African Scholar Journal of Science Innovation & Tech. Research Vol. 26 No. 9


VOL. 26 NO. 9 SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2878-1894



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Laurus Nobilis (Linn)


Fagbenro, S. O.; & Prof. Usman O.S.

Analytical Chemistry, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State



This study was carried out to compare to the Nutritional and the Anti-nutritional composition of Laurus nobilis (Linn) to the standard of World Health Organization (WHO) Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of vegetable spices. The bay leaves samples were analyzed for percentage (%) moisture content, ash content, Lipid, crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate contents and the energy value in Kcal/100g. of the samples were determined in triplicates to ascertain the nutritional quality of the leaves. The proximate analysis revealed that Bay leafs contain moisture (11.80 ± 0.54%), Ash (5.50 ± 0.10%), Crude fibre (26.12 ± 0.11%), Crude Protein (4.10 ± 0.10%), Lipid (8.14 ± 0.06%), Carbohydrate (70.46 ± 0.22%) and the energy value (371.5Kcal/100g). The Mineral composition (mg/100g) of Bay leafs showed Magnesium with (528 ± 0.02) to be the highest followed by Iron (457 ± 0.10), Sodium (378.5 ± 1.16), Phosphorous (327.318 ± 0.47), Calcium (307 ± 1.51), and lastly Potassium with (187.5 ± 2.65). The minerals analyzed were found to be below the permissible limit set by the standard organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The Anti-nutrients compositions are Alkaloids (3.4 ± 0.02%), Flavonoids (0.177 ± 0.001%), Phytic Acid (0.836 ± 0.02%), Oxalate (7.13 ± 0.02%), Cyanide Glycoside (474.281 ± 10.002mg/kg). The results showed that Laurus nobilis contained essential and valuable nutrients which are beneficial to human health and that boiling of the leafs for about 5 minutes will effectively reduce the Anti-nutritional content which inhibits the absorption of the nutritional composition

Keywords: Laurus nobilis (bay leaf), mineral elements




Effect of Dietary Cholesterol on Growth and Survival of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings in Microcosm Experiments


Ogunbanwo Olatayo Michael

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Aquatic Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos State



The experiment was carried out in other to evaluate the effect of dietary cholesterol on growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus at different inclusion levels of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00% for the period of 8 weeks. 150 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were randomly selected into five treatments: three replicates each per treatments with ten fish per tank. Five experimental diets were prepared, a control diet without cholesterol inclusion (T1), 0.25% cholesterol inclusion (T2), 0.50% Cholesterol inclusion (T3), 0.75% cholesterol inclusion (T4), and 1.00% cholesterol inclusion (T5). The treatments with 0.75% cholesterol inclusion have the highest weight gain (86 ± 0.11g) compared to other treatments, while treatment with 100% cholesterol inclusion have the second highest weight gain (82.5 ± 0.10g). The fish in Treatment two (T2) have the lowest specific growth rate (2.02 ± 0.03g) followed by treatment with 0.50% cholesterol inclusion which have the second lowest specific growth rate (2.06 ± 0.04g), while the treatment with 0.75% have the highest specific growth rate (2.19 ± 0.07g). The fish in T4 have the highest final weight (226.3 ± 0.16g) compared to other treatments. The fish with 0.75% and 1.00% inclusion of cholesterol performs better than others in the experimental diets. Treatment four (T4) have the lowest feed conversion ratio (0.58 ± 0.05g) which implies that it has the highest specific growth rate because the lower the feed conversion ratio the higher the specific growth rate. It could be concluded that the cholesterol inclusion up to 0.75% have no negative effect on the growth performance of Africa catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Keywords: Dietary Cholesterol; Clarias gariepinus; Weight Gain; Feed Conversion Rate; Specific Growth Rate,




Macro Properties Enhancement in Natural Rubber by Polynesian Arrow Root (Amora) Starch Biofiller through Latex Compounding Method and Nanoscale Downsizing


Uzoh, Raymond D.1, Jildawa D.1 Egharevba Owen2, John Hardy3

1.Department of Materials Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2.Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) Iyanomo, Edo State, Nigeria. 3.Department of Materials, University of Lancaster, UK.



