African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 23 No. 2


VOL. 23 NO.  DECEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2010 – 1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Application of a Hybrid Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Models to Produced Water Quality Prediction


1*Howard, C.C., 2 Etuk, E. H. and 3Howard, I. C.

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Africa Toru-orua, Sagbama. Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria



In this paper the produced water quality prediction of a crude oil production facility (flow station) located at the Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria is presented. The time series data used were generated by a standard laboratory that actually carried out the field and laboratory analysis which involves weekly water quality data obtained directly from flow station for the period of five years. In order to predict water quality, hybrid models consisting of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models and Artificial Neural Network ANN) models were developed.  In the first step, MLR models were first used to capture the linear component in the time series data and then the errors obtained, ANN were developed taking into account the non-linear pattern that MLR could not capture, in order to reduce potential errors. Once the hybrid was developed, 52 data points out of 260 data from the flow station were used for validation of the model and the result were compared with the MLR and ANN models built separately. These three different models are compared for their prediction abilities using statistical error measures viz. root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results showed that in these entire error estimates the hybrid MLR- ANN performance model was better than the MLR and ANN models in the examined flow station.

Keywords: Water Quality prediction, Time series, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid model (MLR-ANN)




Morphological Study of Phytolith from Nigeria


Mohammed Musa Gasma1, Foong Swee Yeok1 & Dai Lu2

1School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. 2Department of Geography and Spatial Information Techniques, Ningbo University, 315211, Ningbo, China.



Morphological study of phytolith was carried out from 10 plant species in 10 different plant families in Nigeria.  Fresh plant leaves were randomly collected each from family which consist of leaves from 10 species and families for phytolith analysis. Schulze’s solution was the standard method used to extract phytolith from the sample. The extracted samples were examined with Olympus Bx41 microscope. Phytolith results revealed a wide range of phytolith morphotypes with considerable degree of variability. However, 8 species were reported to have cuneiform bulliform phytolith shape, 1 bilobate phytolith shape and 1 reported globular echinate phytolith shape. Psilate and verrucate surface texture was observed the study. These results of phytolith analysis could serves as baseline data that represent the modern vegetation assemblage of the study area for future paleoenvironmental study and environmental reconstruction.

Keywords: Analysis, Family, Morphology, Morphotypes, Phytolith.




Influence Of Guidance And Counselling Programme On Students’ Academic Achievement And Career Choice In Public Secondary Schools Of Jalingo Education Zone, Taraba State, Nigeria


Abigail Seth Karfe (PhD); & Kabiru Musa Alhaji

Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University Jalingo



This paper investigated the Influence of Guidance and Counselling Programme on Students’ Academic Achievement and Career Choice in Public Secondary Schools of Jalingo Education Zone, Taraba State, Nigeria. The objective selected for the study include the influence of individual’s guidance and counselling programme on students’ academic achievement, influence of peer group guidance and counselling programme on students’ career choice among secondary school students, and influence of Teacher subject guidance and counselling programme on the academic achievement among secondary school students in Jalingo Education Zone. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated; the design adopted for this study was descriptive survey research design. The population of this study comprises of 4594 JSSIII students of 2019/2020 academic session in Jalingo Education Zone of Taraba State. Available data in Taraba State Post Primary School Management Board reveals that there are 47 Junior secondary schools in the Zone. With a total enrolment of four thousand, five hundred and Ninety-four students. (4594) (TSPPMB, 2019/2020). Out of the forty-seven secondary schools, fifteen (15) were sampled. Using simple random sampling (hat and draw) procedure to draw five (5) schools from each of the three (3) local government areas in the Zone. from the fifteen (15) schools, one hundred and Eighty-three (183), sixty-two (62) and sixty (60) for Jalingo, Ardo-kola and Lau Local Government Areas respectively, numbering three hundred and two (302) respondents as the sample size of the study which represent 23.3% of the entire population although three hundred and two Instrument were retrieved and analyzed. The research instrument titled; “Influence of Guidance and Counselling Programme on Students’ Academic Achievement and Career Choice Questionnaire” tagged IGCPSACCQ Constructed by the researcher and validated by three experts. The reliability of instrument was established using Cronbach-alpha method index for the four clusters yielded 0.815 index. The data collected were analysed using means and standard deviations while inferential statistics of chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of the study revealed that the individualize guidance and counselling programme has significant impact on students’ academic achievement, it also reveals that the students peer group guidance and counselling programme has significant impact on their career choice and Teachers subject guidance and counselling programme significantly impact on students’ academic achievement, the study recommends that students should receive counselling assistance through school counsellor so as to developed more on their academic achievements and career choice, government at all levels should use their mechanism through the Ministry of Education to provide guidance and counseling programme at all secondary schools in the state, so as to deal with the issues of academic achievement and career choice selections.

