African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 22 No. 9


VOL. 22 NO. 9 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2278 – 1897



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Ant Colony Optimization and Railway Routes Construction


Taiwo Janet Folasade1*, Abubakar Aminu Mua’zu2, Hamisu Musa3, Odok Marshal4 and Mamuda Bala5

1-5Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences. Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria



Effective transportation system has an extensive role in shaping the development and environment of any country, as its impact on life and societal productivity cannot be underestimated nor overemphasized since it determines advancement of such country. For this reason, optimization of transportation system is essential for the successful progression of any nation state.  This paper sought to assess if there is any relationship between Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and railway routes system optimization. An enhanced ACO algorithm called Bio-inspired Railway Route Optimization System (BiRROS) was developed and simulated in a programming environment. The results obtained from the experiments conducted shows that relationship thus exists between ACO and railway system route optimization, as the performance of ACO was exceptional and is much faster in overcoming the delay encountered by passengers’ train with travel time and distance covered by each train minimized on the selected axis. Hence, we conclude that the proposed BiRROS is capable of producing alternative paths.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Railway Routes System Optimization, Bio-inspired routes optimization, ACO, Bio-inspired optimization techniques




Evaluating the Effects of Selected Atmospheric Parameters on Signal Reception of Direct Broadcasting Satellite at Ku-Band in North Central, Nigeria


*1Ndanusa, B., 2Yusuf, S. D., 2Umar, I., 3Kwaha, B, J. and 1Muhammad, B. L

1Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State. 3Department of Physics, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



Signals transmitted and received via Communication Satellite are more prone to degradation, due to the impact of atmospheric parameters on the signals as they propagate in space. In this study, the effects of Temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and rainfall on the signal reception of direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) transmitting on Ku-band frequency, within North central states of Nigeria was carried out using both experimental and statistical methods in the analysis. The data used were obtained from the field and Nigeria Meteorology Agency (NiMet). The results obtained showed that variations in these parameters lead to variations in the quality of signal reception. Comparative analysis between these parameters and the signal quality showed linear correlations, with correlation coefficient (r) values of -0.293, -0.398, -0.808, and -0.911 and coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.077, 0.011, 0.652 and 0.829 for temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and rainfall respectively when correlated with quality of the signal received, while temperature and solar radiation have low R2 values, relative humidity and rainfall / rain rate have high values. These R2 values imply that variation in temperature and solar radiation has about 7.7% and 1.1% significant correlation between the two parameters and the quality of signal received and therefore, least significant.  On the contrary, variations in relative humidity and rainfall / rain rate have respectively about 65.2% and 82.9% significant correlation between the two and the quality of signal received, and therefore seen as significant and most significant respectively. These values are likely to increase with time, largely due to climate change involving depletion of the ozone layer as a result of human activities and other natural phenomena within the atmosphere.

Keyword: Relative humidity, Temperature, Solar Radiation, Rainfall, Signal Quality reception, and Ku-band.




Development of a Random-Forrest-Based Model via Machine Learning Technique for the Prediction of Liquid Holdup


Onwumere, Casmir Chimezie*, Abdulkadir, Mukhtar and Agajo, James

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna – Nigeria



In this work, analysis of experimental data obtained from air-silicone oil flow in a vertical pipe of 67mm internal diameter and 6m long was carried out to develop a random-forrest-based model for predicting liquid holdup and churn flow regime characteristics in vertical two-phase flow, using machine learning technique. The range of the liquid superficial velocity was (0.05-0.378m/s) while that of gas superficial velocity was (0.095-4.727m/s). The random-forest-based model predicted the liquid holdup, void fraction, and liquid film thickness accurately, but showed deviations in predicting structure velocity, churn frequency and length of churn unit based on the results. The deviations in predicting these flow characteristics could be attributed to data leakage in the course of processing the data for model development. The results of this work show that at constant liquid superficial velocity, the liquid holdup decreases with increase in gas superficial velocity, while void fraction increases as the gas superficial velocity increases. Cross plots of experimental and simulated liquid holdups, void fractions, structure velocities, churn frequencies, lengths of churn unit and liquid film thicknesses are presented in chapter four.

Keywords: Liquid holdup, random-forrest, machine learning, churn flow, flow patterns, flow pattern map.




Evaluation of Nigerian Bitumen Yield and Compositions via Pyrolysis – A Case Study of Ondo State Bitumen


Abdulkadiri Raji; & Muhammad Umar Garba (PhD).

