HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (HAJASD)
VOL.17 (2) DECEMBER, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0081 – 3998
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ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRAINTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PROPERTY VALUATION IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
ADEWUSI, A. O. 1 AND PATUNOLA-AJAYI, O. L.2
12Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Akure
The use of high-end computing tools such as Artificial Intelligence has been affirmed to guaranteeing more accurate real estate value prediction. However, the application of such advancement in computing technology in Nigeria remains challenging. Thus, this study aims to analyze the constraints associated with the application of Artificial Intelligence to property valuation in Lagos, Nigeria. The target population for the study was the one hundred and ninety (194) practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Data collection was through structured questionnaires. Descriptive Statistics, Weighted Mean Scores, and Factor Analysis were adopted in analyzing the objective of the research. The results of the analysis revealed that the major constraints associated with the application of Artificial Intelligence in property valuation among others include an absence of centralized data; low level of awareness and adoption of Machine Learning Algorithm valuation methods; lack of market data and comparables; inadequate technical know-how and inadequate skills and learning processes in that order. The research thus concludes that Artificial Intelligence in the form of Machine Learning Algorithm Valuation methods when applied in the determination of real property values will help in enhancing real estate property valuation practice as well as the advancement of the profession in general. Hence, there is a need for adequate enlightenment, sensitization, and awareness on the application of Artificial Intelligence to property valuation in Lagos, Nigeria to ensure better and credible property valuation service delivery in the Nigerian property market. The findings of the study have implications on the service quality of professional Estate Surveyors and Valuers, investors, and other stakeholders.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Property Valuation, Pricing Methodologies, Valuation Techniques, and Machine Learning Algorithms
GOOD GOVERNANCE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LINKAGES: LESSON FOR NIGERIA
*EKHOSUEHI O. OGHATOR; *ENDURANCE OMOUDU DIRISU; & **SHANKA BUBA OTUEMHOBE
*Institute of Public Administration and Extension Services, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. **Department of Politics and lnternational Relations, Lead City University, lbadan, Nigeria
Nigeria, a country endowed with abundant human and natural resources is finding it difficult to develop. Some other third world countries such as South Africa, India, Malaysia and Indonesia have overtaken Nigeria in terms of development. Presently, the country is characterized by corruption as a result of bad governance. The country is battling with unemployment, poverty, and insecurity, all which signifies that the country is not properly governed. This paper therefore examined and portrayed the link between good governance and national development. In doing this, the paper utilized secondary data sourced from text books, journals, magazines, and the internet. The paper argued that good governance is key to national development, enrichment of the lives of all the people in the society, which in turn influences other developmental activities. The paper concluded that without a significant change in the quality of life of the Nigerians, it will be very difficult for the country to achieve development that it so desires. The paper therefore recommended the strict adherence to basic tenets of good governance and maintained that it is the only strategy to ensure the development of Nigeria.
Keywords: Good governance, national development, corruption, poor governance, and insecurity.
HOUSING QUALITY AND USERS’ SATISFACTION IN GIDA DUBU HOUSING ESTATE IN BAUCHI, NIGERIA
LAURATU ALI UMAR1, HABU MALLAM BABA2 AND BALA ISHIYAKU3
1,2,3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
Generally, housing units particularly in urban areas are mostly inadequate, not all has the generally needed basic amenities such as water, access road network, steady electricity supply etc. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of housing quality and user’s satisfaction in Gida Dubu Bauchi with a view to proffer solution to future housing problems. The study adopted a quantitative approach, where data was collected using questionnaires administered to 150 household heads in 1000 housing estate in Bauchi. Simple random sampling technique was used. Data collected was subjected to analysis to examine the degree of agreement and significance of the variables and inferential analysis using regression to determine the level of influence between them. The study found out that quality of roofing, electric wiring, quality of wall finishing and sewage system were ranked highest. The study revealed that residents were satisfied with the drainage system, quality of roofing, water reticulation and electricity system. Regression was conducted and regression model summary and the ANOVA result were obtained revealed that the models predict about 64.3% (housing quality on users’ satisfaction).
