African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 23 No. 6


VOL. 23 NO. 6 DECEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2110 – 2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Social Media as a Tool for Improving the Attitude and Intention of Married Civil Servants’ Towards Adopting In-Vitro Fertilization Messages in Lagos State


Adetola Ramotalai Adenusi; & Helen Odunola Adekoya, PhD

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria



Infertility affects 48 million couples and 186 million individuals globally, caused by numerous factors in both genders. The study investigated social media as a tool for improving the attitude and intention of married civil servants’ towards adopting in-vitro fertilization messages in Lagos State. The investigation was hinged upon the tenets of both theory of planned behavior and uses of gratification theories.  The study found that 14.1% of participants access IVF messages from Facebook compared to YouTube (8%) and Instagram (9.7%). Also, the research revealed a significant difference in the attitude and intention of married civil servants towards adopting IVF messages by demographic factors. Conclusively, the study recommends that in-vitro fertilization messages should be intensified on these selected platforms such that these messages are created in various dialect to aid understanding of its users who are in need of these services.

Keywords: Social Media, In-Vitro Fertilization, Married Civil Servants, Attitude, Intention




The Transfer of Property and its Significance in Nigeria: Interrogating Key Rules of the Sale of Goods Act Relating to the Rights of the Parties in the Contract


Eric Omo Enakireru, PhD.

Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State.



This study examines the transfer of property and the law regulating the values for ascertaining intention before a property in the goods are allowed to pass and it’s significant in the contract of sale. This is done by stating the values as provided by the Sale of Goods Act 1979. The property in the goods is said to be transferred from the seller to the buyer when the latter acquires the proprietary rights over the goods and the obligations linked thereto. Property in Goods which means the ownership of goods is different from possession of goods which means the physical custody or control of the goods. The study critically appraises various rules of the transfer of the property from the seller to the buyer as the essence of a contract of sale. The moment when the property in the goods passes from the seller to the buyer is Signiant due the following reasons: ownership, transfer of risk, action against a third party or parties, suit for the price and insolvency. To strengthen the Sale of Goods Act for better performance particularly as it relates to the rights of the parties to a sale of goods contract, the study recommends that a number of amendments need to be carried out. Section 8 of the Act should be amended to avoid appearances of inchoate contracts where the price is not fixed on the contract of sale. This can be done by or through legislations and not living same to implied judicial pronouncement. The provision of section 39, subsection 1 and 2 are duplication and so unnecessary in the practical sense of contemporary global business transaction and provision section 43 (1) of the Act should be amended to proscribe what constitutes a waiver rather than abandon it to the whims and caprices of the judicial interpretations

Keywords: Transfer, Property, Significance, Interrogating, Sale of Goods, Contract.




An Appraisal of the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse in Gwagwalada and its Implication on National Security and Development in Nigeria


Sarka S.W., PhD.

Department of Public Administration, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja.



The study attempts to unravel the causes, consequences and possible remedies to child abuse in primary schools in Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. A sample of 175 Teachers was drawn from the public primary schools in the area council and questionnaires were administered to them as respondents. The data collected was analysed with the aid of SPSS version 23 software, and the mean percentage test, which was adopted in the study’s analysis, indicated that excessive battering of a child by parents/teacher/guidance; broken homes, child hawking before and after school and unconducive learning environment are all causes of child abuse. Also, it was found that child abuse negatively affects child’s school performance and development; such abused children are vulnerable to early pregnancy, crimes and other vices. Ill treatment of children as well causes permanent and lifelong trauma, thereby making children develop low cognition to school subjects. Counseling and the preaching of good morals by religious leaders to the children, parents and guardians were part of the recommendations made in this study. Also, melting out punishment in form of fine on erring parents/guidance especially those forcing their children to hawk, and prevention from bad peer influence will help reduce to the barest minimum the incidence of child abuse in the society.

Keywords: Child, Child Abuse, Causes, Consequences, Security and Development.




Feminist Issues in Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Roses and Bullets


Grace Motunrayo Ajala

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.