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology FUT, Minna.



Petroleum is the world’s most important source of energy. There is an ever increasing demand for energy to generate electricity, heat homes, power the industry and provide fuel for automobiles and airplanes. With the increasing scarcity of conventional crude oil, a consequence of depletion and decline in production due to the fact that petroleum is extracted much faster than its rate of formation, there is need to source for unconventional sources of crude oil such as oil sand, oil shale and bitumen. However, heavy oils cannot be transported easily without first upgrading. This thesis was undertaken to evaluate Nigerian bitumen yield and compositions via pyrolysis. Initial characterization tests were carried out on the bitumen including TGA, FT-IR, SEM-EDX and GC-MS to determine the thermal behavior, functional groups, elemental composition and nature of the Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA) composition of the bitumen. Hydrous and Anhydrous pyrolysis were carried out using a horizontal tube furnace at different temperatures and time. Design Expert was used to obtain the optimum condition for the pyrolysis experiments with temperature and time set as variables. The synthetic crude obtained from both processes were subjected to further test to determine the viscosity, density, specific gravity, determination of the API  gravity and GC-MS analysis. The bitumen was found to have high viscosity of 28cSt and low API gravity of 8.6 which corresponds to standard for heavy oil. The bitumen SARA components determined are 35% saturates, 37% aromatics, 26% resins and 2% asphaltenes. At the end of the study, it was established that the yield of synthetic crude oil from hydrous pyrolysis has a greater API gravity of 29.20, lower sulfur content 0.08%, lower viscosity 3.04cSt and a higher concentration of saturates 65% than the synthetic crude obtained from anhydrous pyrolysis which respectively has 23.99, 0.16%, 3.28cSt and 50%. Kinetic studies were carried out from the TGA for both hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis using Coats-Redfern Method. The activation energy for anhydrous pyrolysis was 291.796KJmol-1 which was higher than that of hydrous pyrolysis 224.04KJmol-1. Hence hydrous pyrolysis reaction is the dominant mechanism and it occurs at a much faster rate than anhydrous pyrolysis. From this research, exploitation of Nigerian bitumen becomes more economically viable as exemplified by other countries around the world like Canada.

Keywords:   hydrous pyrolysis, bitumen, synthetic crude   oil, GC-MS, SARA content.




On the Effect of Decreasing the Intra-specific Coefficient of the First Plant Species on the Biodiversity Scenario using a Numerical Analysis Method


Udoh, N. ., Ekaka-a, E.

1Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



One of the scientific processes beyond the definition of a biodiversity index otherwise called the richness index depends on the numerical calculation of the quantification of a biodiversity scenario using a numerically efficient method called the ODE 45. We have observed in this present study that as the intra-specific coefficient is varied by 40%, 45%, 90%, 99% and 99.99%, the biodiversity scenario generally results to a biodiversity gain and by the variations of 101% and 105% the biodiversity gain which we have obtained changes to a biodiversity loss in which the expected biodiversity interval has occurred between the 99.99% variation of the intra-specific coefficient and the 101% of the same parameter value. The central concern of the loss of biodiversity gain (the loss improvement in yields) can be better monitored by using the unique bifurcation interval that we have discovered in this study. The results of this study is expected to benefit environmentalists, numerical mathematicians and the numerical simulators whose research activities involve the impact of climate change on the yields of plant species and related agricultural crops. The full novel results that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively.  

Keywords: ODE 45, Intra-specific Coefficient, Biodiversity, Bifurcation, Competition.




Assessment of the Effects of Physico-Chemical Properties of Mining Sites in Nasarawa L.G.A of Nasarawa State, Nigeria


Nasiru Umar1,   Muhammad K. Dahiru2, B.L Nasir3

1&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi 2Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Science, Federal University, Lafia



The study on the assessment of the physico-chemical properties of mining sites in Nasarawa LGA of Nasarawa State, Nigeria was aimed at assessing the quality of soil and water as a result of mining activities in the study area. The methodology adopted was field observation techniques used in the investigation which involves systematic collection of samples from Udege- Mbeki site1; site II; Agbo Gana, Gidan Kwano, Odu town site I and Site II. The result of the statistical analysis shows that the  F-ratio (calculated F.) as  shown thus: – Mg, 20.356; Cu,8.160;Ph,16.461; chromium, 13.924; cadmium, 13.924; Nike, 13.924, uranium,13.326, monodnium,14.662; Antimony(Sb), 14.969; S, 77.048, at 95% are recorded for all the sites. F-critical value which was referred to in Null hypothesis has value of 2.02 at 95%. Since the F-calculated result is greater than F-critical value, the null hypothesis can be rejecting at 95%. It also shows that the amount of heavy metal is negligible, and does not constitute any health hazard to the people who are using effluent for various domestic activities. However, it is concluded that, the extractive industries are primary suppliers of needed minerals rather than end products and so, minerals as resources are not exploited for their own use but for other purposes leading to a finished product.

