerability map and create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study location. Questionnaire was also randomly administered to ascertain the adaption strategies and coping capacities of the communities in the study area. The result indicate that a greater number of families, household, cultural heritage are all prone to flood and that flood events impacted on the peoples livelihood by way of destruction to farm produce, food and cash crop, water and sanitation, low and poor harvest with dire consequences on socio-economic lives of the populace. The results also indicates that the area with elevation of between 42 meters and 123 meters above the sea level are vulnerable to flood with severe consequences for the inhabitant of the study area. The result also revealed that migration, evacuation, relocation to higher ground of the safer area are the adaption strategies to flood events in the study area. Conclusively, with the percentage of the inhabitant and community affected by flood and the critical infrastructure that are damaged, the study location and its habitants are severely vulnerable to flood. It is therefore recommended that flood control structures or buffer zone should be created in areas of high and moderate vulnerability effect and Multi-sectoral approach to flood mitigation as opposed to single sector should be promoted as there are inter-linkage in terms of flood effect on various aspect of society.

Keywords: Flood, Flood vulnerability, Gbako River, and Flood plain




Evaluation of Flood Resilience Strategies as Climate Adaptation for Residential Properties in Lekki, Lagos


*Barde D. J. And Isah A. D.

Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.



The impact of flooding in recent times on housing are increasing with rapid urban expansion in both developed and developing countries. Various studies have shown the relationship between high flood levels in coastal regions and climate change which causes an increase in sea levels and ocean degradation. The rising flood frequency affects the residents of Lekki peninsula, destroys an array of urban infrastructure, disrupts economic activities and becomes a threat to sustainable development. This study aims at evaluating flood resilience strategies as response to the increasing flood vulnerabilities in residential properties in Lekki, Lagos state. Due to the empirical evidences the variables employed to evaluate Flood resilience and climate adaptation include: the elevation of land, building strategies for resilience and the water levels in Lekki, Lagos state. A Quantitative research approach was used where questionnaire survey was administered to the residents of Lekki, Lagos state. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. It was discovered that residential properties were affected by the increased flood risk with major damages to the structural stability, building façade, life and properties of the occupants of these residential properties. The findings showed that the residents applied flood resilient strategies that were inadequate to control flood. The research advanced the use of water inclusion and water entry technologies as the strategies adopted in designing residential properties that are adaptable to the flood and climate conditions. The study recommends the construction of proper drainage channels to enable efficient draining of flood water, water proofing of the building structure to keep the structural stability in check and the adaptation of amphibious technology water front design, elevated buildings and floating structures to adapt to the costal environment. In conclusion, the type of flood, the environment and Informed historical data affect the choice of strategy employed in resisting flood risk and adapting to climate change and this is the new climate reality.

Keywords: Flood, Resilience, Adaptation, Vulnerability.




Management Mode Effect on Tenants’ Satisfaction in Residential Properties in Bauchi Metropolis


Fidelis Awa ABANG 1, Ishiyaku Bala 1, Muhammad Umar Bello 1

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Tafawa Balewa Way, P. M. B 0248, Bauchi, 740272, Nigeria



The management of housing by many estate owners, landlords and caretakers in most developing countries is often bedevilled by poor maintenance, high rentals and more often than not, tenants are unsatisfied with their dwelling units. These negative factors in the management of housing by landlords and management firms have led to the increase in litigation cases between landlords and tenants which has also led to a loss of rent thereby contributing to the general decline of housing. This study investigates management mode effect on tenants’ satisfaction in residential properties in Bauchi metropolis with a view of guiding housing management policies. The study adopted a quantitative research approach and also a survey research strategy. A questionnaire was adopted as an instrument for data collection. A total of 56 household heads in residential properties managed by Estate Surveyors & Valuers and 74 household heads in residential properties managed by non-professionals in G.R.A’s and Tambari Estate in Bauchi metropolis were sampled for the study. The data collected were analysed using mean ranking and T-test. The findings revealed that service quality is moderately high in residential properties managed by Estate Surveyors & Valuers and low in residential properties managed by non-professionals. Tenants are fairly satisfied with management services rendered by Estate Surveyors & Valuers while tenants in residential properties managed by non-professionals are dissatisfied with management services rendered. Finally, it was concluded that there is no significant difference in tenants’ satisfaction and service quality between residential properties managed by Estate Surveyors & Valuers and residential properties managed by non-professionals in Bauchi metropolis. The study recommends that evaluation of the quality of service delivery should be part of property management routine and the result could be used as a basis for future assessment.

