African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 27 No. 2


VOL. 27 NO. 2 DECEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2910-1083



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Sustainable Design for Affordable Housing Delivery in Nigeria


Emmanuel Ajibola Orimoloye

Department of Architecture, Faculy of Environmental Design and Management, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria



 Nigeria has witnessed tremendous increase in the rate of urbanization in the last two decides (Ajanlekoko 2001). In the early fifties, it was to be put to be fifty six cities in the country and about 10.6% of the population lived in these cities where as today with a population of about 200 million, not less than 30% live in cities. This has placed a great burden on the Nigeria cities as the number of houses provided are not adequate to meet this growing population, as a result many are living in slums and substandard houses. This paper, focus on the need for sustainable design for affordable housing delivery for the masses considering the ease of constructions, maintenance, aesthetics and integration to city centers, environmental factors and the compact nature of the design to avoid waster of space and integration with the environment. Demarcation of apartment boundaries for each occupant, as well as ownership responsibilities and demand to be clearly defined through designs are the objectives of the paper to ensure sustainable development after execution process of the design proposals.

Keywords: Sustainable, Design, Affordable, Housing, Delivery.




Constraints of Architecture to Environmental Elements in Land Legislation in Nigeria for Sustainable Development


Garba Umar

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State



This Study examine the Constraints of Architecture to Environmental Elements In Land Legislation In Nigeria For Sustainable Development. Data for the study were sounded from both the primary and secondary sources of data. In Nigeria, Land Use problems that result into land pollution and are accorded highest priority range from the many causes of deforestation, soil erosion and dumping or disposal of both industrial and domestic wastes that are hazardous or harmful and consequently render land unproductive or degrading and unsustainable. In Nigeria, Land Use problems that result into land pollution and are accorded highest priority range from the many causes of deforestation, soil erosion and dumping or disposal of both industrial and domestic wastes that are hazardous or harmful and consequently render land unproductive or degrading and unsustainable. An important resource on land which has been grossly abused and unsustainably used is our forests.  Forests provide human beings with a wealth of benefits including contribution of about 19% of the energy supply of lower income countries through fuelwood resource, provision of resource base for agriculture, tourism, recreation, religion, culture, music, etc. Despite these functions/benefits our forests have been degraded through unsustainable  logging, shifting agricultural practices, fuelwood gathering bush burning, overgrazing of land, Finally, there is the need for proper management of industrial waste which arises to a lesser extent from a number of advantages which result from such management, but mainly from several harmful effects which ill-managed industrial and domestic wastes occasion.

Keywords: Constraint, Architecture, Environment, Legislation, Land




Tenants’ Willingness to Accept Green Leases in Multi-tenanted Office Buildings in Kaduna Metropolis


Abdulkareem Sule Obaito 1; Bala Ishiyaku2; & Nneoma Iroagnachi Violet3

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



The study aimed to evaluate the tenants’ willingness to accept green lease in multi-tenanted office buildings in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria, with a view to make green lease acceptable. The objective of the study is to identify the level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease in multi-tenanted office buildings in Kaduna metropolis. The study adopted the use of a quantitative approach and data were collected through a questionnaire survey from Tenants occupying the six office complex.. 250 structured questionnaires were distributed to the tenants and the study adopted a proportionate simple random sampling technique and SPSS software version 22 was used for data analysis. The study revealed that the high level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease in the study area were willingness to accept green lease in present property, willingness to rent a green leased multi-tenanted office building in different location and willingness to invite your colleagues to accept green leased property while the least level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease in the study area was willingness to recommend the green lease, willingness to take responsibilities for such items and level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease. The study concluded that willingness to accept green lease in present property, willingness to rent a green leased multi-tenanted office building in a different location and willingness to educate colleagues to accept green lease property and they were found to be the high level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease while willingness to recommend the green lease, willingness to take responsibilities for such items and level of tenants’ willingness to accept green lease were lower. The study recommended that the two parties should consider high operating costs and short term business relationships in lease conditions. This will lead to a sustainable relationship between the two parties.