Keywords:  Physico, Mining , Sites, Chemical, Effect, Properties




Development of Improved Rivest Shamir and Adleman (RSA) Algorithm for Securing Data on Transmission and Storage.


1Adejumobi, O.K., 2Sadiq, M.O. 3Baruwa, Abiodun A. and 4Akintoye, N.O.

1Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan. 2,4Department of Elect./Elect., The Polytechnic, Ibadan. 3Departmentnof Elect./Elect. Engineering, Osun Sate College of Technology, Esa-Oke, Osun State.



In present times, the high growth in the networking technology leads to the practice of interchanging digital data frequently. The data in both the private and public sectors are increased which requires, Availability, Authentication, Confidentiality and Integrity.  The  security  of  this  confidential  data from  unauthorized  access  can  be  done  by a process called Cryptography. This is achieved by converting Plain text into Cipher text (encryption). The original message is then recovered by a process called decryption. However, many encryption techniques are available. This Paper therefore reviews most popular and effective algorithms of encryption that are currently used. It focuses mainly on different kinds of encryption techniques, their advantages and disadvantages. The Paper also developed an Improved Rivest Shamir and Adleman (RSA) Algorithm for Securing Data on Transmission and Storage. Recommendations were also drawn for improved cryptography.

Keywords:  Algorithm, Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, Plain Text, and Cipher Text.




Determination of Physico-Chemical and Mineral Composition of Fresh Tiger Nut Milk.


1Kanu C. N. and 2Obi Maryjane A.

1Department of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.



A study was carried out to determine the physiochemical, and mineral composition of Fresh Tiger-nut milk. The result revealed that sodium were (26.26mg), Potassium (349.90mg), Calcium (40.05mg), Iron (4.22mg) while magnesium (169.92mg). The result of the physiochemical properties showed that the viscosity value were (90 Pa.s), the foam capacity was observed to be (18%), Foam stability (5.35%) and the PH showed (6.78ºC), while the Specific gravity were (1.630ºB ) respectively.




Assessment of the Local Content Policy on Oil and Gas Insurance Underwriting in Nigeria


1Obinna C. Chilekezi, 2Festus M. Epetimehin PhD, 3Oluwayomi A. Ekundayo PhD

Department of Actuarial Science and Insurance, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji



The study is on the assessment of the impact of the Local Content Policy on the underwriting of oil and gas in the Nigerian Insurance industry. It aimed at examining the relationship between the introduction of the Local Content Policy by the government and the performance of non-life insurance companies in Nigeria and to examine the gap as we have in dearth of study in this area of insurance. The study is a descriptive survey whereby 200 copies ofju questionnaire were distributed to respondents in selected insurance companies in the country. Data obtained were analysed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science 23 and the tool employed were Friedman test and regression analysis for hypothesis testing. The results showed the dimensions of the impact of the implementation of the Local Content Policy in oil and gas underwriting in the Nigerian insurance industry in terms of improvement of capacity, premium income but however the retention of the business is still low contrary to the provision of the Nigerian Content Development Act 2010.The null hypotheses were rejected and the alternate accepted. The conclusion from the study is that the pre-qualifications, tender processes and inadequate finances have significant impact on the implementation of the Local Content Policy. Also, that there is significant relationship between the introduction of the Local Content Policy and the overall performances of the non-life insurance companies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Underwriting Income, Local Content, Oil and Gas Policy, Insurance, Non-Life Policy




The Effects of Cyclonite (T4) on the Immediate Environment: A Review


Porri, Erebidoukumor

Department of Environmental and Petroleum Technology Management, Joint Professional Training Supports