An effort to partially replace carbon black as a filler in natural rubber polymers was attempted due to global concern on carbon black becoming a potential health risk to humans. More so incorporating natural starch as a biofiller in natural rubber through a new latex compounding procedure has introduced a new dimension in reducing the particle size of starch granule from few micrometer to nanoscale allowing it to mix and blend thoroughly with the natural rubber molecules supposedly at molecular level in the liquid medium during the co-coagulation process and at compounding. Enhancement in macro properties was observed when Polynesian arrow root (PAR) starch filler was introduced into natural rubber biopolymer in gelatinized form at 30 parts per hundred rubber (phr) in a latex compounding procedure. The PAR starch/natural rubber blend was compounded in a two-roll mill and cured by Sulphur vulcanization and accelerators system according to ASTM standard method, D3184-80. There was improvement in tensile strength, resilience and hardness in the newly formulated biopolymer-for tensile strength, PAR starch/natural rubber is 57.43Nm-2, unfilled rubber (NR) is 21.90Nm-2 and the Control (Carbon black filled Natural rubber) is 87.63Nm-2. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the formulated biopolymer is semi crystalline. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) revealed the presence of the carbon-carbon double bond of cis-1, 4-polyisoprene molecule at stretching band of 1644.5cm-1 while O-H stretch for free hydroxyl and OH bonded gave 3865cm-1 and 3476cm-1 indicating the presence of starch molecule in the PAR starch/NR biopolymer. More so higher values of crosslink density from swelling tests, 33.5, 33.1 and 44.0molcm-3 at 10, 20 and 30phr filler loading is an evidence of strong filler-rubber interaction and adhesion at the interfaces produced by the hydrodynamic effect. Second evidence of strong filler-rubber interaction is the absence of phase separation during and after the compounding and curing processes hence PAR starch filler can partially replace carbon black as filler in natural rubber biopolymers with application in automobile tire manufacture with cost, weight and energy saving advantages.

Keywords: Natural rubber, Starch, Filler, Carbon black. 




Review: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Characterization of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs)


1Bala, S., 2Buba, M., and 3Kawuwa., B.,

1 2Science Laboratory Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Chemical Science Department, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria



Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a type of porous material that exhibits an emergent crystalline group. Through covalent bonds, it assembles organic fundamental components in an orderly framework with atomic clarity. To form strong bonds, COFs are primarily composed of light elements such as H, B, C, N, O, and Si. Examples include well-known and functional materials such as diamond, graphite, and boron nitride. The variety of defined features in COFs has exploded in recent years. This review critically highlights recent advancements in COF design principles. Porosity, structural regularity, and functionality are all incorporated into the design. Additionally, the review discusses synthetic procedures, the characterization of COFs products as well as challenges associated with COFs materials, are discussed.

Keywords: Covalent Organic Frameworks, Synthesis, Building units, Solvothermal and Crystalline.




Comparative Study of the Anti-Eczema and Anti-Fungal Activities of Mitracarpus Scaber with Sulphur Ointment, Skineal and Hydraulic Fluid on Eczematous Skin


Oladosu, Jeremiah Ibiyemi

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, PMB 05, Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.



Eczema, an atopic dermatitis is one of the most economically important skin disorder, therefore remedial attention needs to be given to it. Unlike the orthodox belief, eczema is a genetic disorder of the epidermis (filaggrin, CARD 11 or KIF3A gene mutation) not an infection, therefore, treatment must be targeted towards correcting this rather than targeting Candida albicans, the yeast that infects the eczematous skin as a result of environmental exposure. Currently, all types of chemically synthesized products used either topically or as tablet prove to be either expensive or have one or more side effects. This research paper recommends a natural topical treatment with the fresh leaf extract used traditionally in decades past, Mitracapus scaber, after careful comparative analysis with three other ointments sold (sulphur ointment, skineal and hydraulic fluid). Thirty two consenting individuals with eczema were sampled using accidental and purposive sampling methods, eight from four areas selected randomly in Bali metropolis (Friday Market, Daniya Village, Sabo Layi and Angua Tiv). Each treatment for two individuals was repeated for four times at four days intervals. Re-observation one month after showed complete normal skin for all M. scaber treatments while partial and complete relapses were observed in other three treatment ointments.  Similarly, M. scaber demonstrated antimicrobial activities on Candida albicans. Therefore, M. scaber can both correct filaggrin, CARD 11 and KIF3A gene mutations of the skin and eliminate the secondary yeast infection. Also, it is easily accessible and it has no side effect.