Keywords: Green Lease, Willingness to Accept, Tenants, Multi-tenanted Office, Guilding




Sustainability of Hazardous Material Awareness


Dr. Otuawe Moro

Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State



Waste discharges from oil and gas operations which still contain residual hydrocarbons, can cause retardation of vegetable growth for a period and, in extreme cases, the destruction of vegetation, rendering the soil unfit for cultivation. Oil and gas operations especially waste discharges, can affect the fish population, and their food sources and cause damage to their larvae’s ability to reproduce, which can be immediate, long-term, or possibly cumulative harm to fish stocks. Besides fish mortality, oil and gas operations can also cause diverse chronic effects resulting in a major decline in overall stocks, according to studies carried out in many parts of the world. The desktop-technology assessment method was adopted to navigate the timely response rate to hazardous material incidences. This paper establishes findings using credible secondary data sources and postulates the most sustainable awareness option for engaging rural dwellers on harmful substances that can impact their livelihood.

Keywords: Sustainability, Material Awareness, Hazardous Waste, Risk, Environmental Assessment.




An Evaluation of the Impact of Site Management on the Success of Construction Project and its Role in Private Housing Development in Abuja-FCT


*Prof. Yayok P. K (PhD); **Godwin A. Agi; & ***Aliyu Mohammad

*Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja; **Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Abuja (FCT); ***Federal Road Maintenance Agency (FERMA) Abuja.



The construction industry, site management should be seen as a great weapon for canvassing site performance. The general apathy with which site management has been seen and approached makes the practice ineffective and inefficient in the performance of projects. This research sought to assess the impact of proper site management, to the completion, delivery and success of a project in Abuja. The study utilized a survey research design and the target population was made up of professionals in the built environment, amongst others, including; civil engineers, building engineers, architects, quantity surveyors, M & E, project managers, estate surveyors, and valuers, etc. The cluster sampling technique was used in selecting a population of 3,250 from five estates in Abuja, and in determining an appropriate sample size, the Taro Yamane (1967) method was employed to arrive at a sample size of 100. The survey achieved 100% responds rate from the respondent. The data analyses procedure adopted was both (Relative Importance Index (RII) and Pearson correlation techniques); statistical methods and the results were presented in form of statistical equation models, tables, charts and graphs in a simple and comprehensive manner. The researcher discovered that the introduction of sound site management principles like planning for the projects’ site management, engagement of needed professionals, and proper funding of the system; the incorporation of new technologies; the principle of neighbourliness and neighbourhood security; motivation of workers; and working as a “TEAM” help the other site management efforts. Poor site management can be mitigated or prevented by improving pre-project planning and successful project management, as this is one of the most critical success factors in the achievement of the construction project. The researcher concluded that poor planning and management of construction projects can have some adverse effects on project timelines and completion. But a lack of giving attention to good site management practices has hampered the performance of many projects. However, improved leadership skills, technical knowledge, and the exploration and use of new methodologies as well as standard tools on construction projects are the recommended best site management practices that lead to better project performance achievement.

Keywords: Site, Site-Management, Construction projects, private housing, development.




Existential Risk Prediction Models for Diabetes Mellitus


Moko, Anasuodei; and Amannah, Constance Izuchukwu

Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



This paper reviewed, and analysed risk prediction models for variants of diabetes mellitus. The descriptive approach method was explored. It clearly described the various deep learning and machine learning risk prediction models. For diabetes mellitus classification and forecasting problems, Deep Neural Network Model algorithms have the highest score in terms of accuracy. The Deep Learning models outweighed machine learning models in terms of performance. There’s also the issue of other algorithms’ precision. It is recommended that when conducting a classification and risk prediction survey, researchers should consider using the algorithms that explicitly describe performance while paying close attention to their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their potential outcomes. It is possible to combine deep learning techniques and these algorithms to create ensemble models, which will improve prediction performance.

Keywords: Diabetes, Type 1, Type 2, Gestational, Deep Neural Network, Machine Learning




Sports as a Veritable Tools for Leadership Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum


*Nwabuwe, Herientta Ifeanyichukwu; & **Nwabuwe, Sunday Nathaniel

*Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, University of Delta, Agbor. **Faculty of Education, Hmuan Kinetics and Sports Science, University of Delta, Agbor.