This study focuses on   the   effects of   cyclonite T4 on the immediate environment.  The instrument used for the data collection was the questionnaire and the respondents comprised two hundred selected individuals from workers in the vicinities of army bases and the general population around military bases across the globe.  The data obtained were analyzed using simple percentages and tables. Finding revealed that the cyclonite T4 is a chemical name of explosion.  Structure, chemical product that does not occur naturally in the environment but through military applications and industrial technologies that causes effects of long-term 365 days, then low-level exposure to RDX  which gave birth to adverse health outcome. The   RDX properties as a guide to remediation.  In cases of novel technologies entering into contested social spaces, public engagement can be useful to inform broader policy debates as part of mitigation.   It was recommended that workers in the vicinities of army bases and general   population around military bases should be encouraged to attend seminars, workshops and public debates or lectures organized by government, societies and organizations.  These organizations should endeavour to enlighten every worker and individuals in the vicinities of army bases to be steadfast in the knowledge of what causes cyclonite T4 and health implications as regards the importance of their knowledge should be able to protect and safeguard them to avoid victim of adverse health effects of cyclonite T4.  RDX, hexogen, TNT and other industrial chemicals on the immediate environments, government and industrial technologies operators should be able to improve the welfare and livelihoods of those workers in the vicinities of army bases and individuals residing along military bases – military operations and industrial technologies should endeavour to advance operations in order to minimize adverse health effects in the course of their services and operations.  Government should make rules and regulations in regards to the activities that responsible for cyclonite T4 RDX, hexogen.  TNT henceforth there should be adequate remediation measures in order to improve quality of life and maintain environmental standard.  Activities that cause cyclonite T4, RDX, hexogen and TNT and industrial chemical usages should followed environmental principles and obeyed environmental law.

Keywords: Cyclonite T4;   Environment; Hexogen; Health;  Chemical.




Biotechnological Application and the Importance of Plant Gum Exudates Acacia Senegal and Acacia seyal to the Food Industry.


Wafari, U. U., & Ta’awu, K. G

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Gum Arabic is the complex exudate of the Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal tree. This dried sap with immense commercial value is a global commodity, generally harvested in Africa and Western Asia. Non-digestibility, low solution viscosity, and generally recognized as safe status renders its popularity in the food industries. For its desirable emulsifying, stabilizing, binding, and shelf-life enhancing properties, it has found application in many foods as a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the literature on the technological importance and application of gum Arabic for food industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavour and stabilizer of citrus oil emulsion concentrates in soft drinks, as a wall material in microencapsulation of food, as food additive, shelf-life enhancer, as inducer of satiety and anti-obesity and as antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Gum Arabic, Acacia senegal, Acacia seyal, Plant gum, Food Industry




Automation of Pharmaceutical Inventory Control System.


Suberu Yusuf; Ammatullah Yahaya Aliyu; Madu Ifeyinwa; Salisu Abdullahi; Ahmad Abubkar Yusuf; & Abubakar Yusuf Abubakar

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State (Nigeria). 



Automated pharmaceutical inventory control system (APICS) is a computerized system designed for user to manage the stock of the drugs inventory and monitor the progress of the stock facility. The pharmacy inventory control system provides platform for admin, Pharmacist, clerk and customer. The admin is responsible for managing the database and also creating account for the Pharmacist who is responsible for viewing the expired drugs and delete them, view minimum quantity of each drugs and reordering of same. The Clerk is responsible for adding products into the system, view customer order, add customer order and also generate report of dispensing. Customers have the privilege to access all products in stock, add to card, place order for needed drugs in stock respectively. A research and analysis on the current system and searching technique was done to get better understanding of the system. Interview were conducted and document were also consulted. Testing is done every phase of the development life cycle to make sure that the system is working properly. This project was developed using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor and other related Programming language as a final result, this system has fulfilled all the research objectives.

Keywords: Automated, pharmaceutical, inventory, computerized, platform, database, stock facility, reordering, dispensing, conducted, hypertext preprocessor, prototype system.




X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Ceramic Raw Materials in Kogi State, Nigeria for High Voltage Porcelain Insulators.


S I Bello1, A. S. Ahmed2, P. C. Okonkwo3, M. T. Isa4, A. A. Abdelmalik5 and N. Audu6

1,6Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa 2,3,4Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 5Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.