Keywords: Guidance, Counseling Programme, Academic Achievement, Career Choice, Public Secondary Schools, Jalingo Education Zone.




Deterministic Non-Stabilization of the Semi-Trivial Steady-State Solution: The Effect of Decreasing the Growth Rate of the First Time-Dependent Population and Its Implication for Competitive Exclusion Theory


*J. I. Galadima; **E. N. Ekaka-a; & ***B. O. Nwala

*Department of Mathematics, IBB University, Lapai, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ***Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  



While the technique of stabilizing a positive unique steady-state solution is well known, the deterministic non-stabilization of a semi-trivial steady-state solution has remained to be an open research problem because of the numerical sophistication that this challenging numerical simulation problem poses. In this important study, we have applied the method of ODE 45 numerical simulation to prove that the proposed dynamical system is dominantly unstable. The novel results of this study that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively.

Keywords: Deterministic, Non-Stabilization, Semi-Trivial, Steady-State, Growth Rate, Competitive Exclusion Theory




Mitigation of Wastes Plastic Pollution via Pyrolysis


Anyalewechi, Chinedu Lewis

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria].



The increasing versatility of plastics and their wide range of applications have continued to make them the material of choice globally. This has inadvertently resulted in a steep rise in global plastic production. These plastics which are mostly discarded after use, accumulate over time thereby causing environmental problems. The menace of waste plastic pollution has become a major source of global environmental concern considering the large volume of plastics produced yearly. Approaches such as incineration and landfills have been considered as means of handling plastic wastes. However, these methods tend to give rise to other environmental-related problems, thus, limiting their applications. Pyrolysis of wastes plastic is a viable and efficient thermochemical conversion process for the recycling of plastic wastes with the capability for the recovery of hydrocarbon products and energy that can be used as fuels or precursors materials in several industries for the production of valuable chemicals and other biobased products.

Keywords: Pyrolysis, wastes plastics, plastic pollution, environment, pyrolysis products.




Unlocking Real Estate Potential for African New Sustainable Development: Nigeria Case Study


1Sakariyau, Jamiu Kayode; 1Ojeniyi, Sulaiman Adekunle; & 2Makinde, Abel A:

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria



Sustainable development is the hub of global economic policy. It focuses on inclusive or broad-based growth sustained over time. It also places emphasizes on environmental, economic and social considerations of developing countries to have a fulfilled wellbeing. The account of Africa in terms of new sustainable development is inundated with good and bad. Bearing it in mind that Africa as a continent happens to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is blessed with a favorable weather and large landmass for agriculture, couple with the needed large resources in terms of human and natural resources. Therefore, it follows that African is seen as land of outstanding. Additionally, the real estate potentials are not well managed and as such real estate decay is already taking its toll, these and many others issues have thus inhibiting African new sustainable development. As the world felt impeding fall in sales-price of petroleum products and just recover from the loss suffered from the Covid-19 Pandemic, Unlocking the potentials of real estate is a veritable tool for sustainable development of developing nations like Nigeria. Nigeria is in economic tumult due to inefficiency on the side of government and individual to explore real estate potentials, high rate of corruption and over-reliance on oil and gas incomes among many others. Real Estate has the potential of releasing the much needed fund for our sustainable development. An approach is urgently needed; the one that is able to respond in a systematic and integrated manner to this key development goal is unlocking real estate potentials. Exploring real estate potentials therefore happened to be the solace to achieving Africa new sustainable development.