Understanding of leadership within sports context has significantly developed for a long time and has moved from the application of global leadership models to the development and implementation specific models and approaches. Both sports and team activities provide opportunities to the childhood sports to come up with strategies of winning. Leaders always have specific goal in mind. They come up with policies that will ensure that the work being done is effective and efficient. This paper looks at the role of sports as far as the veritable tools  for good leadership skill in gained from Childhood education in Nigeria in context. There is a detailed introduction of the concept of sports and how it significantly plays a role in developing leadership skills. It went on to have an overview of a series of processes which a leader in sport has to design and realized. The necessity of leadership presence (guidance) in sport can be found in the dynamic polyvalent and multidisciplinary development of contemporary human society, with the added note that management is more closely related to efficiency, and leadership with effectiveness and change, when introduced into the  childhood education curriculum. And some recommendation were also looked into.

Keywords: Sports, Tools, Leadership, Early Childhood Education Curriculum




Towards Sustainable Productivity of Nigerian Workers: Information as a Critical Resource


Joseph Adeniyi Kolawole and Dolapo Peter Olagoke

University Library, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria



The paper reviews relevant literature and examines the process of sustainability and productivity of Nigerian workers.  It discusses the notion of sustainability in relationship with the idea of information society.  While it notes that a careful management of information as a critical resource is essential in meeting a major demand created by accelerated productivity of workers in urbanization, industrialization and sustainable development.  It shows the problems faced by the workers. It discusses the legal protection of information and security issues of computer data and electronic information system.  Corporate environmental concerns have been the focus and the regulatory compliance for sustainable productivity of Nigerian workers. A worker needs to seek, access reliable and adequate information to improve his knowledge and to increase daily productivity. It was revealed that as workers are exposed to new information they tend to develop new concepts which enable them to acquire effective skill and knowledge transfer among themselves. Access to information enables communication to flow easily within the organization.

Keywords: information, sustainable productivity, workers, resource, communication




Framework on Building Assets Maintenance


Bldr. Dr. Olowoake, Mohammed Adelaja; & Bldr. Otufowora, Oluwole Adelaja

Department of Building Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria



Majority of maintenance projects are being hapharzardly implemented due to lack of an analytical and certified process to follow in order to achieve a guaranteed outcome. However, with a developed and tested framework, there will be guaranteed outcome for Maintenance firms henceforth. The study evaluated and assessed  Organisations’  works and services departments efficiency and effectiveness in relation to adoption and adaptation of appropriate procurement strategies, maintenance methods, maintenance budgets, post occupancy evaluation, quality control, sustainable programme, influence of culture, and project performance review. The research adopted and used a qualitative research strategy that made use of a series of semi-structured interviews with the Directors of works and services departments sampled  in Nigeria.   Study revealed that, a general paucity of funds and absence of an analytical and certified framework allow for poor maintenance of built environments  across both the federal, state, local governments, and some non-governmental organisations buildings in Nigeria. The study further reveals that, lack of use of the appropriate procurement strategy; maintenance method and budget; over reliance on letters of complaints from the assets users;  absence of a quality control unit within works and services department; and lack of sustainable programme for the entire built environment have effects on the effective and efficient maintenance of the built environments in Nigeria.  The following recommendations are made to assist key decision makers to develop enduring solutions to such maintain-ability  challenges of built environment  that is suppose to  give comfort to the users and value for money in Nigeria. The developed framework for effective assets maintenance management is for use in Nigeria specifically. It can be adopted and adapted by other Organisation works and services departments across the globe for the following advantages: Simplicity in design, cost-effective, easily adaptable, and generic in nature.

Keywords:  Assets, budget, environment, maintenance, procurement, quality, and sustainable.




Digital Technology in Cross Border Market Entry Strategy: The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Nigeria


*Bagudu, Ahmad Ibrahim; & **Yugudu, Mohammed Sanusi

*Office Technology and Management (OTM) Department, The Polytechnic Bali, P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State. *Department of General Studies, Taraba State College of Education Zing



The digital technology has a vital role in expediting business by going paperless for all steps of the cross-border market entry process for sustainable development especially in those developing countries, to participate easily in global market. The paper covers “The Digital Technology in Cross-Border Market Entry Strategy: The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Nigeria”. It intends to makes some enquiry, depict evidence and experience in facilitating business using digital solutions particularly on benefits drive by enterprises in Nigeria. However, the paper employed different channels of market entry strategies as critical elements for the successful running of both domestic and foreign operation in-respect to cut costs, streamline supply chains and an easy way for market products and services worldwide. It also discussed in a broad perspective the various effects of information and communication technologies (ICT) on cross-border business of a firm’s with emphases on adaptation or standardization of product as a key to sustainable development. Finally, the paper draws conclusion and recommendations among others that stakeholders and government should create enabling environment for the use of various online platforms in market entry strategies.