Investigation of ceramic raw materials suitable for production of high voltage porcelain insulator have not been given much attention in Nigeria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of Ahoko clay, Okene feldspar and Zariagi quartz as locally sourced ceramic raw materials in Kogi State, Nigeria for the production of high voltage porcelain insulator. They were respectively beneficiated before the analysis. Mineralogical and chemical compositions of the samples were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The XRD results showed sharp peaks at 2-theta = 26o, 28o and 26o for Ahoko clay, Okene feldspar and Zariagi quartz respectively. The XRF results showed that Ahoko clay contained 19.97 wt%, 66.59 wt% and 1.32 wt% alumina, silica and ferrite oxide contents respectively. XRF also showed major oxide contents in Okene feldspar as silica (SiO2) and potassium oxide (K2O) to be 51.80 wt% and 42.0 wt% respectively; while oxide content in Zariagi quartz was 99.4 wt% silica (SiO2). The results showed that Ahoko clay grade only met zeolite production specification while Okene feldspar and Zariagi quartz are suitable for porcelain insulator development.

Keywords: Ceramic-raw-materials and high-voltage-porcelain-insulators.




A Conceptual Framework for the Development of Collaborative Learning Environment based on TPACK Framework


Hyellamada Simon1, Ireti Hope Ajayi2, & Hiradi Lazarus Michael3

1,2,3Department of Computer Science Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, P.M.B. 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Learning in the 21st century has been taking a new dimension due to the technological innovations in pedagogy. Where mobile devices offer new prospects for learning within and beyond the conners of classroom. Though creating standard technological pedagogy content for interactive learning is of concern among teachers in tertiary institutions. This research proposed a concept based on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective creation of pedagogy content for collaborative seamless learning. This work also proposed a model architectural design for the development of collaborative e-learning environment. Therefore, the paper recommends that the model should be used by teachers for creation of learners-centric content. Also, programmers should use the model designed to create interactive environment for e-learning.

Keywords: TPACK framework, Collaborative learning, e-learning, and pedagogy




Assessment of Wastewater Management Practices in Paint Industry on Water Physicochemical Parameters and the Impact of Effluent in Nearby Rivers


Aminu, S.O.* and Hamed, M.O

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa.



Industrial wastewater is a complex combination of multiple types of contaminants, including diverse synthetic compounds, hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. The aim of this research is to evaluate wastewater management procedures in the paint industry in order to offer guidance and recommendations on the impact of effluent on neighboring streams and rivers. Wastewater samples were gathered from a Lagos paint factory. The samples for this investigation were taken before, during, and after the treatment plant to determine the differences in physicochemical parameters at each segment of the treatment areas. The samples were immediately collected in 2L bottles and correctly labeled on the spot, taken to the laboratory and kept at 4°C prior to analyses. Standard procedures were used to examine the samples for physicochemical characteristics. The results obtained were pH (8.9 to 7.08); DO (2.1 to 10.6 mg/l); BOD (180 to 65 mg/l); COD (750 to 224 mg/l); nitrates (26 to 1.01 mg/l); phosphate(0.02 to 0.30 mg/l); alkalinity (990 to 170 mg/l); acidity (330 to 24 mg/l); calcium hardness: (506-390 mg/l). The physicochemical parameters’ values were found to be greater than the FEPA acceptable effluent limits. Due to various stages of wastewater treatment plant, there is a high COD concentration in raw sewage and a low concentration in final treated waste water. The wastewater plant’s performance was assessed using its percentage reduction capabilities, which demonstrated its capacity to reduce all of the effluent parameters. It is therefore advised that treated water be discharged into surrounding bodies of water after passing through a wastewater treatment plant, in order to remove the pollutants. As a result, wastewater treatment is critical for preserving and sustaining water quality, and the treated wastewater can subsequently be used for secondary applications including irrigation, gardening, and industrial cooling.

Keyword: Paint industry, wastewater, wastewater management, physicochemical parameters




Soap Making Quality of Melon Seed Oil


Okpala Tochukwu Vincent

Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.



The quality of melon (Cumeropsis mannii) seed oil was determined to know if the oil’s quality is acceptable for making soaps. Oil was extracted from the melon seed using soxhlet extraction method and some of the physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. The result from the physicochemical properties showed how suitable the melon seed oil will be for soap production. The result showed a saponifcation value of 281.91 mgKOH/g and an iodine value of 81.65 I2/100g among others, these values are within a range of values that favours an oil’s use for production of good quality soap. It can be ascertained that melon seed oil has properties that are excellent for soap making.

Keywords: Melon seed oil, Soap making, Saponification value, Iodine value.




Gender Classification from Facial Images Using Convolutional Neural Network (Convnet)


Ojo Abosede Ibironke 1 and Ebisin Aderonke Foluso 2

Computer Science Department, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa, Ogun State.



