African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 26 No. 2


VOL. 26 NO. 2 SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2910-1083



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Basic Post Basic Tertiary Education and Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and Prospects


*Prof Abdulganiyyi Olajide Fagbemi; **Usman Rabe (Ph.D); And ***Kamalu Sulaiman Muhammad (Ph.D)

*Dept of Education Nigeria, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria **Mariri Orphanage Boarding Primary School, Kumbotso Local Education Authority, Kano State Nigeria. ***Aminu Kano School of Legal and Islamic Studies, Kano, Nigeria



This paper examined the goals of Basic, Post Basic Tertiary Education and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) it highlighted some of the problems that may possibly military against the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal on Education by the year 2030, it also reviewed concepts of basic, post Basic and Tertiary education, Sustainable development and sustainable Development Goals especially Goad number for that relates to Education. The challenges bedeviling the provision of quality education at all levels were also highlighted. Based on the literature reviewed and discussions made in this write up, the paper concludes that unless challenges faced by Basic, Post Basic and Tertiary Education are addressed through adequate financial support, achieving Sustainable Development Goal on Education by the 2030 as targeted by the United Nation would remain a mere illusion, and on the basis of this conclusion the paper recommended that Government should map out strategies for adequate financing education at all level bearing in mind the huge demand and investment that education system need and for achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on education by the year 2030 which is an extension of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on education that lapsed in 2015.

Keywords: Basic Education, Post Basic Education, Tertiary Education, Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and Issues challenges.




The Role of Adult Education in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals


Muhammed, Usman; *Ayuba, Usman Katako; *Mohammed Abdullahi; & **Abdullahi Ahmed

*Department of Continuing Education and Community Development, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria **Department of Adult and Non-formal Education, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria



The purpose of this paper is to examine adult education programmes for Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. The paper analyzes how adult education programmes could be utilized for sustainable national development. In spite of Nigeria’s affluence in human and material resources, it is still being classified among countries with high level of illiteracy and poverty; it is also being classified as a developing country. This paper x-rays sustainable national development and makes a case for adult continuing education as a veritable means for achieving it. The paper concludes that Adult education has been often recognized, in theory, as necessary to enhance development, especially in an era of globalization, not only because it produces human capital, but also because it enables people to become well-informed citizens, capable of thinking critically and owning their destiny through active participation. It was recommended among others that Community education programmes require proper attention of both government and Non- Governmental Organizations to address various community conflict/violence for peaceful coexistence.  

Keywords:  Achieving, Adult Education, Development, Goals, Role, Sustainable




Waste Management: A Means of Achieving a Sustainable Housing, Urban Development and Healthy Living Environment


Otitoyomi, Sunday Emmanuel

Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



 The problem of waste generation and disposal is fast becoming a major challenge for most urban areas in Nigeria today as street are seen to be littered with various waste materials. This problem arises because of the influx of people into urban centres and the various forms of activities carried out by the increasing population living in these urban areas.  This paper seeks to carefully examine the various activities that have the highest capacity in terms of waste generation. A study will also be conducted on the effects of waste disposal trends within urban areas and examine waste management procedures that will ensure that waste is carefully handled. Series of literatures on waste management in the urban environment will be examined to ascertain the volume of waste generated, the types of waste and the causes of indiscriminate waste disposal. A study of sustainable waste management processes will also be examined to come up with effective measures that can be put in place to properly manage waste. A waste management strategy that is sustainable will be developed and recommended to ensure that the health issues caused by improper waste disposal are minimized and that waste materials are disposed in an efficient and eco-friendly manner.

Keywords: waste, waste disposal, sustainable, urban areas




E-Commerce Adoption and the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Gombe Metropolis


*Ajayi Cornelius Ojo; & **Haruna Abubakar Sadiq

*Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State. **Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Business Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This study evaluated the relationship between e-commerce and performance of SMEs, in Gombe State, Nigeria. Profitability and market share were used as measures of performance. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary source of data was generated through self- administered questionnaire. The population of the study was the SMEs registered with SMEDAN. A total of 30,000 SMEs represent the sample frame. The sample size was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining minimum returned sample size for a given population. For our population, the table placed our sample size at three hundred and eighty (380). The research instrument was validated through supervisor’s vetting and approval while the reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. Data generated were analyzed and presented using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Statistics. Findings from the data analysis revealed that e-commerce positively and significantly related with performance of SMEs (profitability and market shares) in Gombe state. The result of the findings recommends that investments should be made in better infrastructural facilities and better strategies that will improve consumers’ and businesses’ technological literacy and ensure a favorable environment for the adoption of e-commerce because they will increase profitability over the long term.