Keywords: Management mode; Tenants’ satisfaction; Residential properties, Service quality, Bauchi




Mapping of the Spatial Distribution Pattern of Health Care Facilities in Bauchi Metropolis, Using Geographic Information System, Bauchi State, Nigeria


Abah Ochepo Sunday; Haruna Dadi; & Abubakar Abdullahi Yakubu

Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



The research problem under consideration in this study focuses on the lack of accurate map and a robust spatial database of health facilities that exist in Bauchi metropolis. This can certainly assist policy maker make informed decision for the overall benefit of the public. The major objectives include creation of a spatial database of healthcare facilities and analyzing the distribution pattern of the facilities using ARC GIS 3.2 and micro software. Method used include geocoding of the healthcare facilities spatial and attribute query as well as average nearest neighbor index. The result include the cartographic display of 62 healthcare facilities, clustered pattern of the health facilities and robust spatial database of the existing healthcare facilities. Thus, it has been concluded that the existing healthcare facilities in some few areas at the detriment of other areas. More, so the spatial database developed will enable decision makers to improve future planning of the healthcare facilities. Finally, it has been recommended that both private and public healthcare providers should adopt affective use of spatial database for easy planning and improves access to general public.

Keywords: GIS, GPS, Geocoding, map and Digital.




Formal and Informal Access to Land in Nasarawa: Issues and Challenges


Ayodele Kayode David and Ajani, Usman Yusuf

12Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa



One of the main goals of the Land Use Act of 1978 and all Governments is to achieve an equitable distribution and access to land rights for all citizens, regardless of wealth or position. As a result, this study used Nasarawa as a case study to analyze the problems and issues related to formal and informal access to land. The household heads of residential properties in Nasarawa made up the study’s sample population. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and descriptive statistics, a weighted mean score, and factor analysis were used to analyze them. According to the study, governmental allocation, compulsory acquisition, private purchase, kinship, and families are among the main formal and informal access points to land in Nasarawa.. Additionally, the study found that informal means of access to land were used more effectively in the study area. The research also showed that barriers to formal and informal access to land include affordability, poor infrastructure, high land costs, lack of formal documentation, favoritism, discrimination, and difficulties among others. The results of the Factor Analysis showed the chi-square value of 2596.033 is significant at p < 0.000 indicating that 4 components were generated which culminated in 77.338% at 8.937 eigen level. The research further found that consequence of formal and informal access to land includes the growth of substandard settlements; unbalanced wealth distribution; inefficient land management; environmental degradation; segregation, vulnerability, marginalization amongst others. The study came to the conclusion that effective and equitable access to land for the overall development of the property market could not be overstated and recommended that adequate measures be taken to ensure equitable access through open land allocation and transparent procedures while also encouraging the review of land administration policies and strategies.

Keywords: Formal, Informal, Access, land, Issues, Challenges




Application of the Principle of Soft Landing in Fund (TET Fund) Building Projects in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions


Yunusa M. Saleh1, Ibrahim ADAMU Zuntu2, Abdul Salam D. PhD3, Mansur M. Shehu4

1Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Environmental Studies, Department of Building Tech., Zaria, Nigeria. 2Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Environmental Studies, Department of Building Tech., Zaria, Nigeria. 3Ahmadu Bello University, Faculty of Environmental Design, Department of Building, Zaria, Nigeria



The research serves to explore the Application of the Principles of Soft Landing in Tertiary Education Trust Fund building projects in North Western Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. This was accomplished through the study of 119 building projects in 12 tertiary Institutions in the region. After effects of the examinations completed and the investigation of the information acknowledged from respondents uncovered that the Principle of Soft Landing does not have any significant bearing in the Nigerian setting as 75% of the projects executed within the period of five years don’t have over a year of building aftercare from constructors as no system (66%) was set up for broadened aftercare. 94% of respondents concurred that such stretched out aftercare will enhance such sorts of projects later on. It was recommended that the Principle of Soft Landing be acquainted with Tertiary Education Trust Fund both directly and through seminars and paper presentations within the experts in the Nigerian Construction Industry to expand its application and Law makers are encouraged to sanction law for all public projects to appreciate such a principle.