Keywords: housing, housing unit, housing problem, housing quality, users’ satisfaction, Bauchi
ENTREPRENEURIAL FINANCING AND GROWTH OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES: A STUDY OF SELECTED SMES IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA
*AKINYELE, SAMUEL TAIWO; **AKINYELE, ESTHER FEYISAYO; & ***SHODUNKE, YUSSUF DAMILOLA
*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria. ***Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
This study investigates entitled entrepreneurial financing and growth of small and medium enterprises in selected SMEs in Nigeria. Entrepreneurial financing is the independent variable which is measured through bank credit, equity financing and crowding funding while the dependent variable is growth of small and medium enterprise which is measured through SMEs growth, market share, and Smes net profit margin . The researchers have employed quantitative research design. To collect primary data well-structured and cross sectional questionnaires were distributed to 109 owner/managers/employees of SMEs from 240 populations consisting of registered SMEs, by using simple random sampling techniques. To achieve the objectives of the study, three hypotheses were formulated and tested from the structure of the research questions. Pearson correlation and linear regression were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS. The findings show that bank credit has significant effect on Smes growth with p value (0.000) which is less than 0.005, equity financing has high positive relationship with market share with P value of (0.000) which is less than 0.005, also crowding funding has positive relationship on Smes net profit margin with P value of (0.000) which is less than 0.005, this implies that entrepreneurial financing plays a huge role on new ventures in Abeokuta South LGA. Recommendations were made to SMEs and Government ought to, as a matter of criticality, help planned business visionaries to have admittance to the public purse to back them up and provide them easy access to fundamental data identifying with business opportunities, present day innovation, crude materials, business sector, plant and hardware which would empower them to diminish their working expense as this study discovered the insignificance of accessibility to fund a major problem.
Keywords: Crowd funding, Entrepreneurial financing, Enterprises, Equity financing, SMEs growth, Market share,
EXPERIENCES OF MARRIED MEN TOWARDS SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION IN PORTHARCOURT CITY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA
*NGBENEKPIGI, JAMES DAYOR; **FORSMAN AMADAOWEI; & ***ETOR NWAKAJI EMMANUEL
*Department of Human Kinetic, Health and Safety Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt. **Department of Primary Health Care Tutors, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. ***Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Port Harcourt
This study aimed to investigate experiences of married men towards sexual dysfunction in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The sample size for this study was three hundred and eighty. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that 87.2% of the population agreed that have experienced premature ejaculation (releasing of sperm so quick), 52.2% indicated poor erection (penis do not stand very strong), 60.6% indicated decreased desire or interest in sexual activity while 11.7% indicated that they have never experienced any of the following, 30.6% rarely did, 32.2% sometimes did while 25.6% experienced several times. The study also showed that 233(64.7%) of married men experienced one form of sexual dysfunction or the other while 127(35.3%) experienced had no sexual dysfunction. It was it was concluded that participants experienced one form of sexual dysfunction. Therefore, there is need for prompt health education of sexual problems in the society. The study recommended among others that health education and curriculum planners should make sexually education a compulsory package in the school curriculum at all level of education in order to inculcate good knowledge towards sexual dysfunctions.
Keywords: Experiences, sexual dysfunction, married men
SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE ATTITUDE AND INTENTION OF MARRIED CIVIL SERVANTS’ TOWARDS ADOPTING IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION MESSAGES IN LAGOS STATE
ADETOLA RAMOTALAI ADENUSI &HELEN ODUNOLA ADEKOYA, PhD
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Infertility affects 48 million couples and 186 million individuals globally, caused by numerous factors in both genders. The study investigated social media as a tool for improving the attitude and intention of married civil servants’ towards adopting in-vitro fertilization messages in Lagos State. The investigation was hinged upon the tenets of both theory of planned behavior and uses of gratification theories. The study found that 14.1% of participants access IVF messages from Facebook compared to YouTube (8%) and Instagram (9.7%). Also, the research revealed a significant difference in the attitude and intention of married civil servants towards adopting IVF messages by demographic factors. Conclusively, the study recommends that in-vitro fertilization messages should be intensified on these selected platforms such that these messages are created in various dialect to aid understanding of its users who are in need of these services.