Keywords: E-commerce, Profitability, Market Share, Performance and Small and Medium Enterprises




Security, Student Mental Health, and Education in Nigerian State-Run Schools


Bahago Samaila Benedict

Educational Foundations Department, Faculty of Education, Veritas University Abuja



 Given the current wave of insecurity being experienced in some parts of Niger State and Nigeria, the study examined the insecurity situation, how it affects students’ mental health in Niger State schools and in Nigeria generally, and its implications on the future of young boys’ and girls’ education in Nigeria. The study’s objective was to ascertain how the ongoing, heightened violence by armed herders against both teachers and children in schools, which has forced many schools in Nigeria’s Niger State to close now, has affected pupils’ mental health and their ability to learn. Three research questions were posed using the descriptive survey design. 700 respondents, picked from nine schools in those unsettling State regions, formed up the sample. The approach of purposive sampling was applied. The researcher prepared a 40-item questionnaire, and mean was utilized to analyse the results. The study’s findings demonstrated that pupils who experienced severe mental health issues because of their insecurity experienced highly bad and destructive effects on their learning activities. The results also showed that not just the affected pupils but also most students in most schools had a very inadequate understanding of mental health concerns. Based on these findings, the researcher put forth a framework for mental health counselling for not only students who have experienced insecurity, but for all student populations. The researcher also recommended, among other things, that the Nigerian government focus more of its efforts and policies on taming or eliminating insecurity in Nigeria to safeguard the mental health of not only students, but also teachers and the Nigerian population.

Keywords: Education, Counselling, Mental Health, and Insecurity




The Factors Affecting the Performance of women Entrepreneurs in Lokoja: Evaluating the Socio-Cultural Issues and Level of Education Variables 


*Ogaraku Nneoma Bridget; & **Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu (Ph.D)

*Imo State University of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Umuagbo, Owerri Imo State. **Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, P O Box 129 Lokoja Kogi State.



 The study aimed at exploring factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in Lokoja Kogi State. For the study, a survey research design was employed, using Taro Yamane formula to obtain a sample size of 190 from a population of 363 women entrepreneurs who are members of the Lokoja Business Women Association. The 190-sample size was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected through well-structured questionnaires designed using five-point Likert scale, 184 questionnaires were returned out of the 190 distributed. Data was presented and analyzed using SPSS version 21 simple liner regression, Anova and path coefficient to determine the level of relationship between performance vis-à-vis access to finance, level of education, family commitment and socio-cultural factors affecting women entrepreneurs. To ensure reliability the researcher used Cronbach Alpha reliability test to obtain the level of reliability of the research variables. The study madeseveral findings which are that access to finance, level of education and socio-cultural factor have a positive and significant relationship with performance of women entrepreneurs while family commitment has a negative and significant relationship with the performance of women entrepreneurs. The study made the following recommendations among which are that government should make and implement policies and strategies that would give women equal access to education, productive resources like their male counterparts, government should provide interest free loans to help women entrepreneurs expand their businesses, women should invest in self development and build strong support network for their businesses.

Keywords: Performance, Women Entrepreneurs, Factors, Affecting, Socio-Cultural Issues and Level of Education Variables 




Varied Leadership Approaches Taken by Different Leaders in Managing the Changes Arising from Covid-19 (2019-2020): A Case Study of Nigeria


Mardhiyyah Jaafar

ABU, Zaria, [Baze University, Abuja]



The Corona Virus Disease pandemic (hereinafter referred to as COVID-19), has been described as the greatest health challenge since World War II. The pandemic has affected humanity and all sectors of world economies in unimaginable ways, necessitating varied approaches to leadership the world over. Thus for governments to continue enjoying the trust of her citizens and for economies and businesses to continue to exist or thrive, especially in the context of trade, aviation, tourism, health sectors, people at the helm of affairs must respond to threats and opportunities presented by COVID-19 in swift, efficient and effective ways. However, what will determine success or otherwise is dependent on how willing leaders are to embrace the flexibility in managing change. It is in the light of the foregoing that this paper addresses the varied leadership approaches to COVID-19, from 2019-2020, with particular focus on Nigeria and its impact on stakeholders.