Keywords: Africa, Sustainable development, Real Estate, Real Estate Potentials, Nigeria.




Effect of Distances between Soakaway and Borehole on Groundwater Quality in Mararaba, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria


A.O. Suleiman1; D. U. Sangari2; & A. T. Ogah3

Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



This research assess the Effect of Distances between soakaway and Borehole on Groundwater Quality in Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study used both primary and secondary data. Water is vital to the existence of all living organisms, but this valued resource is increasing being threatened as human populations grow and demand for more water of high quality for drinking purposes and economic activities increases. Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Clean drinking water is now recognised as a fundamental right of human beings. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of distances between soakaway and borehole on groundwater quality in Mararaba, Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The specific objectives are: to investigate the bacteriological quality of the ground water sample obtained from boreholes within the study area, to investigate the physio-chemical l quality of the ground water sample obtained from boreholes within the study area. Environmental problems in Nigeria are varied and extremely serious. The case of Karu is no exception. The city suffers badly from a range of environmental threats, particularly waste and pollution, which are rapidly getting worse, as Karu is one of the fastest growing urban areas in Nasarawa State. The results obtained from this research work show that the degree of nearness of any groundwater source, to pollution source determines, to a large extent, the degree of pollution of that groundwater source. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made by the researcher: partners dealing with environmental management issues in Karu should work together each time projects that involve groundwater development and onsite wastewater treatment are to be implemented, the Ministry of water  Resources and Nasarawa State Urban development board should consider provision of piped water and sewerage services to Karu in order to protect the community against waterborne diseases, officials of Karu LGA should work with the Geological agencies in identifying areas that are suitable to for boreholes on the same piece of land to avoid groundwater pollution. The ministry of water and Nasarawa state Urban development board should considered provision of piped water and sewerage services to Karu in order to protect the community against waterborne diseases.

Keywords:  Distance, Soakaway, Groundwater, Quality, Effect




Increasing Innovation Capital on Technology: SME’s in Nigeria


1Okoh Chiedu Vincent   ²Dr Abu Zekeri 

1Vice Chancellors Office, UNIBEN, Benin City ²Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete.



The studies on innovation capital in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have experienced a tremendous growth over the last several years. However, there is no comprehensive review on this field of technology research. The objective of this study is to examine current research study on innovation capital of SMEs in Nigeria to integrate findings and to point out future research study. Based on the previous literatures, findings suggest that studies are mostly performed based on process, product, market and organizational innovation but less on technology innovation. Studies are mostly conducted in the European countries along with some studies in China and Korea while studies in the Nigerian context are scanty. Innovation capital improves the overall innovation performance of SMEs. However, relevant theories and models for managers are well-established in the literature.

Keywords: Innovation Capital; SMEs; Technology; Nigeria.




Impact of Strike on the Students of Tertiary Institutions in Kwara State, Nigeria


*Jamiu, Mahmood Suleiman; **Kamaldeen Sofiyullahi Kamaldeen; *Mahmud, Aremu Musa; **Issa, Sulyman Danzaria; ***Issah, Abolaji Yusuf; & ****Yusuf, Olarewaju Ibrahim

*School of Education and General Studies, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies, Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. **School of Law, Shariah Department, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. ***Computer Science Department, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. ****School of ICT Department of Library Science, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria.



The study aimed at examining the impact of strike on the students of tertiary institutions in Kwara state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the three hundred (300) respondents that participated in this study. Two hypotheses were tested based on teaching experience and educational qualifications. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was discovered that strike had detrimental impacts on employers, employees and the society at large and it is, therefore, recommended that government at all levels must be alive to its responsibilities in the areas of payment of staff salaries as and when due; improved employees’ welfare; accreditation of more courses in the colleges; and democratic leadership style in the colleges administrations. Regular labour agreement review and use of dialog in settling disputes between labour and the state Government was also recommended.