African Female writers have investigated the misperception and misconception of female characters in the Nigerian literary space. Previous studies have investigated female characters from psychoanalysis, stylistic, pragmatic, and western feminist points of view with insufficient scholarly attention paid to the feminist issues in Adimora Ezeigbo’s writing. This study, therefore, investigates feminist issues in Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Roses and Bullets with a view to finding how the writings of the female writers show areas of convergence and divergence in the presentations of the tenets of feminism. African feminism is adopted as theoretical framework because it reflects the identities, ideologies, experiences, and beliefs of African women in a male dominated African society. The text is purposively selected because it helps to achieve specific objectives of this paper. The study revealed that marriage, motherhood, sexual harassment and gender violence, men’s infidelity and emotional instability and communal life and mother-in-law interference, characterise the discourse of female African writings. The study concludes that African female writers, through their writings, solicit social peace and tranquility among their family members and the larger society and construe women as an indispensable weapon to social economic and political developments.

Keywords: Feminist, Issues, Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s, Roses, Bullets.




Religion and Politics: A Philosophycal Analysis


Amodu, Salisu Ameh; & Stephen, Emmanuel

Department of Philosophy, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria.



The development of social policy related to the central idea of religion politise has received increasing focus in recent years, yet psychology continues to play a relatively minor role in this important domain. In the current paper, one will use an analytic method to relate the religion’s influences on politics as a meaningful structure in a societal system on individual person, community, and societal well-being which are delineated in connection that exist between religion and politics. The challenges facing religion and its contributing to public policy and development These challenges notwithstanding, a number of different pathways in the domains of applied research, community practice, and policy development are delineated through which this research  can help to maximize positive the investigation of the outcome of the exiting bound in the religion and politics in the human  policy making arena.

Keywords: Social, Religion, Politics, Philosophycal, Analysis




Gender Violence as Masculine Strategy in Buchi Emecheta’s the Joys of Motherhoood


Hamisu Shehu Abubakar; & Abubakar Salihu

Department of English and Literary Studies, Bauchi State University, Gadau



Men studies deal with the study of boys’ and men’s behaviours. It is a field that has been designed to explore and explain why men engage in behaviours that are harmful to women and themselves. The paper seeks to investigate the various strategies that male characters use when they feel their masculinity is threatened as presented in The Joys of Mothered (1979) by Emecheta. The paper employs qualitative research methodology with textual analysis as the principal mode of data collection, description and interpretation. The study assesses the role of the unconscious and human relationships in the manifested behaviours of the male characters through the lens of psychoanalysis. Some of the strategies discovered include: violence, alcoholism, sexual domination, compensation, divorce, and polygyny. Also, marginalized male characters attempt to compensate for their subordinated status by resisting hegemonic manhood and enacting alternative forms of masculinity.

Keywords: Masculinity, Unconscious, Domination, Compensation, and Hegemony




New Security Challenges and Changes in Battle Space


*Yakubu, Umar; **Ochube, Agaba Godwin

*Center for Fiscal Transparency and Integrity Watch. **Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria



This paper gives details of the nature, character and manifestations of emerging security threats in contemporary Nigerian State. The internal security threats confronting the Nigerian State are largely as a result of the failure of the State to perform its fundamental and legitimate role to the citizens. Hence, development with concentrations of growth, progress and provision of privileges to small geographical, political and social enclaves may also contribute to creating security threats from the deprived segment of the population not benefitting but excluded from the system and its privileges. The paper reveals the lessons of previous wars and the decisive effect of technology on the modern battlefields which have made force modernization a necessity in many armies.  Armies in the past were trained towards fighting conventional warfare to conform to international norms and conventions. However, with the emergence of insurgency and technological advancements, threats to national security became multi-dimensional requiring new approaches to warfare. The paper recommends among others the need to understand battle space and its imperatives, counter terrorism and counter insurgency, more in-depth situational awareness of the battle space especially with the current advancement in information, communication and the advent of cyber space as another dimension exploited for warfare. Also, considering the diverse security challenges of our times, stronger civil-military relations would not only be mutually beneficial, but would also add to the regional and global security.

Keywords: Security, Battle Space, Asymmetric Warfare, Technology, Westphalia.




Women Participation in Elective and Appointive Political Positions And Influence on younger women’s political aspiration among female undergraduates in Nigeria


1Banjo, Oluwafikayomi Opeyemi (PhD), 2Filade, Bankole Adeyemi, 3Nwagburuka, Adekemi Esther, 4Omotosho Tominiyi, 5Anwanane, Bidemi Bassey (PhD)

1Department of Social Work, Veronica Adeleke School of Social Sciences, 2&3Department of Education, School of Education and Humanities. 4&5 Student Support Centre, Babcock University, Illisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.