The Nigerian Experience in Oil Cartels and Globalization


C.O. Okwelum, PhD

Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro



In the 2020s Nigeria has started to reach breaking points in insurgency, banditry and self-determination agitations all being informed by mineral resources control. The oil cartels have not shown obvious impact or interest in these issues except OPEC which has since its inception been in the vanguard of regulating prices. The emergence of heightened globalization has equally seen the activities of both the eastern and western countries in the surge to control the Nigerian oil business space. There are emerging evidence that the current insecurities in the country have some connection with natural resources. This paper which employs the doctrinal method surveys the existence of the various oil cartels and their influence on the Nigerian oil business vis-à-vis the emerging influence of globalization. It finds that OPEC is the main cartel influencing oil and gas issues in Nigeria and that the influence of globalization is emerging and urgent. It therefore calls for attention be focused on the dynamics of competition for Nigeria’s immense mineral and strategic resources before it gives way to a spring.

Keywords: Oil Cartels, Globalization, OPEC, Oil Refiners Association.




Credit Accessibility, Foreign Direct Investment and Manufacturing Sector Performance in Nigeria


*Ugwu Stella Ifeyinwa; **Joyce Oritsematosan. Binitie; & *Nabila Olasumbo Adeyeye-Ahmed

*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. **Consultancy and Business Development Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office.



The performance of the manufacturing sector is very important in ensuring that the country is sufficient in the production of goods and services. However, the existing realities in Nigeria became worrisome despite the volume of credits and foreign direct investment channeled into the sector overtime. This study was to examine the effect of commercial bank loans and foreign direct investment on the performance of the manufacturing sector of Nigeria. Annual time series data between the periods 1970 to 2015 was used. An Ordinary Least Square method of analysis was employed under the framework of error correction mechanism. Unit root test was conducted to determine whether the variables were stationary, granger causality test was conducted to determine the direction of causality whereas co-integration test was done to determine whether a long run relationship exist amongst the variables. The unit root result revealed that all the variables were integrated of order one 1(1) and the co-integration result shows that there is a long run relationship among the variables and the granger causality result indicates that all the variable exhibits uni-directional relationship except MANFDI and MANP .The result further showed that, all the explanatory variables have a positive impact on manufacturing sector performance while manufacturing sector foreign direct investment and technology at current period had a negative impact on the manufacturing sector performance. All the variables were statistically significant except one year lag of manufacturing sector credits(MANC), one year lag of manufacturing sector foreign direct investment (MANFDI), two year lag of gross domestic product (GDP) as well as one and two year lag of technology (TECH). The adjusted R-squared show that our model has a high explanatory power of 79.03 per cent while the F-statistic result indicates that our model has a good fit though the speed of adjustment is slow (35.50 per cent). Based on the findings, the study recommends; the commercial banks and  development banks should be encourage to extend credits to the manufacturing sector, adequate modalities should put in place to monitor and ensure that loans and advances are used for the purpose they were meant for and that a proper framework should be formulated and implemented towards ensuring that foreign investment transfer codified technology to our local investors so as to expand their capacity and boost local manufacturing capacity.

Keywords: Manufacturing Sector Credit, Manufacturing Sector, Foreign Direct Investment, Technology, Market Size, Performance and Commercial Banks.




Cross-Examining Savings and Foreign Exchange Gaps and their Roles for Rapid Industrialisation in Nigeria


*Rabiu Abodunrin Alimot; **Dallas Chukwuemeka ; & *Popoola Samuel Olayinka

*Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office.