Keywords:  Impact, Strike, Students, Tertiary and Institutions




Business Education Skills:  Imperative for Job Opportunities and Sustainability of Graduates in Nigeria


Mrs I.G. Abraham-Ibe

Department of Office Technology and Management, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos



Business education is a skill based programme designed to equip students with the necessary tools to meet up with the demands of today’s business world after graduation.  There is no aspect of the economy that does not feel the presence of business education skills.  This paper therefore, focuses on the various skills of business education that can prepare and help the graduates to compete successfully in the labour market.  Various literatures were reviewed so as to ascertain the types of skills and their relevance to business education.  Conclusion was made that business skills are necessary for effective performance of graduates in any business environment.  It was recommended amongst others that the various regulatory bodies of tertiary institutions in Nigeria should retouch the curriculum of business education for effective skills building for job opportunities and sustainability of students after graduation.

Keywords: Business Education, Skills, Employability, Training, Retaraining




Impact of Natural Resource Earnings and Industrialization in Nigeria


Chigbo Geraldine Ngozi; Adaeze U. Ewah; & Chukwuemeka – Eze Chioma

Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre 



Natural resources earnings in most developing countries need sound management for the proper development of the rural areas towards industrialization. The realization that more needs to be done to translate the potential benefits of natural resources earnings into broad-based socio-economic development of the developing nations motivated this study. Despite this realization, how to measure management of resources was not included at present. Indeed, natural resources earnings constitute the bases for industrialization and hence growth and development of any economy. More so, the contributions hereafter are significant enough to improving governance, management and transparency, and eliminating corruption. Theories like: ‘Harrod-Domar’ growth theory, Solow’s of economic growth theory, Cobb-Douglas production function and endogenous growth theory were reviewed. The study used sampled data from 2015 CBN statistical bulletin of various issues to examines the impact of natural resources earnings on industrialization Nigeria. The data gotten were analyzed using Unit root test, Co-integration test, Error-correction modeling and Ordinary least square (OLS) regression modeling to address our research question.  Findings Revealed that despite the strong link between natural resource management and industrialization, its exploitations and export are yet to impact positively on the socio-economic, infrastructural and standard of living of the people. The study concludes with recommendations geared toward effective management of natural resources earnings for industrialization and development of the country.

Keywords: Natural resource, exploitation, development, Socio-economic wellbeing, developing countries, industrialization.




Influence of Social Media on Academic Achievement of Students in Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology Gujba, Nigeria


Umar Adamu Maina; Tijjani Salleh Abba; & Bukar Goni Lawan

Yobe State College of Agriculture Science and Technology, Gujba



The purpose of this research study is to examine the influence of Social Media on Academic achievement of students in Yobe State College of Agriculture Science and Technology Gujba. Two Research objectives and two Research hypotheses were formulated. To achieve this, the descriptive survey research design was employed. The population consists of all total 500 HND I, HND II, ND I and ND II students. The simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 100 students. A four point Likert Type Rating Scale Questionnaire type, titled: Social Media and Academic Achievement of Students Questionnaire (SMAASQ) was used to collect data from the participants. The descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage were used to analyze the demographic data while inferential statistics of Chi-square(x2) was used in testing the research hypotheses. Research findings showed that Student’s exposure to social media network has significant influence on students’ academic achievement at the calculated chi-square value of 151.907. Findings also showed that Students’ addictiveness to social network has a significant influence on their school academic achievement at the calculated chi-square value of 75.907. To this end, the researcher recommended that Students should be educated on the influence of Social media on academic achievement. Also Students should be monitored by teachers and parents on how they use these sites to avoid the negative influence on academic achievement of students.

Keywords: Social Media, Academic Achievement, Students, Influence




Characterization and Control of Effluents in the Textile Industry


*Yakubu Y. Lams; *Abdulazeez A.Y.; *Mohammed R.; & **Gulumbe, N.S.