Keywords: Filaggrin, CARD 11, KIF3A, Mitracarpus, Anti-eczema.




Applying Polya’s Problem – Solving Approach and Its Application to Some Difficult Concept in Mathematics: A Case Study of Selected Senior Secondary School, in Central Senatorial Zone Local Government Area of Taraba State


1Mukhtar Sunusi Hassan; & 2Usman Abdullahi Sani

1General Studies Department, School of Business and management Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, P. M. B 05 Bali. Taraba State 2Statistics Department, School of science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, P. M. B 05 Bali.  Taraba State.



This study is an attempt to use Polya’s Problem – Solving principle and its application in teaching and learning of some concepts in Mathematics. The concepts include: Latitude & Longitude, Sequence and Series, Coordinate Geometry, Indices & Logarithm, Trigonometric function, and Logic & Linear Algebra, at Senior Secondary School level Student. A sample of SSI, SSII and SSIII Students in three classes of each of the selected secondary school from Central Senatorial districts of Taraba State were constituted into an Experimental and Control groups. There was a post – tested after series of experimental test during which students were guided with new instructional techniques. I.e. Tell  Show  Solve   Check.  The study specifically uses Polya’s to investigate the cause and effect through the use of experimental and control groups. The experimental group which treatment was administered and the control group that treatments were not administered. The score obtained were compute in mean and standard deviation. After the series of treatment of the topics, post – test were employed for the study. The method of statistical analysis of data employed in the study was Z- test. The Investigation shows that the performance of post-test II and post- test III shows a significance difference exist using Polya’s problem solving approach at every level of secondary school which is not limited to one level only

Keywords: Principles, Application, investigation, experimental. Administer, statistical analysis, curriculum, and significance




Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground Water and Vegetables in Misau Town


Hassan Abdullahi Misau

School of Remedial and Continue Education (SORCE), A.D. Rufai College of Education, Legal and General Studies Misau



Heavy metals are those metals that have a density greater than 5.og. They are found as trace elements in the natural environment, however, presence of heavy metals in water and edible vegetables in excess of the recommended amount set by the WHO (world health organization and FAO (Food Aid Organization) is very dangerous and harmful to the life and health of the people. This paper reports some studies conducted that shown the presence of these heavy metals notably Pb, Cd and Mn in excess of the recommended level set by WHO and FAO in the ground water samples collected. Similarly, the presence of Ni, Pb and Cd in excess amount was found in the vegetables specifically tomatoes and Onions used in Misau Town. Hence, this paper suggests an urgent need for remediation and regular monitoring of the ground water and vegetables use in Misau Town, Bauchi State.

Keywords: Assessment, Heavy Metal, contamination, ground water, vegetables, Misau.




Relevance of Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Physics in Secondary Schools in Adamawa State


Abdulrasheed Nuhu; & Abubakar Abdullahi

Physic Department



The importance of Mathematics cannot be underestimated because it has its limb in virtually all fields of study either not to discuss its influence in the Mathematical related fields. In fact, Mathematics is the pivot on which all sciences; engineering, business and even social sciences revolve. Because of its importance many institutions of higher learning require a credit pass from senior secondary school students who seek admission to study various courses in their institutions. The study aimed to determine the extent of associations or relevance of physics and mathematics. Based on our findings, we suggest that an upper secondary physics education preparing pupils for tomorrow’s society should be characterized by variety, both within and among courses, integration of mathematics in the physics courses. Physics is best understood by the student with good mathematical background. We recommend that only student with sound mathematical background will be engage in physics classes and should be introduce from junior classes with proper sequential arrangement of topics base on degree of complexity and relevant projection.