The progress of industrialisation should be influenced by the level of savings and investment and it should reflect on trade and influence the level of balance of payments. This paper examines the twin deficits, i.e., savings and foreign exchange gaps and their relationship with manufacturing output between 1981 and 2105. Hinged on the two gap Model, the study models the relationship within the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) model in evaluating the effect of these gaps on industrialisation in Nigeria. Also, Exploratory Data Analysis is used to assess the extent of disparities between savings-investment and exports-imports in Nigeria. The results reveal that both gaps are binding on the Nigerian economy. The effect of the foreign exchange gap is seen to be a stronger constraint on the manufacturing sector than the savings gap. Also it is clear that foreign capital inflows have been high enough in the period to cover for the deficits but the effect is still not satisfactory on industrial development. The study recommends an improvement on industrial policy for Nigeria in ways that seek to deliberately improve on domestic savings, strengthen the linkages of savings and investments as well as organise foreign capital flows to deliberately support non-oil industrialisation in Nigeria as a matter of urgency.

Keywords:   Savings Gap, Foreign Exchange Gaps, Industrialisation, Foreign Capital Inflows, External borrowing and Export-Import




Do Remittance Inflows Drive Industrialization and Productivity? Evidence from Nigeria


*Sulyman Abdulmajeed Olayinka; **Aganah Kauna; & **Onipede Adenike Mary

*Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office. **Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office



This paper specifically investigates the direct and indirect effect of remittance inflows on industrialization (measured with industrial output). In general, it examines whether remittance inflows drive industrialization in Nigeria. Annual time series data from World Bank’s Development Indicators and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin 2015 were used. The autoregressive distributed lag model based on unconstrained error correction model (ARDLUECM) was employed in investigating the direct effect while the indirect effect was determined using the Restricted Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Results from ARDL Model demonstrate that remittance inflows have significant positive effect on industrialization in the long run but not in the short run. This implies that the direct effect of remittances on industrialization happens only in the long run. Secondly, results from Restricted VAR Model reveal that private sector credit (i.e., measure of financial development) is an effective transmission channel through which remittances drive industrialization. This result suggests that remittances have indirect effect on industrialization. In summary, these findings suggest that the inflows of remittances directly and indirectly drive industrialization in Nigeria in the long run. In line with these outcomes, we recommend that the development of the financial sector is necessary; in order to enhance the movement of remittances to the Nigeria industrial sector. Also, the proper utilization of remitted funds in productive activities is vital in order to attain industrial growth and development in Nigeria. 

Keywords: Remittances, Industrialization, Private Sector Credit, Industrial Growth, Development, ARDL Model, and Restricted VAR Model




Review on the Conversion of Building Information Modelling and Geographic Information System Based on Industry Foundation Classes and City Geography Markup Language


Mohammed Jawaluddeen Sani* Shu’aibu Umar1 Ahmed Babayo1

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Industry Foundation Class (IFC) and City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) are the two most popular data exchange format for the integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) respectively and has been acknowledged by many researchers as a promising means of data interoperability between the two domains but with challenges on the compatibility between them. The main issue is the data loss in the process of information transformation. The success of integrating these two domains (GIS and BIM objects) is a great achievement toward solving problems in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC), Facility Management (FM), Disaster Management (DM) sectors. Nevertheless, as we all know GIS and BIM are different fields used by different professionals using different software packages, used for different purposes, it is face with many challenges including data interoperability, mismatch and loss of semantic information are bound to occur during the process of integration. To comprehend the two domains and their data models of CityGML and IFC. This paper review existing models on GIS and BIM developed by different researchers, the complementarity and compatibility of GIS and BIM on the previous integration techniques were also reviewed and finally, the paper review the integration of GIS and BIM at the data level aimed at solving different problems surrounding it by considering the transformation of coordinates at geometric level from CityGML to IFC, to achieve flow of information between GIS and BIM.

Keywords: GIS, BIM, CityGML, IFC, and data Integration models.