Keywords: Social Media, In-Vitro Fertilization, Married Civil Servants, Attitude, Intention
TOURISM POTENTIALS, MARKET STRATEGIES AND PATRONAGE IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
ILIYASU M. ANZAKU
Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
The tourism industry has been identified as a very vital and popular global human activity that now becomes an economic booster which can contribute to the economic development of Nigeria. However, tourism industry in Nigeria has not been exploited to generate the expected contribution to the socio-economic development of the country. One of the major reasons for this problem is the non-application of marketing strategies especially in the areas of promotion. This study thus examined the effect of marketing strategy on tourism patronage in, Nasarawa state. Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. A population made up of all tourism destinations in Southwest Nigeria with population of 85 staff was surveyed and the total enumeration method of sampling was used. A structured questionnaire was adapted and validated. The questionnaires returned were 74 which is 87% response rate. Twenty administrative officers in the tourism centre were also interviewed. Findings revealed that product planning and development in the selected tourism destinations is adequate. The results also revealed that prices charged at the various tourism destination surveyed are not too expensive and affordable to the visitors (groups &businesses). Also, there were provision of volume discount and discounted prices in such areas like accommodation and relaxation facilities, meals, food, longer stay, and accommodation the relationship between price and tourism patronage in selected tourism destinations shows that there is a significant and negative relationship between price and tourism patronage. The findings also reveal that high level of promotion will lead to an increase in tourism patronage. Availability of skilful and qualified personnel will likely promote tourism patronage. Based on the results, the study recommended that qualified personnel to handle all responsibilities in the tourism destinations should be employed. People providing services at tourism destinations should be customer oriented and put the customer at the heart of their business services. Cooperation must be enforced among the personnel to achieve TQM. More so the HRM of tourism destinations should be progressive to employ qualified personnel, give effective training to staff to acquire learning ability and good communication.
Keywords: Tourism, potentials, strategies, patronage, market
SEMI-STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS OF THE TRAPEZOIDAL RULE INTEGRAL APPROXIMATION: MATLAB ALGORITHMS
EN EKAKA-A1, S.E. AKHIGBE1, J. I. GALADIMA2, OBELE REALMAN EVANS3
1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3Department of Mathematics, Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, IBB University, Lapai, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
The challenging Trapezoidal Rule integral approximation when the upper limit of integration is vulnerable to a variation of the additive random perturbation has been tackled by using the method of a semi-stochastic MATLAB algorithm. In this study, we have found that the random perturbation value of 0.45 is associated with a bigger model validation index whereas the random perturbation value of 0.01 is associated with a small model validation index. The full results of this study which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed with some implications for the selection of best-fit data in the context of the water consumption function.
SEXUALITY, WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION IN SEFI ATTA’S SWALLOW AND CHIMAMANDA ADIECHIE’S AMERICANAH AS TOOLS FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
GRACE MOTUNRAYO AJALA
University of Ibdan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Extant studies have investigated the characterisation of women with little or no scholarly attention paid to Sefi Atta’s Swallow, especially in the area of the representation of sexuality and women empowerment towards sustainable development. This study, therefore, examines the representation of sexuality, women empowerment, and identity construction in Sefi Atta’s Swallow and Chimamanda Adiechie’s Americanah with a view to unmasking how female writers portray women oppression, subjugation, and depression and subsequently, their emancipation in a male dominated African society. With bias from Africana womanism, the study purposively selects Sefi Atta’s Swallow and Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah because of their thematic orientations. The paper asserts that African female writers positively project female characters through empowered women who contributed immensely to the socio-economic and religious developments of their immediate environment. The paper concludes that African female writers use the empowered women to solicit change and advocate for gender complementarity in a male-dominated African society.
Keywords: Women empowerment, identity, Sefi Atta, Chimamanda Adichie, African feminism.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBALISED ENVIRONMENT
1OKOH CHIEDU VINCENT; 2DR. E.M. AGHEDO;
1Vice Chancellors Office,UNIBEN, Benin City. 2Business Administration Department, Benson Idahosa University. Benin City.
The pace of globalization is increasing continuously in terms of markets for goods and services, investment opportunities across borders amongst others. Enterprises face competition from all fronts. Human resource management is not left out in this transformation crusade as it has obligation to move along with the changing demands of the globalization process. One of the objectives of this paper is to show that effective managers should constantly be aware of the changes taking place in domestic (home country) environment, as well as around the globe (international and foreign environments) on HR issues and developments. By so doing, they can scan their environment on an ongoing basis, and when they detect opportunities and/or threats, they can transform their organization to seize the opportunities and/or combat or neutralize the threats as the case may be. In this presentation, problems, issues and trends in HRM practice in Nigeria in the current period were reviewed. The factors affecting HRM and its practice in a global context and what should be the direction of the profession and its practice in Nigeria and Globally constitute the main focus of this paper.