Keywords: Relevance, mathematics, physics, teaching and learning.




Microorganisms Associated with Currencies in the Banking Hall


Aisha, A. D., Alhassan, A. A., Abubakar, S. F.

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria.



Samples were collected from banking hall and processed for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and identified by swabbing and streaking on appropriate media using standard techniques. The probable microorganisms isolated are Escherichia coli (10.81%), Streptococcus species (13.51%), Klebsiella species (8.10%) and Staphylococcus species (1.6%). Four probable grnera of Fungi isolates were: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor species and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Paper currency is commonly contaminated with bacteria and fungi and this may play a role in the transmission of potentially harmful disease producing organisms. The identified microorganisms have pathogenic potential and hence their presence on such surfaces could serve as a source of cross transmission of bacterial and fungal infections in the banks and the general community.

Keywords; microorganisms, currencies, Associated, Banking, Hall.




Mechanochemical Synthesis as a Panacea for Environmental Contamination


Shehu Jibril; Adama Muhammad; & Samira Muhammad Shehu

Department of Chemistry, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State



The researchers in this paper use mechanochemical synthesis as a panacea for the excess use of solution based syntheses that cause environmental contamination. The main aimed of the paper is the usage of mechanochemicaly synthesized complex of ciprofloxacin which was characterized by physical methods, spectral and biological studies. Spectral studies show that; in the complexe, the ciprofloxacin acted as bidentate ligand which coordinated to the metal ion through the ring carbonyl oxygen and one of the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group. Results from microanalysis data shows 1:2 metal to ligand ratio. All the complexes show strong antibacterial activity at all concentrations compared with the free ligand (ciprofloxacin). Due to environmentally friendly, shortest reactions time, inexpensive, production of higher yields. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of mechanochemical methods over solution-based.

Keywords: Mechanochemical, Synthesis, Ciprofloxacin, Panacea, Solution-based




Effect of Herbicides on Soil Microbial Dynamics (Azotobacter, Actinomycetes, Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria, Athrobacter, Fungi)


Hamma, I. I1, 2a. A, Aliero, Abubakar, M3, A. Abdulmalik1 and Elhassan Aliyu1

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Gombe State Polytechnic, PMB 0190, Bajoga, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. PMB 2346, Sokoto State, Nigeria. 3 Yobe State Environmental Protection Agency Damaturu (YOSEPA) PMB 1067 Yobe State Nigeria.



Field studies were conducted to investigate the effect of herbicides on soil. Four groups of herbicides; 2,4 D-Calliherb, glyphosate and paraquat were used at the rate of 350 ml in 15 L sprayer while 3 kg/h for triazine powder. There were five treatments, each replicated five times and were laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The herbicides were applied, and after seven days reading collection were started. Two way analysis of variance was used. Methods used in Microbial determination involved Ashby medium for Azotobacter isolation, agar medium for Actinomycetes and M9 mineral salt medium for Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria incubated at 30oC Azotobacter count (AZB) in triazine and 2,4-D Calliherb treated soil increased from 7th day to 28th day after treatment, which ranged from (7.4 x 103 to 14.55 x 103) and (8.3 x 102 to 14.78 x 103) CFU/g soil respectively. Similarly Azotobacter count was observed in paraquat and Glyphosate treated soil, which varies from (11.9 x 102 to 8.4 x 103) and (10.5 x 102 to 5.80 x 103) CFU/g soil respectively at (p<0.05). Results revealed that herbicides application significantly affected the activity of Azotobacter, Arthrobacter, heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungal population.




Isolation of Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria from Petro-Chemical Polluted Soil in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria


*Adamu Mohammed Tanimu, Muhammad Yusuf And Amina Ndaiji

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.