Application of the Principle of Soft Landing in Fund (TETFund) Building Projects in North Western Nigerian Tertiary Institutions


Yunusa Muhammad Saleh*1, Ibrahim ADAMU Zuntu 2, Abdul Salam D. PhD3, Munir T. Baba4

1Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Environmental Studies, Department of Building Tech., Zaria, Nigeria. 2Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, School of Environmental Studies, Department of Building Tech., Zaria, Nigeria. 3Ahmadu Bello University, Faculty of Environmental Design, Department of Building, Zaria, Nigeria



 The research serves to explore the Application of the Principles of Soft Landing in Tertiary Education Trust Fund building projects in North Western Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. This was accomplished through the study of 119 building projects in 12 tertiary Institutions in the region. After effects of the examinations completed and the investigation of the information acknowledged from respondents uncovered that the Principle of Soft Landing does not have any significant bearing in the Nigerian setting as 75% of the projects executed within the period of five years don’t have over a year of building aftercare from constructors as no system (66%) was set up for broadened aftercare. 94% of respondents concurred that such stretched out aftercare will enhance such sorts of projects later on. It was recommended that the Principle of Soft Landing be acquainted with Tertiary Education Trust Fund both directly and through seminars and paper presentations within the experts in the Nigerian Construction Industry to expand its application and Law makers are encouraged to sanction law for all public projects to appreciate such a principle.

Keywords Principle of Soft landing1, Tetfund Building Project2, Construction Industry3, Nigerian Tertiary Institution4, Public Construction Project5




Industrial Strategies and Manufacturing Sub-Sectors Performance in Nigeria: A Valuation of Two Regimes


*Okoronkwo Chinonyerem Faith; **Ebeogu Onyeka Ebuka; *Aguomba Chinweobo Ogujindu; & ***Adeyeye-Ahmed Nabila Olasumbo

*Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Rivers State Office. **Productivity Measurement and Index (PMI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Rivers State Office. ***Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office



This study examined the industrial strategies and manufacturing sub-sectors performance in Nigeria: a valuation of two regimes. The theoretical relationship between industrial strategies and manufacturing sub-sectors performance in Nigeria with a valuation of two administrations was critically examined and established in the study. The researcher made use of six explanatory variables for his study. The use of Analyses of table was employed. The result revealed that there is average annual growth rates of the manufacturing sub-sectors output during six sub-periods. The Study recommends that the rate of growth of most manufacturing sub-sectors even those that were targeted did not change much positively with the implementation industrial policy. Really, in some cases firms performed better under a ‘de facto industrial policy regime than an explicit industrial policy regime. Really, in some cases firms performed better under a ‘de facto industrial policy regime than an explicit industrial policy regime.

Keywords: Industrialization, Manufacturing, Output, Examined, Result, Regime and Policy.




Environmental Health Effects of Electromagnetic Radiations from Antennae of Telecommunication Masts at Different Distance


Buba Mohammed; Mohammed Jafaru; and Usman Abdul-Lateef

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State



The health hazards of non-ionizing radiation from telecommunication mast on the exposed community were assessed in terms of electric field strength and magnetic field strength as a function of distance. The measurements were done in two telecommunication mast networks at two different locations in the Mubi North local government area of Adamawa State. The measured values were used to calculate power density to assess the hazard of radiation. Certain directions were found to be safer than other directions. The result shows that the power density for the two telecommunication mast stations selected for the study was within the range of 0.290588W/m2 to 2.4804W/m2 respectively. These values are quite lower than the limit given by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) which is 4.5 W/m2. This study is therefore establishing that there is no implication of exposure to mast radiation and also recommends that minimizing them will go a long way to improve healthy living.

Keywords: Non-ionizing radiation, power density, telecommunication mast




Review of Performance and Adaptable of Demountable Exposition Centre towards Sustainability Development


1Mabadeje Joshua A., 2Banji, S. A. and 3Bello kabir

1&2Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria



 Buildings are often demolished due to a needed conversion, relocation or change of the architectural design, although the supporting structure remains completely undamaged and fully intact. This leads to huge quantities of waste which need to be discharged on mining tips. Thus, the building sector is generating a large amount of CO2 emissions, resource consumption and waste production. Given the high resource-intensity and CO2 emissions of the sector, new eco-construction approaches are needed. This work was undertaken to be pleased about the performance and adaptability of demountable elements in buildings whether on a short-term, mid-term and/ or long-term basis. The methodology of the research included case studies of two prominent structures under the rich context of performance and adaptable spaces in the exposition centre of Asia (Hong Kong) and in one of the largest megacities of Africa (Lagos) were examined. These traditional case studies research methods were also supported with inventive techniques like photography to help better explore existing conditions in and around the study sites. Findings of the case studies have shown that a design approach based on performance and adaptability of spaces relative to different activities for different times as well as evolving needs is possible and should be adopted, instead of allowing buildings become inefficient shells or waste products of a fast paced world. This work has shown that a design approach based on adaptability and multi-functionality of spaces relative to different activities for different times as well as evolving needs should be adopted rather than letting buildings become inefficient shells or waste products of a fast paced world.