Keywords: Globalised, Human Resource, Environment, Resource, Management
ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAFIA TOWN, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
UA UBANGARI1, A. T. OGAH2, ALKALI MOH’D3
1,&2Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State, University, Keffi
The improper management of solid waste is one of the challenging environmental problems facing urban centres worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Little attention is given to waste management practices. This is why it is common to see heaps of waste in littering the streets, dumped indiscriminately in drainages, vacant plots and open spaces especially in the urban areas of the developing world. Despite the establishment of Nasarawa Urban Development Board as a waste management agency, the problem of solid waste management in Lafia town remains intractable. The study examined the current state of waste management being employed by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in Lafia town, Nasarawa state. The study population was contacted through stratified systematic sampling technique. Data for this ‘study were generated through questionnaires, in depth interviews, direct and personal observation. The data generated from the questionnaires were subjected to descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentages. The study revealed that majority (58.5%) of the respondents were not provided with waste collection facilities by Nasarawa Urban Development Board and so disposed their wastes indiscriminately. Majority (65.5%) of the respondents knew nothing about procurement of dustbins, dumpsites and the agency of government that is responsible for refuse/ waste management in, the study area. The agency responsible for waste management in the study area (NUDB) were faced with numerous challenges militating against effective and efficient performance. These challenges were lack of political will, paucity of fund or poor funding, shortage of man power, shortage of functional vehicles (trucks) etc. The study recommended that public awareness or education should be carried out by Nasarawa Urban Development Board in collaboration with the National Orientation Agency and the mass media on waste management issues. It also recommended that Nasarawa state government should support the Board financially among other needs to enable the Board perform her functions effectively and efficiently.
Keywords: State, Solid, Waste, Management, Pollution
PERCEIVED IMPACT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA SOUTH LGA
*REV. FR. DR. BAHAGO SAMAILA; **MR. BAYO MICHAEL FADIPE; ***ASEMOTA RUTH & *** EBERE ANASTASIA T.
*Department Educational Foundations, Veritas University, Abuja **Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Veritas University, Abuja ***Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Abuja ****OLA Covenent, Nnebisi Road, Asaba, Delta State.
There is a decline in the academic performance of secondary school students despite the inclusion of guidance and counselling in school system in Nigeria. As a result, Guidance and Counselling services are of utmost importance to address the academic, vocational, personal and social needs of the students. The abilities, skills and desired personalities are harnessed through effective Guidance and Counselling programmes. Accordingly, the study investigated the impact of guidance and counselling services on the academic performance of secondary school students in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A student sample of 200, drawn from four Secondary Schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State was used. To give a direction to the study, two research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. The research was hinged on the social learning theory. Descriptive survey research was adopted by the researchers. It focused on describing the variables in the study. The researchers adopted simple random sampling method for selecting the participants. A research instrument was adopted to obtain necessary information in respect to the subject. The collated data were analyzed using mean and t-test. The findings from the test of hypotheses revealed that guidance and counselling have a significant impact on academic performance (t=4.037 df=183; significant value p = 0.000 < 0.05). It was recommended amongst others that guidance and counselling should be encouraged and promoted in all secondary schools beyond what is obtainable on ground. School administrators should employ the services of trained counselors in guidance and counselling and those without qualification should be encouraged to participate in seminars, workshops and conferences in guidance and counselling.
Keywords: Guidance and Counselling Services, Academic Performance, Students and perceived Impact
AN EVALUATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE QUALITY OF HOUSING IN DOWN QUARTERS, KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA, NIGERIA
BABA, EZEKIEL BAHAGO; & ADAMU, MAHFUZA ABUBAKAR
Urban and Regional Planning Department, Federal Capital Development Authority, Area 11 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria
Availability infrastructure and their quality services also determines the quality of a house. Down Quarters is a suburb within Kaduna Metropolis and was designed to house the employees of the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) in 1962. The supply of its infrastructure services seems to be epileptic which the thrust of this study is. The study aims at evaluating the infrastructure quality of housing in Down Quarters with the view of providing recommendation for improvement. The study uses Likert scale with the significant levels of association of 0.05 to measure the coded attributes while Weighted value of the coded attributes was obtained by dividing Summation of Mean Weighted Value (∑MWV) by total number of infrastructure (y) surveyed in the study area which gave the overall Infrastructure Housing Quality Index (HQI). At the end of the whole study, it was discovered that the overall infrastructure quality of housing in the study area is poor. This was ascertained when the overall housing quality index was revealed to be 2.22 which falls in between 2-2.9 of the Weighted value of Likert scale coded index for the study indicating that Street exists in the study area with no sign of graded nor tired road, primary drainage in the area exists but without free drain (with blockage of particles), daily electricity supply in the area is between 1 to 6 hours while daily public water supply is between 1 to 6 hours. The households in the area are within the close proximity of 3 to 4kms to a health care center while 2 to 3kms proximity to a primary school. For individual infrastructure variables, the study revealed that only health care centre has a fair quality with 3.09 quality index indicating that accessibility to a health care centre in the study area is between 2 to 3kms. Others such as water supply, electricity supply and public health centre have poor quality with 2.12, 2.18 and 2.17 respectively while Drainage system, Road accessibility, and primary school have a very poor quality with 1.79, 1.84 and 1.97 quality indexes respectively. Due to the outcome of the result for this study. it was recommended that there should be urban renewal in the area to improve the quality of infrastructure in the area, those affected by the urban renewal should be compensated either by provision of alternative and develop or monetary compensation for those that love to leave. There should also be employment of the idle employable population of the area to enable inhabitant of the area to pay for any infrastructure services provided in the area for sustainability, and there should be increase in the salaries of those working to improve their purchasing power in the market.