Keywords: Digital, Technology, Cross-Border, Market Entry and Sustainable Development




Students’ Perception towards Choice of Career in Business Education for Nation Building


Gbolagade Sarah Omobola

Department of Business Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational and Technical Programmes), Oyo State College Of Education, Lanlate



This research critically examined the factors that determine students’ perception towards choice of career in business education for nation building.  Based on this, specific objective, one research question was raised and three corresponding null hypotheses were formulated.  A survey research design was adopted for the study.  A four-point sealed questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. A sample of 286 undergraduate students of business education from the three Federal Universities in South-west, Nigeria participated in the research.  The instrument was validated and reliability co-efficient obtained using Cronbach alpha method was 0.66.  The research found that there are factors that influence students’ perception towards choice of career in business education for nation building.  Consequently, the author drew a logical conclusion and it was recommended among others, that federal government should endeavor to formulate policies and implement advocacy programmes in order to enhance students’ perception towards the choice of career in business education for nation building.

Keywords: Business education, Career choice, Students’ perceptions.




Fire Safety: An Indispensible Design Consideration in Skyscrappers Building Construction


Agbodike Chineson Chigozie

Department of Architecture, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.



Buildings need to be designed to offer an acceptable level of fire safety and minimise the risks from heat and smoke. the primary objective is to reduce to within acceptable limits the potential for death or injury to the occupants of a building and others who may become involved such as the fire and rescue service, as well as to protect contents and ensure that as much as possible of a building, that it can continue to function after a fire and that it can be repaired. However, the design and layout of a building, in conjunction with the materials used and style of construction, play a key role in preventing the spread of flames and smoke and in allowing the safe evacuation of people from the premises in the event of a fire. over the years, the high rise buildings, being a unique type of building have garnered significant attention with respect to fire safety, throughout the world. The multiple floors present in the high rise buildings makes great number of persons to travel long vertical distances by the stair, elevators, during an evacuation. In the course of this, the Federal, State, bodies responsible for ensuring that codes are abided with, in the erection of skyscrapers, the owners of such buildings, and even residents within and around adjoining buildings to the skyscrapers are all affected by high rise building’s safety. It is to this effect that the author had chosen to highlight the indispensable nature of fire safety as a design consideration in the construction of skyscrapers. The brief introduction talks about the design and construction of the skyscraper, highlight of top design and build considerations in skyscrapers construction of which fire safety is inclusive, definition of keywords as fire, safety, causes of fire outbreak in buildings, general approach to fire safety, fire safety strategies, etc. From the aforementioned above, it has become imperative to ensure adequate fire safety in our skyscrapers building design construction hence this report.

Keywords: Fire, Safety, Indispensable, Design, Skyscrapers, Building Construction.




Model Development for the Prediction of Rainfall in Minna, Niger State Nigeria Using Atmospheric Parameters in Machine Learning Techniques


Jiya, Samuel Babanma1   Yisa, Dorcas N2 Iornongo Terseer3

1 and 2Department of Geography Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria 3Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



Rainfall prediction remains a serious concern and has attracted governments, industries, risk management entities, and the scientific communities. This study is to develop a model for the prediction of rainfall in Minna, Niger State Nigeria. Four-year atmospheric data consisting of rainfall, minimum temperature, maximum temperature and relative humidity spanning from 2018 to 2021 was acquired from the Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education Minna, Niger State. Three machine learning models were used for the rainfall prediction. There are linear regression, decision tree and random forest. The idea is to experiment with the three models and select the best prediction model for the data. The data was split into two, the training set and the testing set at a ratio of 80:20. The results show that the random forest model out-performed the other models with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 1.60 mm and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.05 mm. This is followed by the decision tree model with MAE of 2.48 mm and RMSE of 6.04 mm and the worst performing model is the linear regression with a MAE of 4.24mm and a RMSE of 6.90 mm. Hence random Forest was selected and used to formulate a computer-based rainfall prediction Application (App) using python tool. The App’s user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides easy access to rainfall prediction especially for less technical users. It is recommended that accurate data be incorporated for a better rainfall prediction.