The male gender has dominated politics for a very long time in Nigeria and most part of the world while few women had actually come out to contest in elections and be appointed to some elective positions. This research work therefore, investigated the participation of women in elective and appointive positions and the influence it has on the political aspiration of female undergraduates in Nigeria. 300 female undergraduate students were used as sample. A purposive sampling technique was used to select two universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. Also, only female undergraduates’ students were purposefully selected to participate in the study. A self-structured questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics involving frequency count, simple percentage, mean and standard deviation as well as inferential statistics involving t-test were used to analyse the data. Three hypothesis were raised and tested at 0.05 level of significance, all the null hypothesis were rejected. Findings revealed that, there was significant difference in female political appointments and their cultural beliefs having a significant level less than 0.05 (P<0.05). The second hypothesis revealed that a P-value less than 0.05 (P<0.05) this implies that there is a significant difference in the aspiration of younger women participation in politics and previous performance of women in government. The last hypothesis showed that there is a significant difference in women economic status and their participation in politics. This was statistically confirmed as the p-value is less than 0.05 (P<0.05). Recommendations are made in line with the findings of the work include: The Beijing declaration of 2005 which stipulated allocation of 30% of elective positions to women should as a matter of urgency be implemented. Also, women in elective and appointive positions should serve as role models, mentors and coaches for other women who intend to seek political positions.

Keywords:  Women, Women Participation, Political Positions, Political Aspiration, Female, Undergraduates




Nigeria-China Swapization and the Sinking Nigerian Currency


*Obiah Mmadubuike Emmanuel; & **Chima Chukwuka Christian Ph.D

*Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus) **Department of Business Administration and Management, University of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Umuagwo, Imo State, Nigeria



 The paper examined the Nigeria-China swapization and the sinking Nigerian currency. The paper adopted qualitative research approach, with descriptive research design and content analysis. The findings revealed the effects of swapization to Nigerian sinking currency such as: liquidity, foreign reserve management, currency fluctuation, foreign exchange stability, alternative currency for super-sovereign reserve. The paper therefore, concluded that, swapization cannot guarantee the above mentioned effects on Nigeria, neither can it rescue the currency from free fall, at least for now, since China is not the only country Nigeria is trading with and dollar still remains the super-sovereign currency. The only effective solution to stabilize the sinking Naira is adequate diversification of the economy to encourage industrialization, which can enhance exportation rather than continues importation and encouragement of Chinese products through swapization. The paper recommended that there should be road map to develop Nigerian industrial sector with the provision of critical infrastructures and create enabling environment which guarantees ease of doing business, etc. Further studies can be empirically carried out to consider the correlation between the two variables swapization and sinking currency. The variable of swapization can be proxied on liquidity, foreign reserve management, currency fluctuation etc, while the sinking currency can be proxied on exchange rate.

Keywords: Swapization, Sinking Currency, Interest Rate Swap, Currency Swap




The Context of Poverty in Borno State and it’s Challenges to Socio-Development


Muhammad El-Hamees Adam; and Musa Baba Abubakar

Department of General Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



 Poverty is a worldwide phenomenon and has attracted much attention in recent years. People perceived poverty as a threat to the existence of human kind, unequal distribution of global wealth has exacerbated the problem of poverty in the developing countries. It is estimated that one third of the world population live in chronic poverty. Poverty has become so endemic that the great majority of the citizens have lost hope and faith and have started considering their conditions as a given, unchangeable act of providence since the more they individually struggle to redeem themselves from it, the more they plunge deeper into its abyss. Nigerian citizens are daily faced with many paradoxes and contradictions. The most traumatizing and obvious of these contradictions is their abject and squalor amidst to the tremendous amount of wealth they witness been displayed by members of the power elite. The objective of this paper is to examine the challenge of poverty in Northeastern Nigeria Particularly Borno State and attempt to proper solution to the lingering crises. Both primary and secondary data constitute the main sources for the study.

Keywords: Poverty, challenges of poverty, North-Eastern Nigeria, Borno State, Poor Leadership.




Farmers-Herdsmen Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications for Peace and National Security


*Mohammed Danjuma Ado; **Jacob David Gofwan; & **Jonathan Ishaya

*GSE Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State. **Social Studies Department, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State.