Keywords: Performance, adaptability, demountable, exposition, and sustainability.




The Challenges of Mambe Ward Women in Agricultural Development in Lavun Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria


Sokomba Joshua

Registry Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria



 Agricultural production is a panacea to the development of any society, in terms of labour force participation, inputs/equipment and the resultant output.  In Lavun Local Government of Niger State, Mambe ward women provide about 60 percent of agricultural labour force and about 70 percent of the food for family consumption.  However, factors like patriarchy and lack of access to land among others have hindered women to achieve effective agricultural production.  A survey method was used to effectively investigate the problems that affect Mambe ward women in Lavun Local Government area from effective participation in agricultural production.  The source of information for this work was through primary instruments such as focus group discussions.  The study revealed that Mambe ward women in the study area played a significant role in terms of food production, food processing and food preservation, which has helped in reduction of food shortage in the area.  The study therefore recommended among others that there should be a redefinition of the Mambe ward cultural values in relations to males and female, where agricultural input should be as the disposal of both male and female folks.

Keywords: Development, Land, Patriarchy, Agricultural production, Participation, Mambe Ward




Microcontroller-Based Smart Irrigation System: Design, Realization, and Experimentation


H.A Mahdi, Yunusa, M. A., Zahraddin Umar Dahiru, I. F. Ibrahim., U. Aminu

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Plants in specific regions of the world especially Africa are adversely affected by prevailing drought. Presently, the major concerns in the agricultural sector are; water and labor management. This work considers the design analysis of a low-cost microcontroller-based irrigation controller capable of managing irrigation for a small area of land-based on real-time values of soil moisture. The method employed is to continuously monitor the soil moisture level to decide whether irrigation is required. In particular, the microcontroller-based circuit device acts as an irrigation management controller through continuous monitoring of moisture content of the soil using FC 28 rain sensor, and comparing the values with two set reference threshold values; the upper limit, and lower limit, then induces the corresponding action required. When the soil moisture content goes below the lower-limit value set by the user, the system observes this and begins irrigation action. Results obtained show that this design is cost-effective, and guarantees efficient water supply and effective labor management. Also, irrigation test results show that the duration of spray largely depends on the soil texture, grass identity, and moisture content. In particular, the sprinkler irrigation method in loamy soil took longer than in sandy soil, while clay soil irrigation took the longest time.

Keywords: Draught, Microcontroller, Threshold, Irrigation, Moisture




Perspective of Marketing in Mitigating Climate Change: The Role of Sustainable Marketing Orientation


Ali Danjuma Ibrahim; Ahmadu, Zahraddeen Kateri; & Rukaiya Isa Yahya

Business Education Department, Federal College of Education, Yola



This paper examines the role of sustainability marketing orientation on mitigating climate change with focus on sustainable marketing and consumption. The paper discusses green marketing orientation, social marketing orientation, critical marketing orientation, sustainable marketing orientation, sustainable consumption, mindful consumption, responsible consumption, and anti-consumption as marketing practices for mitigating climate change crises. The paper uses secondary data from existing literatures to examine the impact of sustainability marketing on climate change. It was concluded that marketing as a discipline and sustainability as a philosophy in marketing plays a significant role in climate change mitigation. The paper further suggested that Companies in Nigeria should integrate sustainability marketing orientation in their marketing model to help in climate change mitigation efforts. Also, there should be a radical change in our consumption behavior to sustainability to help save our planet. Similarly, Business enterprises should sponsor campaigns that enlighten people on the danger of unsustainable consumption, and finally, National orientation agency should as a matter of urgency embark on sensitization on the effects of unethical and unsustainable consumption of human and the planet.

Keywords: Climate Change, Sustainable Market Orientation, Marketing and Mitigating



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