Keywords: Prediction, Machine language, model development, weather parameters




Recycle of Waste Water Sachet to Produce Plastic Interlocking in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria


Ahmed Tijani Gubio1; Hassan Sani Biu1; Gambo Zubairu1; & Zara Kyari Kolo1

Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. Borno State.



This paper reports the relevance, impact and sustainability of an impermeable interlocking pavement system using recycled plastics and production of simple sand polymer. The benefit of such pavement system were identified in areas of storm water management and meeting a number of environmental needs as well as increased structural performance, productivity and sustainability. A mix ratio of 1:1.3 with 56.7% polythene and 43.3% sand by weight was found to attain an average compressive strength of 17.03 N/mm2 and water absorption requirements for the impermeable interlocking pavement system. The ease of preparation, mix homogeneity and low density of polythene enhance the technical properties of conventional pavement blocks. The low density polythene (LDPE) of size 1-5mm made it ideal for use in the sand bedding course. A simple production method was used to fabricate pavement blocks incorporating recycled plastics for application in green building.

Keywords: Interlocking pavement, recycled plastics, polythene, compressive strength, mix ratio.




Smart Texture towards Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Building


Mabadeje Joshua A.; Abubakar Aliyu Munkaila; Jamilu Musa Maleka; & Banji, S. A.

Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria



The Paris Agreement, a climate change treaty signed by 196 countries in 2015, has developed policies and frameworks to guide all signatories towards environmental sustainability which has been a global focus. The landmark agreement is an ambitious socioeconomic transformation initiative by member nations to lower GHG emissions by 30% before 2030. The treaty received a significant boost in January 2021, after the United States rejoined following the election of President Joe Biden. As the world seeks to achieve environmental sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there have been relentless efforts by governments to embrace green building technology. Also, it is worth noting that the adoption of smart building technologies can be a major step towards energy saving and overall reduction of GHG emissions in line with the recommendations of the Paris Agreement. Adoption of smart tecture design will yield highly efficient, comfortable, safe, and sustainable buildings that consume less energy and self reliance building for the present and the future.

Keywords: Building, Environmental, Smart Tecture, and Sustainability




Independent National Electoral Commission as a Regulatory Framework for Conducting Elections in Nigeria: An Overview


Sulaiman Shehu Esq.

Public Administration Department, School of Business Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Nigeria’s Independent National Electoral Commission (hereinafter referred to as INEC) is established by the Constitution  and the Electoral Act  as an independent body that uses its staff, the Police, (and other security agencies) and Courts in enforcing and meeting its statutory standards. It perfectly fits into both the public interest theory of regulation and the public enforcement theory.  INEC has three major functions:  this essay, however, is narrowed to only one of its functions which is conducting free, fair, and credible elections in Nigeria.  The essay explores briefly the history of elections in Nigeria;  The relevance of the public interest theory of regulation to the chosen regulatory framework; the origin of its power; the necessity of regulating elections; the principle of command and control (as it applies to INEC); its standards and public enforcement theory; the Cost-Benefit Analysis; the Regulatory Impact Assessment; and finally, some flaws are observed and solutions proffered.

Keywords: Nigeria, INEC, Regulation, Elections, Enforcement, Constitution, Court, Public, Theory




Design and Fabrication of an Optimized Anaerobic Digestion System


*Yakub Baba Ahmad; & **Sanusi Usman Mohammed

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, PMB 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Agric. & Bio- Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria



This paper presents the design and testing of an optimized anaerobic digestion system by focusing on the thermal, mechanical and chemical aspects of the anaerobic digestion process parameters such as temperature, organic loading rates, air tightness and mixing. Eleven pilot batch biogas digesters were fabricated based on an already existing design and using locally available construction materials. Cow dung and poultry droppings were used as feed materials. The digesters were tested and ran for twelve months. Pressure buildup in the digesters started 24 hours after the initial loading, while combustible gas production was noticed after 72 hours. Tests results showed that the highest biogas yields were produced by poultry ratios 5, 6 and 7. A 7.1°C monthly average increase in temperature was observed during the period of study. The gas produced was found to be burning cleanly with a blue flame and no smoke. The optimum cow dung’ poultry droppings ratio for better anaerobic digestion performance was obtained and found to fall between 1.4 and 1.6 g VS/L under near thermophilic conditions. Complete digestion of the feed was accomplished within 14 days of hydraulic retention time improved biogas generation would greatly influence sustainable development, waste management and economic development in affected communities.