 Conflicts between farmers and herdsmen have become a common feature of economic livelihood in Nigeria. In recent times, the country has witnessed series of violent clashes arising from the activities of the farmers and nomadic herdsmen, who move about on a daily basis with their cattle in search of water and green pastures. These conflicts, without doubt have become the most potent threat to Nigeria’s peace and national security. What makes the conflict very disturbing are, the frequency, the level of destruction and sheer brutality. The conflicts have grown, spread and intensified over the past decade and today pose a threat to national survival. Thousands of people have been killed, communities have been destroyed and so many farmers and herdsmen have lost their lives and property in an extended orgy of killings and destruction that is not only continuously destroying livelihoods but also affecting national cohesion Thus, this paper examines the causes of the incessant clashes between the farmers and herdsmen in Nigeria, and as well highlights its implications for peace and national security. Hence, the paper focuses on causes, effects and implications of farmers-herdsmen conflicts on Nigeria’s peace and national security and strategies to curb such conflicts. The paper went further to proffer some recommendations that if Nigerian government and stakeholders take will in no small measure address the menace.

Keywords: Farmers, Herdsmen, Conflict, Peace, National security.




Bank Reforms in Nigeria: It’s Impact on Bank Lending to the Manufacturing Sector


Ohiomah Simeon Suleman

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State.



 This study examines the impact of bank reforms on lending to the manufacturing sector in Nigeria from 1990 – 2017. The choice of the period was because it focuses strictly on the time of liberalization and consolidation of the banking sector. We employed the error correction technique to estimate the model of lending equation in order to suitably show the impact of the bank reform on bank lending to the manufacturing sector of the Nigerian economy. The results of the study revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between bank capital base and bank lending to the sector. Based on the findings of the study, the study recommends that, there is need for increase in bank capital base in the banking sector to enhanced allocation of credit to the private and public sectors to stimulate growth, and there should be proper channeling of resources to the real sectors of the economy.

Keywords: Reform, Bank lending, capital, Lending rate, Deposit, Manufacturing sector




Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Status Disclosure among Persons Living with HIV in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria


*Jamiu, Mahmood Suleiman; *Abdulkareem, Mansoor Olayinka; **Issah, Abolaji Yusuf; & ***Salihu Nurudeen Oganija

*School of Education and General Studies, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. **Computer Science Department, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. ***Guidance and Counselling Unit, Quality Assurance Section, Ilorin West I G E A, Kwara State Nigeria



 HIV status disclosure to ART remain issues of concern to health related professional, most especially counselling psychologists in the field of STI/HIV/AIDS as many of the Persons living with HIV hardly adhere to ART and some of them are experiencing psychological related issues which are impeding their HIV positive status disclosure. This informed the direction of this study to examine psychosocial factors as correlates of HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design of correlational type and structured questionnaires (stigmatization, social support, self-concept, depression, disclosure and adherence scale) were used to gather information. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted which involved the use of simple random sampling technique to select three (3) APIN/PEPFAR Clinics Ibadan metropolis and purposive sampling technique was used to select (150) Persons living with HIV from each of the selected clinics. The data collected were analysed using frequency count, Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple Regression Statistical Tool, and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that self-concept (b= 0.423; t = 4.324; p<0.05), stigmatization (b= -0.389; t = -3.762; p<0.05), depression (b= 0.531; t = 4.341; p<0.05) and social support (b= 0.618; t = 5.277; p<0.05) made significant independent contribution to HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV. The result also indicated thatpsychosocial factors (self-concept, depression, stigmatization and social support) had significant joint contribution to HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV (F(4,140)= 9.012; p<0.05).  The study concluded that psychosocial factors had significant relative and joint contribution to HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV. Therefore, it was recommended that counselling psychologists and health related professionals should take cognisance of self-concept, depression, stigmatization and social support in the development of any intervention to improve and help people living with HIV through disclosure.

Keywords: Psychosocial, Factors, HIV, Disclosure, Correlates and persons living with HIV




Innovative Thinking as a Tool for Leadership and Entrepreneurial Development in Nigeria


¹Okoh Vincent Chiedu  ²Dr Abu Zekeri  ³Oladoke Sunday Oladeji

¹Vice Chancellor Office UNIBEN, Benin City. ²’³Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Governance, College of Humanities, Management and Social Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria.