Keywords Principle of Soft landing1, Tetfund Building Project2, Construction Industry3, Nigerian Tertiary Institution4, Public Construction Project5




Factors Responsible for Low Patronage of Quantity Surveyors’ Services: Informal Clients’ Perspective


1Ahmad Mohammed Ahmad, 2Yarima Mohammed, 3Abubakar Hamza Sakwa, 4Filibus Ibrahim Danfitoh, 5Raji Mohammed Mudashir,6Ibrahim Idris

1,2,3,4,5Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi-Nigeria. 6Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi-Nigeria



Studies have shown that patronage of Quantity Surveyors (QSs) by the public clients in Nigeria is discouraging in spite of the role they play in regulating professional services. This resulted in the Quantity Surveying (QS) services in building projects in the country not fully appreciated.  Hence, this study used informal clients and registered quantity surveyors in Bauchi to assessed Factors Responsible for low Patronage of Quantity Surveyors’ services for building projects Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria. The study used a sample frame of 443 informal clients that got approval for their residential building projects from planning authority between 2013-2018 to arrive at a sample size of 205. Subsequently respondents were surveyed using questionnaires through convenience and simple random sample techniques. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics to ranked the factors. Findings revealed that most of the clients are not aware of the services offered by QS, hence misconcepts QS name for other sister professions. The implication of this finding is that there is high cost of construction project in Nigeria. The study recommends the application of effective awareness strategies which will, in a long run, enhance the patronage of QS services.

Keywords: Quantity Surveying; Informal Clients; Low Patronage; Bauchi metropolis.




Impact of Higher Education Institution Development on the Housing Market


Hassan Olanrewaju Abdul; Ajibade Kayode Rasheed

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.



The expansion of the student population in Kwara State Polytechnic is evidenced by emerging trends and the development of higher education institutions such as universities and polytechnics. Due to the high demand from students, this scenario has a negative impact on the growth of the student housing market. Housing development is not solely dependent on the growth of HEIs in the surrounding area. This study investigates the theory of the Hedonic Regression Price Model in order to test the hypothesis of housing market attractiveness. Because of the heterogeneity of housing, this model is widely used in studies related to the housing market. The findings revealed that the housing demand in Kwara State Polytechnic was influenced by the studentification scenario, which had a significant negative impact on housing market growth. The housing market is positively capitalized by educational facilities and the city center. It is influenced by the areas’ accessibility and function. This study uses housing samples to build a linear hedonic price model for housing accommodation areas using location and surrounding development as independent variables. The overall conclusion of this study is that locational attributes have a significant impact only on the housing market in Kwara State Polytechnic, where the housing price rises when the house is closer to the city center than when it is farther away from the Higher Education Institution.

Keywords: Housing Market, Demand and Supply, Market Attractiveness, Hedonic Price Model.




Assessment of People’s Perception of Housing Quality in Down Quarters, Kaduna Metropolis


1Mansur Bello; 2Hauwa Umar Abere; & 3Abdulkarim Abdulmumin Manga

1&2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Waziri Umar Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi



Man’s perception of the environment is considered so fundamental that it becomes the main point of departure for any analysis of man-environment relations. Man reaches decisions and takes action within the framework of his perceived sets of elements and links rather than any externally defined “objective set”. Though studies have shown that quality of housing development in most parts of Nigeria’s urban area are of less quality compared to other parts of the developed world, but that of Down Quarters area, which is a neighbourhood within Kaduna metropolis is not yet ascertained. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the housing quality status using; Perception of Households on Infrastructure Quality and Perception of Households on Housing Quality in the study area. The study was carried out at Down Quarters which is located within Nigeria Railway Corporation in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna South local Government Area. The survey method was adopted in the survey of residents, a sample size of 321 drawn by systematic sampling from the total research population of 1982. Questionnaires were administered to 321 respondents and retrieved. The research instruments used were: satellite imagery, questionnaire, camera, reconnaissance survey/observation, and personal interview were utilized as data collection instruments. The data collected with these instruments were analysed with a variety of statistical tests; descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics (Likert scale and Chi (x2) Distribution for the analyses) using the SPSS packages. The overall condition of infrastructure was rated poor (2.21). That is, resident’s ratings of the conditions of infrastructure give a HQI of 2.21 (poor). The current deteriorated state of housing in Down Quarters is in terms of poor building condition, roofing, walls, floor, window, door, toilet bathroom, ceiling, ventilation and lighting. The paper recommends that people’s perception should be sought in all physical planning to reveal the level of understanding of residents and their habitats to have adequate and better information that lead to more enlightened decision of the policy makers.