The aim of the study was to isolate Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria from Petro- chemical polluted soil. A total of twenty-five soil samples were collected from five different mechanic workshop in Bauchi metropolis. The samples were bulked together to form one composite soil sample. The samples were examined for temperature, pH and moisture content. In this present study 13 bacteria genera were isolated by enrichment culture technique using nutrient agar, and utilization of hydrocarbon by the isolates were investigated on agar agar supplemented with 0.2ml refined petroleum products (Petrol, engine oil, diesel and kerosene). The isolated bacteria were characterized by morphological and biochemical test. Total hetrotrophic bacteria count ranged from 1.59 x 104 to 8.5 x 104 cfu/ml and total hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria count ranged from 1.0 x 104 to 7.0 x 104 cfu/ml, the bacteria isolates found in all sample sites were mainly staphylococcus sp, Arthrobacter, flavobacterium and Alcaligens faecalis.  The highest degradation performance was observed on micrococcus sp, pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp and the lowest degradation performance was observed on staphylococcus sp, flavobacterium sp, and corynebacterium.  The temperature values obtained from different petrochemical polluted soil during this investigation fall within mesophilic range and the pH of each soil sample tends from slightly acidic towards neutrality.

Keywords: Petro-chemical, Hydrocarbon, Bacteria and Degradation.




Formal Reasoning: A Predictor of Academic Achievement among Chemistry Students in Secondary Schools within Kafanchan Metropolis


Yohanna Jamaa Bok; Albert Ambrose; & Hindatu Maikudi

Chemistry Department, Kaduna State College of Education Gidan-Waya.



The research was on formal reasoning: a predictor of academic achievement among chemistry students in secondary schools within kafanchan metropolis. The study employed co-relational survey design. The population of the study consisted of 411 students in 11 public and private senior secondary schools within Kafanchan metropolis, Kaduna state. The sample size consisted of five schools with a total of 149 SSII Chemistry students. The five schools were selected by simple random sampling technique using draw-from-the-hat method. Two research instruments were used for the study; Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) and Chemistry Achievement Score (CAS). There was positive correlation in formal reasoning ability and achievement in chemistry among SS II chemistry students. Formal reasoning ability proves to be strong predictor of achievement in chemistry. Therefore, it was recommended that the Science teachers should encourage students to develop strong reasoning ability towards science so as to perform better in natural sciences, since formal reasoning ability correlated well with achievement in chemistry. As teachers plan chemistry lessons, tests and examinations reasoning ability, skills and capabilities of the students should be put into consideration.

Keywords: Formal Reasoning, Predictor, Academic Achievement, Logical Thinking, Reasoning Ability.




Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated with Different Methods of Storing Pap


Ebu Bridget; Ogbeba Jeremiah; Yakubu Dauda Abubakar; & Isa Amina Shehu

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria



The production of pap is still largely a traditional formula and done in homes in crude manner which might be contaminated by bacteria due to poor hygienic and sanitary condition in the preparation, handling, and preservation. The aim of this work is to isolate and identify pathogenic microorganisms associated with different methods of storing pap. Fresh prepared sample of pap was divided into four parts. One part was kept in the refrigerator the second was dried and the third was kept in a plastic container in which water was added to it. The fresh part was analyzed immediately while the 1,2,and3 parts was kept for 5days before analysis. 1ml aliquot of serial dilution of each sample was plated on an appropriate media. Identification was based on cultural, microscopy and biochemical characteristics. The result reveal the presence of the following organisms; staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsilla species and Bacillus species. The sample stored with water shows the microbial count of 3.5×103, freshly prepared sample 1.3×103, dry sample 2.9×103 and refrigerated sample 1.8×103. The sample stored with water show the highest microbial count while the freshly prepared sample shows the least microbial count. From the research the best method for storing pap is to refrigerate. Also hygienic condition should be observe during preparation and handling.