This paper discusses the Innovative thinking as a tool for leadership and entrepreneurial development in Nigeria. It also examines the effect of entrepreneurship in fostering economic growth and development. The methodology adopted was the narrative-textual case study (NTCS) method, which is preferred because of the absence of sequential data related to entrepreneurship and sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. However, interviews were also conducted. We found that creative and innovative thinking among Nigerian youth enhances entrepreneurial development and has continued to grow over the last decade- with the real GDP growth rate hovering around 7%. It was also found that entrepreneurship can enhance economic growth and development primarily by generating employment and foster the growth of micro, small and medium enterprises in Nigeria through innovative thinking. We recommend that there should be proper policy coordination, policy stability and policy implementation; reforms in the educational curriculum to prepare students for self-reliance; and fixing the power sector-Nigeria’s basic infrastructure. When we have flourishing micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), gainful employment will be created, wealth created will be distributed evenly and economy is developed in the long run.

Keywords: Innovative, Leadership, Entrepreneurial Development, Nigeria, Thinking.




Collective Bargaining and Settlement of Industrial Dispute in Nigeria Public Sector: A Vital Instrument for Organizational Peace


*Lawal, Moshood Kayode; **Ajibade, Qadri Tunde; & **Oluyemi, Oladele Taiwo

*Department of Local Government Studies, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki **Department of Public Administration, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki



 Conflict is part of human relations and it is a way of life that no one can avoid. It occurs since the time when a man discovers a certain level of independence. Since the civil war, labour management conflict has assumed an unprecedented proportion. A public policy is designed to deal with the conflict situations in employment and it has become more interventionist and revolutionary. Hence, collective bargaining is a source of solving the problems of employees in a work situation collectively. The paper adopts the use of the secondary method of data collection. The paper discusses the conceptual analysis of relevant keywords such as the historical perspective of collective bargaining, bargaining power, factors affecting collective bargaining and the conditions favourable for collective bargaining. It also deals with the nature and dimensions of industrial dispute, causes of industrial dispute and its settlement procedures in Nigeria. The paper concludes that regular use of collective bargaining in most public organizations can go a long way in averting negative effect on organizational productivity apart from the legal and institutional arrangement for the dispute settlement. Therefore, the paper recommends the use of collective bargaining because it is a flexible and dynamic as well as a continuous process that can establish regular and stable relationships between worker’s organizations and management.

Keywords: Industrial dispute, Collective bargaining, Peace, Public Sector, Nigeria.




Gradual Process Involved in Shari’ah (Islamic Law)


Sani Mu’azu and Babaye Muhammad



 The paper is an attempt to study how the shari’ah (Islamic law) in its initial stage followed a gradual process in its formation and the drivable benefits of the gradual process involved. it could be recalled that, it took about twenty three years time for the Qur’anic revelation to be completed. Therefore it is quite clear that the process of shari’a formation took the same time for it to be completed. there are so many wisdom of the Almighty Allah behind this long time of formation the shari’a law.

Keywords: Shari’a, Islamic, Law, Gradual, Process.





بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم.

أما بعد، فهذه مقالة مقدمة لمجلة إسلامية لجامعة بعنوان: التدرج فى التشريع الإسلامى وحقيقته وأنواعه. تتضمن نقاط الآتية:

=تعريف التدرج لغة والاصطلاحلا

= حقيقة التدرج وأنواعه.

= أنواع التدرج

= التدرج في الدعوة

= أصل التدرج فى التشريع وحكمته .

= حكمة التدرج

ثم الخاتمة والمراجع



Resolving Conflict through National Integration


Mamman Nathan Enos

Kashim Ibrahim College of Eduction, Department of Christian Religious Studies, Maiduguri, Borno State



 Integration is the process of incorporating racially, economically, politically etc. into the normal stream. It may involve empowering victims of conflict or subcultural group that were segregated upon. The aim of the program is to resolve conflict through sustainable peace building .Successful peace building will require inclusion. This lead to the discussion of inclusive integration .This process requires that the victims of conflict are directly involved in the implementation of peace –building programs. This paper also discusses some of the strategies to be adopted toward a successful and sustainable peace –building process. It is understood that when victims are directly involved in finding solution to their problems (peace-building process), it clears away perceived fear, instead it built trust and honesty in the individuals or victims of conflict. However inclusive integration should follow an established rules and constitution of the country in collaboration with international stake holders’ civil societies worthy of note is that conflict is a relative term. It is not only limited to physical  conflict ,or terrorism, but also include domestic ,office ,religious ,economic and psychological conflict which often times are by product of exclusion –It might also be caused by the political elites ,traditional authorities government authorities that were expected to be fully part of the peace building process but deviated due to their personal interest . We are in a generation where majority prefers self-righteous in the eyes of the few families or relations. A generation that celebrate selfishness, greed, pride and even the suffering of others in our society, we are prepared to lose one of eyes if it will go well with our personality not minding the majority that are suffering .For our selfish reasons we avoid reconciliation. We should have a generation of willing people that can give in their best, so that peace can reign in the society and that everyone is properly integrated to the normal life stream that can lead to equal distribution of resources through trust and love for one another.