Keywords: Infrastructure Quality, Housing Condition
ASSESSMENT OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
GIDEON, VICTOR OLORUNFEMI, PhD
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER)
Education is a fundamental human right that should be accorded to all the citizens, it is also seen as a social responsibility of government to its people, therefore, it is important to make education compulsory and effective for all citizens. The importance of basic education and the roles it plays in the educational system of any nation is germane to the sustainable development of such nation. The success or otherwise of Universal Basic Education which is the educational foundation in Nigeria determines what happens to the entire education system. The Research design adopted for this study was a cross sectional survey which entails the observation of some of the different stakeholders of the Universal Basic Education. The study anchored on Cognitive Developmental Theory (CDT). UBE has been confronted with many challenges that militated against its successful implementation. The study made the following recommendations: Proper screening should be encouraged to nominate key leaders into the system, adequate accountability and transparency should be given more consideration on the part of the government, agencies, and other key officials involved in the system, more competent teachers should be employed into the system most especially in the rural areas and there should be room for training and retraining for them, parents should be educated about the child basic education to encourage them to enroll their children, giving all required support they need in schooling, most especially the girls and the schools in the rural areas should be provided with adequate facilities to enhance conducive learning environment.
Keywords: Assessment, UBE, Sustainable, Development, Nigeria.
CALIPH ATTAHIRU, 1902-1903: HIS INSTALLMENT AND MIGRATION TO THE EAST
YUSUF SARKINGOBIR 1, ALIYU UMAR SHARU2
1Department of Biology Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Islamic Studies Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria
Traditionally the reformed state formed by Danfodiyo would have an appointed time of 100 years. The Sokoto Caliphate had sustained a number of leaders amounting to 12 Caliphs. Therewith, the 12th Caliph was Muhammadu Attahiru 1(bn Ahmad Atiku), the last Caliph who vigorously fought the British. Attahiru was born and raised at the historic town of CHIMMOLA of Gwadabawa. Therein, he was one-time the head of CHIMMOLA town. The selection of Attahiru was based on his requisite knowledge of war, Islam, and the then political situation. Muhammadu MAITURARE Marafa Gwadabawa exerted his military power to ensure that his elder brother succeeded the throne, when he noticed some tokens trying to change the rightful candidate. After the ascension, Attahiru was heralded with the move of British to invade Sokoto. He fought with them in 1903, and later he opted for Hijra to Makkah as prophesized by Usman Danfodiyo. His migration attracted the hosts from Sokoto Caliphate including leaders. Then, the British had to pursue him and met with him at Bormi. At Bormi, one of the fiercest battle occurred. Some traditions said Attahiru was killed and his remnants entourage reached Sudan, Makkah, and spread to the world. Nowadays, the descendants of Attahiru are having leadership positions at Sokoto, and Sudan Republic. Certainly, Attahiru had put all he had to put both the primary and secondary resistance to forestall the parasitic invasion of Sokoto Caliphate.
Keywords: Sokoto Caliphate, Caliph Attahiru, British Invasion, migration, resistance
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. LEAF
SIKIRU GBENGA K., OLORI OKE OLUSOLAPE., OLORUNDARE.O., AYORINDE JAMES., OLADEJO AFOLABI O., ADEDIRE O.
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
For an extremely long time, different parts of medicinal plants have been used to cure specific ailments in different parts of the world. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae). The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. The methanolic extract of P.guajava was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic on the three bacterial and two fungal strains.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, bacteria, fungi, paper disc diffusion method, Psidium guajava
MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN WEST AFRICAN SUB REGION
*OHIOMAH SIMEON SULEMAN; & **Prof. OFANSON EDEGHAWE JULIUS
*Humanities and Social Sciences Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State **Department of Banking and Finance, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.