*Department of polymer and Textile Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria. **Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria



Characterization of physico-chemical parameters such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Dissolved Oxygen (TDO), Electrical Conductivity (EC), was carried out on effluents from two Textile Industries in Kaduna and Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. The PH, Temperature, Concentration and presence of heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ag, and Zn was investigated and analyzed. The results were compared with the standard limits approved by the Kaduna State Environmental Protection Agency [KEPA] and Federal Environmental Protection Agency [FEPA] as permissible to be discharged into the receiving stream or river.

Keywords: Effluents, Concentration, characterization, pollution, Analysis, Environment




Diversification Into Agricultural Production And Other Non-Oil Mineral Resources As A Panacea To Solving The Problems Of Unemployment And Insurgency/Banditry In Northern Nigeria.


*Ma’aruf Tijjani; **Sani Musa Zakire; & ***Shitu Sani

*Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, School of Continuing Education. **Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, Department of Economics. ***Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, Department of Adult and Non-formal Education



The aim of this study is to examine the effect of diversification into agricultural production as a panacea to solving the problem of unemployment in northwestern part of Nigeria. Using simple statistical analysis, result of the study has indicated a negative and significant relationship between agricultural production and unemployment rate from the year 2015 to 2020. The study recommends that government in Nigeria should improve on mobilization of people to understand and harness the processes of diversification. It should also try to improve and provide infrastructural facilities such as; power supply, markets, roads, seaports, airports. etc to help in easy movement of goods and services.

Keywords: Diversification, Agriculture, Production, Unemployment




The Effects of Internal Security on Educational Challenges and Development in Nigeria


Akilu Umar Bakari

Department of Business Technology and Management, the polytechnic Bali  



The security trials threatening the Nigerian state in this 21st century have disregarded any definite justification both from the government and private viewpoints. Unexpectedly these challenges are internally generated. Expressions like militant, insurgent and terrorist became a nearby impression in line with the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria where attacks on people, property and government infrastructures are Spartan. The challenge is that some of these groups’ aggressions have rare the peaceful co-existence of the society and the core value of the Nigerian state. This paper explores documentary analysis on the severity of attacks on the Nigerian state from the fourth republic with a key interest on the possibility of these attacks to lead to the balkanization of the country into different nations as suggested by viewers.Terrorism is a global phenomenon. It is the use of violence and intimidation to coerce for various reasons. In recent times, the spate of terrorist attacks by various groups seeking political and religious reforms in Nigeria is alarming and has become worrisome as they pose a serious threat to Nigeria’s security. Furthermore, they are gradually destroying public confidence in the nation’s security system. Conditions which support the development and growth of terrorism in Nigeria range from socio-economic factors such as poverty to religion. The paper argues that terrorism has adverse implications for Nigeria’s security. Socio-economic transformation, security awareness and sensitization and collaboration among security agents among others are advocated as possible solutions to the menace.

Keywords: Effects, Internal Security, Educational Challenges, Development, Nigeria




The Implication Inclusive Growth in Sub-Sahara Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Angola and Nigeria


Anyanwu Ignatius Uzoma

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.



Over the years, African economies have undergone considerable transformation, with consistent and robust growth, in sharp contrast to decades of slow or even negative growth, which characterized the 1970s into the 1990s. While the region’s economies slowed down from an average of 5.6% during the period 2002-2008 to  2.2% in  2009, in  the wake of  the global  financial crisis;  Africa promptly  recovered, with  an average growth rate of 4.6% in 2010 and 6.2% in 2012, as well as 4.0 and 4.3% for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth is even more robust, averaging about 6% over the past decade. This development has made the region to be acknowledged with the second highest economic growth in the world in recent times. However, contemporary  economic growth  in Sub-Saharan  Africa is largely unaccompanied by employment generation or  increased livelihood  opportunities. Consequently, poverty levels across  the region remain  relatively  high,  at  48%  of  the  population.  The  challenges  posed  by  lack  of  inclusive  growth  are particularly evident in Angola and Nigeria, countries that feature economies driven by the petroleum industry. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to shed light on the challenges associated with lack of inclusive growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper employs empirical data to analyze Angola and Nigeria case studies, which reveal both countries as resource-rich economies featuring relatively high economic profiles, devoid of widespread employment opportunities, with grave consequences for endemic poverty. Consequently, the paper presents a policy framework,  grounded in  poverty reduction  strategies, enterprise  development and  capacity building aimed at promoting broad-based economic growth as the cornerstone of African economies.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Implication, Inclusive growth, Sub-saharan Africa, Angola and Nigeria