Keywords: Resolution, conflict, Integration, Inclusive, National, Insurgent, Corruption, Sustainable, and Peace




Environmental Sanitation Awareness of Students of Government Secondary School Toro, Bauchi State


*Bala, Sagir Madaki; *Ashiru Sabiu Yusuf; & **Yahuza Shehu

*Department of General Studie, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi ‘**Department of Leisure and Tourism, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This descriptive research examines the awareness of students to environmental sanitation in Government Secondary School Toro, Bauchi State. 138 students constituted the sample drawn from the population of the students in the study area. Data were collected using level of understanding among students on the concepts of environment, sanitation and environmental sanitation as well as constraints to environmental sanitation. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using simple percentages. Results obtained indicate a high positive understanding of the concepts and awareness to environmental sanitation practices. It was concluded that the best way to provide awareness is through increase access to environmental Education materials and write-ups. Much emphasis be placed on existing activities and strategies such as seminars, monthly or yearly world environmental clean-up exercises, environmental exhibitions, competitions, workshops and even award of cash prizes to the best and cleanest schools. These activities are necessary in order to effectively impact, sensitize and infuse into the citizens, a sense of decency, discipline and responsibility towards the environment.

Keywords: Environmental, Sanitation, Awareness, Students, Government Secondary School Toro.




Child Labour and Human Trafficking: A Disturbing Global Menace


*Shekara Peace John; & **Kadiri Musa

*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management **Federal Ministry of Justice, Abuja Nigeria



 The concepts child labour and human trafficking are two very notorious terms that have become topical and of great concern to many countries of the world, not for good but for negative reasons. The terms have equally become worrisome in the global stage whereby many international agencies and organs of governments are forced to address these issues. Child labour is looked at from different perspective, depending on which scholarly work is consulted. For instance, International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment and 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor defined or described Child Labor  to include employment below the minimum age as established in national legislation, hazardous unpaid household services, and the worst forms of child labor: all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale or trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, or forced or compulsory labor; the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic purposes; the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities; and work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. Similarly, Human Trafficking is defined by the Palermo Protocol as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of an individual by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion for the purpose of exploitation. This paper therefore discusses the concepts child labour and human trafficking as a disturbing global menace. It considers some conceptual definitions, legal and institutional frameworks that have both domestic and international flavours. A doctrinal method of research was adopted in doing this work. It also looked at negative effects of child labour and human trafficking to the victims and the society at large. The political will of member countries and states in tackling this cross border crime that has taken an international dimension in the world is also considered. Recommendations and conclusions were made on how best to curb this menace in this 21st century.

Keywords: Child Labour, Human, Trafficking, Disturbing, Global Menace




Conceptual Analysis of Links between Religion and Marriage in Mariama Bâ’s Un Chant Écarlate


Akande Olubukola Abosede (Mrs)

Department of French, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.



This study examines the conceptual relationship between religion and marriage in Un chant écarlate. It employs Durkheim’s sociological theory of religion and historical methodology for the analysis. It aims to provide explanation of the concepts of marriage and religion. It examines the conceptual link between both phenomena. This would give answer to long-term questions on frequent collapse of marriage set-up and conditions of human existence in the society. It is the synopsis of un chant écarlate, discussing reasons in the minds of parents before looking for whom to marry their daughter or son. The strategies include Belief and behavior, Primitive and Christian practices and doctrines and recognition of religion in marriage among the Senegalese.  It mentions the steps: enquiries into family history, religion, reputation among other virtues taken by parents, relatives and children on man or woman to marry in the selection of partner. The study concludes that religion and marriage are related concepts in social life. Literature reveals our attitudes, beliefs, values, training, socialization or what we call ideology. It recommends that the curriculum content of our contemporary education should provide for learners the understanding of the efficacy of our age-long practices of enquiries as remedy to present-day marital problems and by extension exploiting African resources for sustainable development. People should believe in the supernatural in order to unravel things which surpass the limits of their knowledge and understanding.