Keywords: anaerobic, digestion, biogas yield, process optimization, temperature, mixing, organic loading rate




Performance Evaluation of Mechanized Sieve Machine for Dry Garri Processing in Nigeria


Atumah, E. V.; & AKeni, O. C.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.



This paper focused on the Design and Fabrication of Mechanized Sieve for dry Garri Processing with aims of checking and applying appropriate technology used for Garri processing activities in Nigeria. The design of this system was achieved by synthesizing the manual (traditional) process of sieving, using a combination of mechanisms to replace the manual actions. The machine may be applied to sieving other granular items by using appropriate meshes which this design facilitates. Furthermore, this research paper work was based on an improvement in designing and fabrication of a functional mechanized sieve machine with locally available material that is low cost, higher through put, better efficient, easy to operate, easy to maintain and affordable to both small and medium scale garri sieving processing. Work was also done to ascertain the physical characterization of harvesting/sorting of cassava tubers, peeling of the tubers, grafting, fermentation, pressing, sieving/shifting, dehydrating/shifting, sieving-after dehydration, packing and finally storing of the sieve processing Garri in a cool place. The fabrication of the sieve machine considered proper bearing selection based on bearing calculation in solid-works was done and this in turn was seen to have improved the bearing that holds the sieving mechanism along with cost savings in maintenance by following simple lubrication and corrosion control procedures. The results obtained during the sieving machine indicated that the Garri sieving machine efficiency and the clean sieve Garri recovery were 97.81% and 95.04% respectively, the feed rate of the sieve machine ranges between 341.4Kg/h and 350.02Kg/h, the output capacity ranges between 219.57Kgh and 269.89Kg/h while the operating capacity is 70.54g/s, therefore the sieving machine is recommended for small and medium scale processing industries.

Keywords: Design and Fabrication, Cassava tuber, sieve, Performance evaluation, output capacity.




Automated Visual Inspection to Detect Cracks in Bottles Using Neural Network


O.S. Yekini

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Allover Central Polytechnic, Ota, Ogun State Nigeria.



Advances in computer technology have produced a surge of interest in image analysis during the last decade. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to solving the problem of recognition and characterization of object found in an image. Until the 70’s the use of optical techniques was predominant. Since the beginning of the 80’s due to the advances in the microelectronics field and the developments of parallel architecture, digital techniques have been applied. The issue of quality control is an important aspect of today’s highly competitive industry. One important way to improve the quality of the end product is to inspect the output of each manufacturing process. However, manual inspection of end product slows down the entire process as it becomes costly, time consuming and also may impact the effectiveness of human labour due to the hazardous atmosphere of industry. Data set for minor and major cracks obtained were used to train neural network classifiers using a Back propagation algorithm. A performance goal of 95% is reached after training. A Back propagation algorithm is a reliable classifier in machine vision.

Keywords: Recognition, Microelectronics, Back propagation, Neural network, Classifier




Physical Analysis of Surface Water Using Water Treatment Model (A Case Study of Lagos Bridge Maiduguri, Borno State)


Ahmed Tijani Gubio; Zara Kyari Kolo; Gambo Zubairu; & Hassan Sani Biu

Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. Borno State.



Surface water is the second most common source of drinking water on the planet after ground water. It is a source of water that can easily be contaminated by physical, chemical and biological parameters. These parameters have to be removed or controlled to a permissible limit set for drinking water quality standards. This study looks at the effect of the performance of a water treatment plant model. A selected surface water sample from the Lagos Bridge was passed through seven (7) stage of the treatment model which includes screening, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection and collection. Five physical parameters which includes colour, turbidity, pH, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids of the sample water was tested for before and after treatment. The treated water sample was clear of colour and turbidity after treatment though the pH, EC and TDS value increased after treatment, dosage of both alum (coagulant) and chlorine (disinfectant) was assumed for the study.

Keywords: screening unit, coagulation unit, flocculation unit, sedimentation unit, filtration unit, disinfection unit and collection unit.



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