Classification is a techniques used for solving problems. Several problems are solved with this technique. Gender classification is gaining grounds due to different areas of applications such as surveillance, security and monitory etc.    Different authors have presented different research areas in the domain of gender classification and used several methods for analysing facial images in other to predict or classify the images. These methods adopted are either traditional algorithms, hybridised techniques or neural network so as to obtain better accuracy and reliability.  We know that successful classification needs a robust method with good experimental setups that is why we present a gender classification using Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) for the purpose of reliability and accuracy using a local dataset.  Although, majority of works done on this research area made use of the popular datasets such as FERET, AT & T, FACE94, AR to mention but few and/or compare two or more datasets to know the one with the best performance accuracy. Our state of heart method was used on local data set where sizable numbers of images were captured and five different augmentations were done on the images. The experimental result showed that our proposed ConvNet on our local dataset improve gender classification accuracy with the Precision (%) – 89.6276-; Recall (%) – 89.6276; Accuracy (%) – 92.8094 and F1-score (%) – 89.6237.

Keywords: Gender classification, Convolutional Neural Network.




Efficacy of Mahogany Oil (Khaya Senegalensis (Devs.)) As Grain Protectants against Lesser Grain Borer (Rhyzopertha Dominica (Fabricius)) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) On Cowpea Seed (Vigna Unguiculata (Linnaeus: Walper))


1Bukar, A., 2Gaya, S. S., 2Audu, A. & 1Dawud, A

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Mahogany seed oil against Rhyzopertha dominica on cowpea. The test was conducted under ambient laboratory conditions (28-35Oc and 65-70% r.h.). Thirty adult insects of unsexed were bioassayed on 50g cowpea grain sample treated with the Mahogany seed oil (MSO) at five concentration rates: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0ml/kg. Mortality of exposed adults were assessed after 7, 14 and 21days exposure to treated grains. Number of progeny were assessed at 56 and 112days after removal of parent insects. Significance difference (p<0.05) in adults mortality were noted between different concentration rates and exposure periods on treated grain. Increase in concentration rates and exposure period resulted in higher adult mortality and progeny suppression. After 14days exposure to the highest concentration rates, 100% adult mortality was achieved. Progeny production was considerably suppressed even with lowest concentration rates of 1.0ml/kg 1.2±0.6 and 1.0±0.5 was recorded when compared with untreated control with 91.4±2.9 and 116.0±5.1 after 56 and 112days of storage respectively. Similarly, the percentage of insect damage kernel and weight loss decreased with increase in concentration rates. At 3.0ml/kg no single damage and weight loss recorded as compared to 100% and 81.6% in the untreated control, respectively. Moreover, the result indicate that germination percentage was not affected by different treatment concentration when compared with the untreated control thus at 1.0ml/kg 64.0±8.3% germinated grain was recorded, at 3.0ml/kg 99.2±0.5% was observed when compared with 7.0±2.8% on untreated control.

Key words: Mahogany oil .R. dominica . Cowpea . Adult mortality . Progeny Suppression




Investigating the Dietary Antioxidant and Mineral Constituents of Three Commonly Consumed Powder Vegetables Sold in Lapai Market, Lapai – Niger State, Nigeria


Uthman, A1*.; Musa, A1., Amusat, A.O1 ., AbdulAzeez, A2.,  Umar, M.T1., Garba, Y3 and Joseph, P.S4.

1Department of Biochemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai – Niger state. 2Department of Chemistry, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai – Niger state. 3Department of Crop production, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai – Niger state. 4Department of Chemistry, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna – Kaduna state.