Keywords: Religion and marriage, marriage, belief, race and historic misrepresentation.




Analysis on the Causes and Implications of Divorce in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria


Abdullahi Bashir Idris Ph.D

Department of Sociology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



Marriage is an institution that guarantees the procreation, care, socialization and the stability of the family as well as the survival of human race. It is a union of relationship both mystical and physical between a man and a woman meant for long life companionship. Despite the many advantages of marriage, the separation of spouses with their children posed a traumatic danger on all parties. This, without doubt usually leads to breakdown and divorce. This study examined the causes and implications of divorce in four selected electoral wards in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarwa State. The study investigates the most affected party by divorce as well as the extent of the effect on them. Critical literatures were reviewed on the cause and effects of divorce. Functionalist theory was adopted as theoretical framework for the study. As a survey type of study, multi-stage sampling method was used to elicit information from 378 respondents via questionnaire. 8 Key Informants comprising the District Heads were purposively selected and interviewed, their responses were transcribed. Frequency tables were used to describe the quantitative data using SPSS version 20, while regression analysis was used to analyse the data. The study found out that sexual incompatibility between couples significantly leads to divorce. Consequently, it was found that children are the most affected party by divorce in the Study areas. Based on the following findings, the study concludes that divorce is a serious social problem bedeviling Keffi Local Government. It is no gain to say that children and women suffer most by divorce. The study therefore recommends that Proper courtship should be done between a man and a woman before venturing into marriage. Parents should endeavor to socialize the children specifically girls on sex education and the importance of sex in marriage. Couples should also be encouraged to occasionally utilize marriage counseling to aid ameliorate the menace of divorce among many others.

Keywords: Marriage, Divorce, Infertility, Couples/Spouses, Family




Resource Management and Staff Productivity in Nigeria: Focus on Tertiary Institutions of Learning


Shanka, Buba Otuemhobe; & Adebola, Alade

Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.



Tertiary education remains formidable source of manpower development in every society, Nigeria inclusive. Report from literatures on the subject matter shows that success breakthrough recorded in technology, economy, social, political and other human endeavours are linked with productive tertiary education. In this wise, for Nigerian tertiary institutions of learning to meet its laudable responsibility, there must be adequate provision of resources and proper management of the available ones. Unfortunately, there is no tertiary institution with sufficient resources, therefore there is every need to judiciously manage the available ones so as to improve staff productivity and ensure attainment of objectives of tertiary education. Drawing on the system analysis cycle, the paper describes school resources as inputs unit which requires effective management at the conversion segment that leads to desirable output that is, high productivity. The paper fervently calls for keen interest of school management in resource management so as to transform staff productivity in our tertiary institutions of learning. Being an essential part of school management, the paper conceives resource management from provision of resource, proper allocation, judicious utilization and absolute maintenance of school resources for optimum productivity. It was concluded that school resources directly or indirectly influence on the school programmes depending on its management. This is because it is capable of enhancing staff knowledge, and skills as well as productivity. Among others, it was recommended that school management should pay attention to staff training and development, which is the cornerstone of human resource management; and that experienced and qualified manpower resources should be prioritized for smooth implementation of tertiary institution programmes.

Keywords: Tertiary education, human resources, financial resources, material resources, time resources, staff productivity.




Effect of Standby Letters of Credit and Performance Bond in Facilitating Payment and Protecting Payment Risk in International Transaction and Construction Projects


Mohammed Idris; Zainab Dauda Yusuf; & Khadijat Nasir3

Department of Legal Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State



Bank’s stock in trade consequent upon which the adage ‘Banks Word is its Sword’ seems threatened by the unscrupulous beneficiaries of on demand bond in international transaction and or construction contract. This paper expounded the numerous effects of bond generally and or standby letters of credit and its threatening effects in international commercial transaction and construction contract due to an unfair/abusive call of an on demand bonds by the beneficiaries. The paper also expounded the United Kingdom’s and Germany’s modern trend in averting the anomalies usually encountered in bonds, guaranty and or standby letters of credit. The  paper conclude by proffering solutions in protecting the contractor against the unscrupulous beneficiary’s unfair and abusive calls of an on demand bonds in order to enhance the efficacy and sanctity of bonds in commercial transaction generally.  

Keywords: Effect, Standby Letters, Credit, Performance Bond, International Transaction, Construction Projects



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