Keywords: People, Perception, Housing, Quality, Infrastructure, Household




Comparative Analysis of Triplets Surface Determined with DGPS and Automatic Level


Zakari, Danladi; Ahmed, Babayo; Adamu Makama Pindiga; Abubakar Abdulkadir

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State.



Dual Frequency Global Positioning System (DGPS) has emerged as a successful technology in providing precise positions of points on the surface of the earth over the reference ellipsoid with sub-metre level of accuracy.  DGPS is one of the most frequently used positioning methods in geodesy. The end products of surveying with this receiver gives geodetic latitude (ϕ), geodetic longitude (λ) and ellipsoidal height (h) which were obtained with reference to the ellipsoid. This research involved the determination of Geoidal undulation for the production of Geoidal map. The objectives include the determination of orthometric, ellipsoidal and geoidal heights, to use orthometric and ellipsoidal height for the purpose of aspect and slope map comparison. DGPS receiver and precise Level instruments were used to obtain ellipsoidal and orthometric heights of the study area respectively.  Geoidal heights were derived from the differences between ellipsoidal heights and orthormetric heights. The adjusted orthormetric heights obtained from precise Level and the ellipsoidal heights which are part of the geodetic/Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates obtained from DGPS were post processed using spectrum survey office Software. The Geoidal map, aspect map and slope map were created using ArcGIS 10.2.1 Software version. The Microsoft Office Excel was used to deduce the ellipsoidal heights, orthormetric heights and geoidal undulations for the production of Geoidal Map of the study Area. The statistical analysis of the result met the precision of second order geodetic control network and levelling specifications. The mean value of the geoidal heights determined is 43.650 metre which could be used as the geoid within the study area.

KEYWORDS: Global Positioning System, Orthormetric, Ellipsoidal and Geoidal heights




Assessment of Variation in Evaporation Rate as Evidences of Climate Change in Some Communities of Former Mega Chad, Borno State North East Nigeria


AN Dogo (Phd.)¹, M. H. Ibrahim², M. Bello Ibrahim3, Z. Shettima Bukar4 And Ihsan. Muhammad5

¹Department of Geography, School of Social Sciences, Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology PMB 16 Bama Borno State Nigeria ²Department of Geography, Faculty of Human Sciences, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris Tanjong Malim Perak Malaysia 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria 4Department of Geography, School of Social Sciences, Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology PMB 16 Bama Borno State Nigeria 5Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris Tanjong Malim Perak Malaysia



This study is to look at the assessment of variation in evaporation rate as evidences of climate change in some communities of former mega Chad, Borno state north-east Nigeria. The objectives were to: assess the evidences of climate changes in communities of former Mega-Chad, measure the variation rate of evaporation in those communities located at the shores of the former Mega-Chad, analyse the data collected from meteorology station to present outcome as evidences; The data used in this study were generated from secondary source only; the secondary data sourced from Meteorology station were analysed using trend analysis of time series to assessed the evidence of climate change in the study area, Journal articles, Conference proceedings and papers, Books, Photographs and other relevant sources were all consulted to have related information’s on the variation in evaporation rate as evidences of climate change in some communities of former Mega Chad, Borno State North East Nigeria; Few Possible recommendations were also made for future studies.