As a result of globalization the World has turned into a small village comprising the developed and developing nations. The developed nations have grown in technology that their per capita income has increased far beyond that of the developing nations. While the developing nations are still grappling with infrastructural decay, economic crisis, wars, insecurity, political instability, obsolete technology, illiteracy, peasant farming, high external debt, low gross domestic product, low per capita income, high population to mention but a few. Their export is still mostly based on primary products that are prone to price shocks in the international market. The West African region has not been able to design a development strategy that could lift it out of the level it is and so it still remain a dumping ground for obsolete technology and market for the developed nations. Between 2015 and 2019, the Gross domestic product and per capita real income as measured by the real gross national product per person for the various countries in the region fluctuated widely except for some countries. In this period the gross domestic product growth rate was falling from 2.65% in 2015 to 0.80% in 2017 and to 2.20% in 2019. The paper examined macroeconomic variables and economic growth in the West African sub region from 2010 to 2019 using the cross section and time series data. The two models tested had high R-square and variables were significant. It was recommended that governments should be prudent in the use of external loans to create investment opportunities for the countries in the sub region.
Keywords: Macroeconomic variables, development, Export, Growth, GDP, FDI
DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROCKS WITHIN HAWUL, BORNO STATE, NORTH-EAST NIGERIA
SUNDAY DAVID NAJOJI1, MOHAMMED MOHAMMED YALWA2, AND ALIYU AHMED MALGWI2
1School of General & Remedial Studies, Department of Basic Science, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. 2School of Science & Technology, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.
In this research work, the density of rocks within the Hawul area of Borno State was investigated. The high-density rock may be due to the presence of heavy metals and radioactive elements such as uranium which can affect the environment as well as plants and animals’ health. A total of twenty samples were collected from the hill (host rock) and other locations in the vicinity of the host rock. The method employed for density measurement is the direct mass volume where ten samples from each site were investigated of different rock classification. The data obtained were processed using statistical data analysis and the result shows gabbro (mean ρ ̴ 2.320.72 g/cm3), basalt (mean ρ ̴ 2.410.29 g/cm3), sandstone (mean ρ ̴ 2.210.59 g/cm3), granite (mean ρ ̴ 2.270.61 g/cm3) and shale (mean ρ ̴ 2.500.36 g/cm3). These slightly vary as compared to the standard values for the types of rocks considered. Since the density of rocks varies significantly among different rock types because of differences in mineralogy and porosity, the knowledge of the distribution of underground rock density should be improved and encouraged to help in finding the subsurface geologic structure and rock type that would be essential for building and construction.
Keywords: rock, density, mass, volume, heterogeneity.
REPOSITIONING EDUCATION TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN SUB SHARAN AFRICA: THE NIGERIA PERSPECTIVE
*ANYANWU I.U; **OFOEGBU B.U; & ***MBA K.M
*Department Of Urban & Regional Planning, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba Nigeria. **Quantity Surveying, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba Nigeria. ***Estate Management, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba Nigeria.
Over the years, countries in the world today, including African countries, have begun to embrace education for sustainable development, (ESD). Education for sustainable development [ESD] seeks to develop competencies among students to enable them reflect on actions that may affect economic, social, political and environmental issues, in both local and global communities. However, United Nations has set some sustainable development goals, viz., eradication of poverty, reduction of hunger, provision of good health, achieving well-being, and access to quality education, security, growth etc. that can be exploited for sustainable future. To achieve some of these goals, different countries have been urged to embrace quality education, especially that which develops in students skills and competencies that could meet the demands of sustainable development goals. The challenges as identified in the goals constitute threats to the survival of man and the environment; hence, the need to involve education that is capable of addressing some of these challenges. Such education will invariably task students to develop life skills capable of addressing a number of those sustainable development goals. The effectiveness of such education depends on the decision to review the content and approaches as well as strategies of the present education system in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. This effort is likely to provide Nigeria with the required education that seeks to balance human and economic well-being with cultural traditions and respect for the world’s natural resources. Which stipulates the way to achieving and improving quality African Education for sustainable growth and development in Africa.
Keywords: Repositioning, Growth, Competence-based education, Sustainable development, Sustainable development goals, Education for sustainable development, Skills, competencies, security.