Suitability of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Locust Beans Waste Ash and Metakaolin as a Replacement for Cement in Concrete


Adejoh Benjamin Ochola; Shakir-Deen Adeshina Akinloye; & Ibrahim Shuiabu

Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



This study is aimed at investigating the compressive strength of concrete using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA), locust beans waste ash (LBWA) and metakaolin as cementious materials in replacement for cement in concrete using two grades of concrete; grade 15, 20 and 25. The concrete cube samples cast contained; control (0%) 5%, 10% and 15% of the cementious materials. the cube samples were cast, cured and tested at 7days, 14days. 21days and 28days. Although, the results of this study have shown a significant reduction in compressive strength of concrete utilizing SCBA LBWA and metakaolin than normal concrete, However, the results shows that SCBA LBWA and metakaolin of 5% & 10% replacement can be used for the different grades of concrete, while 15% replacement of SCBA, LBWA and metakaolin can be used in road kerbs, concrete blocks, non-bearing concrete walls, Light Weight Concrete, precast units (partition walls, concrete blocks for Architectural applications and some cases of slabs on soil, culverts, sidewalks, drive ways), foundation pads for machinery, etc. and are thereby recommended.

Keywords: Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Locust beans waste ash, metakaolin, Cementious material, Compressive strength, light weight concrete.




Barriers to Real Estate Investment amidst Covid-19 Pandemic in Lagos State, Nigeria.


Muritala, A. O., Olojede, I. O.

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State



The COVID-19 pandemic was a global crisis that significantly affected human live and investments Worldwide. Real estate investment sector is not an exception in this regard. The sudden change in investment volume calls for a proper investigation of real estate investment sector. This paper examined the various barriers to real estate investment as a result of Covid-19 in Lagos State, Nigeria. Primary data used for the study were obtained from questionnaire randomly administered on 176 real estate investors. The data were analyzed with the aid of descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Relative importance index (RII) was further adopted to establish the significance of each of the identified impeding factors based on respondents’ ratings. The study showed that migration barriers; boundaries and boarder barriers; land registration bottleneck barriers, real estate taxes and financial institution barriers were ranked as the most important barriers with RII of 4.47; 4.38; 4.24; 4.05 and 4.03 respectively. The less important barriers were capital repatriation and expropriation with RII of 2.75 and 2.56 respectively. This study is expected to guide stakeholder and policy makers on the direction to focus in policy making that will favor both local and international real estate investment during and after pandemic crisis.

Keywords: Barriers, Real estate investment, International real estate investment, COVID-19, Lagos Sate.




Need of Teaching Oral Communication Skills in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Critical Outlook


Abubakar Yusuf

Department of Languages and Communication, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State



For the last few decades, the system of teaching English language course at the Diploma level, specifically in Polytechnics of Nigeria has been receiving rigorous criticism. Implementation of curriculum objectives, particularly oral communication skills part has become a highly challenging task for language teachers. Several attempts have been made to reform the system at this level, but achieved limited success in its execution. In this connection the present paper is aimed at the need of teaching oral communication skills at the Nigerian Polytechnics, factors involved in teaching/learning spoken skills, difficulties in its implementation and evaluation patterns. Further, it provides a good number of critical observations and possible suggestions for immediate action.

Keywords: Communication, Technical Colleges, Spoken skills, Implementation, Evaluation



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