Effect of Cost-Related Risks in Building Construction Projects


Okigbo, Olushola Ndefo; and Mamman, Ekemena Juliet

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bida



The construction industry is characterized by inherent risks and uncertainties as a result of its fragmented and competitive nature. This, therefore, makes it difficult to accurately estimate the cost of a construction project. Cost-based risks are the cost that directly affects the project cost during construction. Many projects have suffered abandonment because of cost overruns due to unnecessary occurrences of cost-related risk. For a project to be adequately completed especially within cost and quality, a manager should be able to ascertain cost-related risks to be able to prepare adequately for the risks. Therefore, this paper aims at evaluating cost-based project risks in building projects and also to determine the effect on building project costs. A quantitative approach was used in obtaining data through structured questionnaires administered to the construction professionals practising in the F.C.T. Abuja. 102 questionnaires were distributed and 75 were returned (73.5% response rate). Using a two-dimensional scaling, with a Likert scale of 0-4, the likelihood of the identified risk factors occurring and their perceived impacts in case of occurrence. The data were analysed using the Relative important index (RII) and multiple regression analysis. The study revealed that cost-based risks have a very positive significant effect on a project. The paper recommended that accuracy of data in the form of scope, specification and drawings be provided by the specialist in order to avoid change of scope, design and specification which would result to inflation of contract sum in order to avoid cost overrun and project abandonment.

Keywords: Building, Construction, Cost-related, Projects, Risks.




Increase in Construction Cost of Residential Real Estate Investment and Developer’s Profit in Uyo


*Ekpo, Mbosowo Ebong; **Attai, Hosanna Moses; & ***Usip, Edidiong Elijah

*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Akwa Ibom State. **Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Akwa Ibom State. ***Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Akwa Ibom State.



This research examines the effects of increase in construction cost on developer’s profit in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. In order to achieve the stated aim, the objectives were to examine the average increase in construction cost of residential real estate investment in the study area, to analyse the developer’s profit of residential real estate investment in the study area and to ascertain the effects of increase in construction cost of residential real estate investment on the developer’s profit in the study area. The research work adopted the cross-sectional survey type of design. The research population comprised residential real estate investments duly appraised by Estate Surveyors and Valuers who have offered professional services in the study area. Data was obtained through questionnaire survey. The sample size was 500. Findings from the study revealed that the average construction cost in the study area increased by 28.4%. the study also found out that the 24.8% increase in the cost of construction affected the developer’s profit by leading to a loss of N1,551,861.97. The investment information provided in this study has significant implications for both local and foreign investors desiring to invest in the Nigerian property market and it is a useful resource for Sub-Sahara African growth and development in this era.

Keywords: Construction cost, residential real estate, investment, developer’s profit, Uyo




Factors Enhancing Cost Management of Construction Project in Nigeria: An Evaluation


Babatunde Gbenga Eziekiel; & Isiyaku Muhammed



Construction project cost management is an important aspect considered throughout the project management life cycle. This paper attempt to identify the essential factors related to cost management of construction project in Nigeria and show the degree of severity of these factors to cost management of construction project from the perspectives of the clients, the consultants and the contractors in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to the targeted respondents in the course of this study. The results of analyzing nineteen factors identified and considered in the questionnaire survey using mean relative important index shown ten most critical factors of cost management of construction project in Nigeria which are; effective project cost budgeting, accurate project cost estimation, effective cost planning and control, Control of variation order, effective resource planning, application of due process, adequate time for project implementation, choice of competent contractor, design adequacies, prompt payment to contractors and consultant, appointment of competent professional, prompt appointment of consultants, effective coordination of contractors. This study also revealed that that both clients, consultants and the contractors generally agree on the critical factors affecting cost management of construction project in Nigeria as there is an intersection of these ten most critical factors in their responses. The paper conclude that this agreement confirms the influential effects of these factors on the cost management of construction project and provides a level of validation for this study and recommended among others that both clients, consultants and the contractors give more attention to the critical factors that affect the cost management of construction project in order to achieve value for money in construction project. Clients, consultants and the contractors should also manage each of these critical factors at their various level of construction project implementation.

Keywords: cost, cost management, construction, projects, factors




Accidents at Construction Sites toward Materials Handling in Yobe State, Nigeria


Aji, A. Bukar; Falmata A. Mustapha; Amina S. Gimba

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



The construction work site is often a chaotic place with an incredibly high amount of action taking place. Workers and machines move about in frenzy, with everyone focused on the task at hand. In such an environment construction accidents such as handling of materials take place. This paper explains accidents in material handling at construction sites in Yobe State and also identifies their main causes and frequency. The questionnaire forms an important source of data collection for this research. The questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability with the statistical package for social science (SPSS); which results show a cronbach’s alpha of 0.958. Based on the research conducted, the major cause of accident in materials handling is identified as low level of safety implementation/ standard and compliance in most of Yobe State construction industry.

Keywords: Accidents. Materials handling, construction sites, questionnaire survey.



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