Keywords: Isolation, Identification, Pathogenic, organisms, Storing, Pap




Production of Silica Gel from Rice Husk for Laboratory Application as a Desiccant


Ajoge Haruna Sanni1*, Dahiru Aminu2, Okwara Akandu Uche3

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, Kaduna State-Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State-Nigeria. 3Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, Kaduna State-Nigeria



Silica of high purity and good surface area was beneficiated from rice husk by the application of heat in a standard solution of hydrochloric acid to produce rice husk ash after calcination at a temperature of 750 oC for 2 hours. Silica gel was then synthesized using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to solubilize the silica present in the ash with the application of heat on the rice husk ash. Therefore, Rice Husk Ash (RHA), Cleaned Rice Husk Ash (CRHA), and Silica Gel (SG) tagged Samples A, B, and C respectively were summarily developed from the synthesis processes. The samples were tested for moisture adsorptivity using laboratory desiccator. Sample C had the highest moisture adsorptivity of 24.34%, followed by Sample B with 15.29% adsorptivity, while the percentage adsorptivity for Sample A was 3.52. In addition to moisture Adsorptivity test, the various characterizations carried out on the samples proved their potential of applicability as desiccants; such as the presence of Silanol functional group, and good surface area especially for the SG sample. Also from the BET analysis of the SG Sample it was found to be a mesoporous material having a pore width value of 2.92 nm, pore volume of 0.1886 cm3/g, and the surface area of 407.6 m2/g. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer was used to determine the elements and the oxides present in the Rice husk ash (RHA), Cleaned rice husk ash (CRHA), as well as in the Silica gel samples.

Keywords: Adsorptivity, Desiccant, Rice husk ash, Silanol, Silica gel




Problems Associated with Solid Waste Management in Jimeta-Yola Nigeria and Way Forward


*Ibrahim Usman Kashim; *Abubakar Isa; & **Mercy Osato Omoifo-Irefo

*Science laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria. **Industrial Safety and Environmental Department, Petroleum Training Institute Effurun, Delta State Nigeria



There have been factors mitigating the success of sustainable solid waste management in Nigeria, these includes poverty, population density, industrial growth etc. Governments at Federal, States and Local level enact environmental laws for environmental protection, but enforcement of such laws is a challenge especially in Nigeria. Performance at State level is not commendable as a result of political, social and economic factors. This research aimed at evaluating the problems of Solid Waste Management in Jimeta-Yola Nigeria and way forward. The research findings has recommend, the statutory responsibility of the organization has clearly spelled their duty of collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste in an environmental friendly manner. Among the main challenges discovered, lack of regular release of funds for the purchase and maintenance of waste collection facilities, population outburst in 2014 increased the generation of approximately 2,041 daily tons of municipal solid waste in the city. This problem was caused by insurgency in the north-eastern Nigeria. Hence the aforementioned upsurge has seriously led to break down of waste evacuation and transportation vehicles by overstretching their activity. The organisation has 9 vehicles, presently only two are functional. It is therefore recommended to have a sustainable solid waste management in Adamawa state it requires public-private partnership in providing health, safety, and environmental training on how to turn solid waste into resource, as a panacea toward boosting the local economy while keeping the streets clean.

Keywords: Mitigation, Population density, Solid waste management, Population outburst, environmental protection




Additive Manufacturing Technology, a Strategy for Transformation of Nigerian Manufacturing Sector


SO Adekunle; A. M Alhassan; M. U Disina; & S. A Balogun

Mechanical Engineering Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This paper aims to examine additive manufacturing strategy for the transformation of the Nigerian manufacturing sector as a significant contributor to the gross domestic product as obtainable in advanced world economies. State of manufacturing in Nigeria, Challenges confronting the manufacturing sector, applications of additive manufacturing, benefits and challenges of additive manufacturing were all presented and analyzed.  It was discovered that for the manufacturing sector to make significant contributions to the country’s GDP additive manufacturing deployment is imperative. To address the challenges of additive manufacturing deployment, recommendations such as strengthening government-industry-academic collaborations, increased public and private additive manufacturing investments, establishment of additive manufacturing institutes were made.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Additive, Technology, 3D printing, Manufacturing



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