Antioxidant compounds in food play an important role in health protecting factor. Plant sourced food antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenes, phenolic acids, and phytoestrogens have been recognized as having the potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. This study therefore investigated some antioxidant and mineral constituents of three commonly consumed powder vegetables (Adansonia digitata, Abelmoschus esculentus and Annona senegalensis) sold in Lapai markets, Lapai – Niger state of Nigeria. The concentration of ascorbic acids in the powder vegetables were determined by titrimetric method. Total carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene in the vegetables were analyzed using spectrophotometric method. The mineral content was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while sodium and potassium was determined using Flame photometer. The result of this investigation revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean values of ascorbic acid for the three vegetables analyzed. The β-carotene concentration of the vegetables decreases as A. digitata > A. esculentus > A. senegalensis. The result also shows that A. digitata was significantly (p<0.05) higher in β-carotene concentration when compared to the two other vegetables. Concentration of total carotenoid in the three vegetables revealed that A. digitata had the highest concentration while A. esculentus recorded the lowest value, but these values were significantly different from each other. Lycopene contents of the vegetables were similar to that of the total carotenoid but A. digitata was significantly different (p<0.05) from the two other vegetables. The mineral compositions of the vegetables showed that calcium concentration of Adansonia digitata was significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared to the two other vegetables. Abelmuschus esculentus had the highest concentration for Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Na and K, followed by Annona senegalensis except for magnesium while Adansonia digitata recorded the least values for all the elements analyzed apart from calcium and magnesium content. The consumption of these vegetables can significantly contribute to the needed dietary antioxidant and mineral intake that can reduce the risk of chronic diseases and nutrient deficiency in the body.

Keywords: Vegetables, Dietary antioxidant, Mineral, Adasonia digitata, Total carotenoids and Ascorbic acid.




Design of a standalone photovoltaic system for a residential building in Osogbo, Nigeria


1Alaje Elijah Olayiwola, 2Yusuf Abdulhamid, 3Adeyemi Waheed Adebanjo, 4 Abioye, Ismail Olawale, Olawale, Olaniran Kayode

1, 3,4 Department of Science Laboratory Technology. Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics Electronics & Earth Sciences. Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria. 5Department of Science Laboratory Technology. Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria



Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems have become one of the most promising power solutions for remote areas, which are not connected to the utility grid. In this paper, a stepwise design of a stand-alone PV system for a residential building is presented. A detailed procedure for choosing each system component is mathematically presented and discussed. The cost analysis for the installation and maintenance of the system for 25 years have been outlined. The result reveals that the cost of having a Stand-alone photovoltaic system to power a residential building in Osogbo is high and not yet within the reach of average Nigerians. 

Keywords: Nigeria, Stand-alone, residential, design, Osogbo, power.




Sub-Sahara African Awakening for 21st Century Challenges and Opportunities: A Re-Evaluation of Indegenious Science and Technology as a Panacea.


*Engr. Uranta Charles Atemie; **Ndiokwere Gabriella Chioma; & **Aaron Boma Philip

*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State **Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State.



Sub-Sahara Africa, a region of the world, replete with abundant human and material resources, is still a developing region in the 21st century, despite the numerous strategies employed to return it to its pre-colonial era, when it was a developed region, with rich cultural and socioeconomic achievements. While the bulk of the problem has been traced to its lack of political and economic stability, there seem to be a negligible consideration of the indigenous science and technological knowledge that has been of previous importance to it past glory. The research is an attempt to reconsider the use of aboriginal technical and scientific know-how, in the light of modern scientific and technological principles, as a tool for regional redevelopment. Using comparative analysis, based on the successful implementation of advocated policy by three of the Asian continent most populated nations ( China, Thailand and India) and using African most populous nation (Nigeria) as a case study, the work integrates 21st century scientific and technological knowledge, with traditional technique, to extract ethanol and other by-product of raphia palm, while extrapolating and generalizing the result, to show that, a re-evaluation of many of Africa’s indigenous method, techniques and knowledge, blended with modern scientific and technological understanding, is a viable process of overcoming the regional challenges of the 21st century, while creating abundant opportunities for varieties of small and medium scale enterprises (SME’s) to flourish and globalise its brand. 

Keywords: raphia palm, indigenous technology, regional redevelopment, regional challenge, ethanol.



Discrimination Between 2k and 3k Factorial Designs Using Optimality Based Criterion


Murtala Muhammad Salihu and Chigozie Sylvester Nwaosu

Department of Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria



This research aimed at identifying the point k in  and  designs wherefor which optimality obtained using design optimality criteria. The codes used for factorial designs while  and  provided the elements of the design matrix for  factorial designs was used to obtain the design matrix. While, A- and D- optimality criteria for each of the  Designs model were utilized in the analysis with the aid of MATLAB version (R2007) to determine  the optimal values and the efficiency of each model. From our results, it observed that the designs produced efficient estimates of the model parameters when A- and D- Optimality criteria are considered. Therefore, the  factorial designs are more efficient than designs for all values of  under consideration using design efficiency criteria. It recommended that for studies in factorial designs,  design is suitable in both A- and D- optimality criteria.

Keywords:  optimality criteria, efficiency criteria,




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