African Scholar Journal of Management Science and Entrepreneurship Vol. 23 No. 7


VOL. 23 NO. 7 DECEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2276 – 0732



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Responsible Management and Work Ethics in the Nigerian Police Force: An Interrogation of the Culture of Brutality and Extortion in Nigeria


Dr. Adole Raphael Audu, Mike Bonny Charles and Elizabeth Bella

Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State.



This paper examines responsible management and work ethics in the Nigerian Police Force (NPF). Interrogates the mandate of NPF in terms of the provision of peace and security in Nigeria. In addition, the paper critically examines the evolution of the force from the colonial to post – colonial periods within the context of responsible management and work ethics. It traces the nature and culture of police brutality and extortion in Nigeria with particular reference to the #EndSARS Protests in the year 2020 and beyond. The paper relied heavily on secondary data. Content analysis was employed to analyze the secondary data that was collected for this work (Desk Reviews). Conflicts, crimes and criminalities in Nigeria entered six decades after independence exhibiting the common characteristics of a humanitarian crisis that has become protracted. Nigerians have suffered a great damage of human and material resources as a result of insecurity and other security challenges. However, those saddled with the responsibility of curbing the crisis are unable to accomplish the mission of ending it due to the problem of responsible management and work ethics specifically in the Nigerian Police Force. With increased exhaustion on officers and personnel, there have been claims of oppressions, torture, unwarranted arrests on the part of officers of NPF across the country; many policemen on their have committed suicide due to depression. Morale is at the lowest ebb in police formations across the across the country. The paper therefore draws its conclusion on the challenges of responsible management in NPF specifically and Nigeria generally. It recommends amongst others that the administration and enforcement of the New Police Act should be ensured. Strict punishments should be meted out to officers or persons who refuse and/or neglect to comply with its provisions.  

Keywords: Responsible management, work ethics, Culture of brutality, Extortion, Nigeria Police Force




Fiscal Federalism in Nigeria: The Roles of the Accountant and Relevance of Internal Control System


Sani AbdulRahaman Bala; & Ogidan Olasehinde Joseph

Department of Accounting, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto



The research work examined the relevance of internal control and the roles of accountants in fiscal federalism in Nigeria. The survey research method was adopted. Data collected through questionnaires were analyzed using multiple regressions. The study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between the roles of Accountant and the internal control system in fiscal federalism practice in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that true fiscal federalism be practiced by granting full autonomy to each tier of government, various government policies and laws should be adjusted to true fiscal federalism and strengthen the internal control system mechanism to block revenue leakages. More so efforts should be made to ensure that all tiers of government adhere to fiscal transparency, accountability, and constitutional provisions on fiscal relations.

Keywords: Fiscal federalism, Accountant’s Roles, Internal Control System




Unlocking the Potentials of Relationship Marketing in Nigerian Polytechnic Sector


Prof. Ajilore, Kolade PhD; & Babalola, Akinola Oludare

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



Polytechnic education is a last resort for most Nigerian students as the polytechnic system largely admits students who could not secure admission into Nigerian universities. There are many inherent advantages in Nigerian polytechnic education just like there are many products of Nigerian polytechnics who are outstanding professionals in their fields. However, these potentials and products are not effectively harnessed and propagated to the public. This paper interrogates the potentials of Relationship Marketing (RM) in the development of Nigerian polytechnic education. It examines the place of relationship management within the larger spectrum of Public Relations (PR) and how it affects polytechnic education in Nigeria. Through a review of empirical literature, the study examines the interface between relationship marketing and allied concepts like organizational trust, organizational reliability, customers’ loyalty, corporate communication and corporate image. From the findings of the empirical studies, the paper concludes that relationship marketing is a potential goldmine which could improve the fortunes of Nigerian polytechnics if it is used effectively.

Keywords: Relationship Marketing; Public Relations; Polytechnic Education; Image; and Perception.




An Examination of Conditions and Warranties in a Contract of Sale of Goods


Eric Omo Enakireru, PhD.

Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, College of Law, Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State.



The Sale of Goods Act gives consumers certain remedies if the seller breaches the rights given under the Act. Under the Act there are rights that are “conditions” and rights that are “warranties”. In very general terms, conditions are seen as the most important basic rights of the contract, while warranties are seen as less important collateral rights. The distinction can be important for the type of remedy (see the section on available to the buyer. In general, breaches of conditions may allow consumers to get out of the transaction altogether (that is, return the goods and get their money back), while breaches of warranties usually allow consumers only to recover damages (that is, get some compensation for the defect in the goods). This study critically examines the implied warranties as to title; exceptions to the general rule; express provision in the agreement. The study reveals that the Act and the various legal principles of the law indicate that the legal imperatives of conditions and warranties in a contract of sale of goods is not only determined by the express terms of condition and warranties but the courts have oftentimes found it necessary to imply certain unexpressed terms in contract in order to give them business efficacy’s The study concludes that.

Keywords:   Warranties, Examination, Sale of Goods Conditions, Contract.




Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Small Scale Enterprise: A Study of Selected Firms in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria


*Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo; **Akinyele, Esther Feyisayo; & *Adeleke, Ajiboye Stephen

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria



Small scale enterprises play a vital role in global economic development and pivotal to the success of the economy. This study investigated entrepreneurial orientation and performance of women entrepreneur in small scale enterprise in Odeda local government area, Abeokuta, Ogun state. The specific objective of this study investigates the effect of entrepreneurial pro-activeness on business growth; evaluate the relationship between entrepreneurial innovativeness and sales growth; determine the effect of entrepreneurial risk-taking on profitability; examine the relationship between entrepreneurial aggressiveness and productivity. In attaining the highlighted objectives, a well-structured questionnaire was administered for information and data collection. A simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents from the study areas. Total of 104 respondents were selected across the study area. The analysis of data was done using descriptive tools basically to show the distribution of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, and inferential to estimate influence of entrepreneurial orientation and performance of women entrepreneur in small scale enterprise. Regression and Correlation Models and Chi Square Test were employed. This study findings based on test of the four (4) hypotheses in the study, show that there is no significant effect of entrepreneurial pro-activeness on business growth; (R2=0.149, F cal.= 25.247, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); entrepreneurial innovativeness has no significant effect on sales growth; (R2=0.124, F cal.= 20.432, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); there is no significant effect of entrepreneurial risk-taking on profitability (R2=0.221, F cal.= 40.750, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); entrepreneurial aggressiveness has no significant effect on productivity (R2=0.129, F cal.= 21.420, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level).  In conclusion, the study reflected that each of these independent variables play a significant role on performance of women entrepreneur in small scale enterprise in a positive way. Based on these findings, the study recommends that following recommendations: women entrepreneur in small scale enterprise need to embrace the entrepreneurial orientation dimensions, innovativeness, risk taking and pro-activeness to increase business performance; women entrepreneurs should be innovative and develop new products ahead of their competitors. They should also be proactive by carrying out strategic environmental scans for new opportunities in the market. Finally, women entrepreneurs need to consider risk-taking to effectively and successfully respond to the dynamic environments that require organizations to increase decision-making speed.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation, Entrepreneurial risk taking, Entrepreneurial innovativeness, Women entrepreneurs, Performance, Small scale enterprises.




Ethics in Accounting Practices and its Influence on Business Performance


Ango Nuhu Aliyu (PhD) 

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria



The objective of this study is to investigate and identify the importance of ethics in accounting practices and whether ethical accounting practices has any influence on the overall business performance and to create a guideline to encourage accounting professionals to understand and adopt ethical practices. The study explores how various demographical variables, specifically focusing on culture, gender and religion influence on an individual’s ethical decision-making process. The data used in this study was collected from the relevant literatures. The portals’ filters were used to identify the relevant literature to the research. The sample was chosen based upon the four themes including influence of ethical accounting practices on culture, gender, religion and impact on overall business performance. This study revealed that culture does not necessarily influence on ethical behaviour and decision-making. Conversely, a positive correlation has been found between the religion beliefs and ethical decision-making process. However, this research does not clearly point out the influence of ethical accounting practices and its influence on the business performance. This research also highlighted partial connections between how unethical accounting practices and fraudulent activities can become a threat to the business existence. The sample size and research technique restrict the results from generalising.

Keywords: Ethics, Business Performance, Accounting Practices, Decision-Making Process




Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Work-Life Balance of Employees in Access Bank Plc


*Dr. Sarka, Solomon Wogan & **Shiiwua, Mnenga

*Department of Public Administration National Open University of Nigeria ** Accountability Lab Nigeria, Abuja



The increase in the application of technology has made the work of virtually every organization easy to undertake. Research has shown how Information and communication Technology (ICT) has increased the productivity of many organizations around the world. Unfortunately there is little research conducted on the impact of ICT on the man who uses the ICT for work performance. This study therefore examined the Impact of ICT on Work-life Balance in Access bank Abuja. To achieve this, data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was collected using questionnaire which was administered to the selected employees of Access bank branches across Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The secondary data on the other hand was obtained from text books and published articles on ICT, work-life balance, job satisfaction and employees work autonomy. The study was situated within the theory of structuration which argued that the development and application of ICT in work places is to easy the stressors at work and balance e employee work-life balance. Data collected was analyzed with the aid of SPSS, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square. The test of hypotheses revealed that ICT has enhanced work work-life balance in Access bank Abuja. The study also showed that enhanced work-life balance has led to work autonomy of employees in Access bank Abuja. Findings also revealed that through the instrumentality of ICT, the employees of Access Bank experience job satisfaction. The study conclude that technology is still evolving and therefore there is need to keep the employee abreast of new development to enable them effectively balance the demands of their work and those of their private lives. The study therefore recommended training of employees as well as a deliberate policy of Access bank that would provide for avenue where employees will enjoy work-life balance.

Keywords: ICT, Impact of ICT, Work-Life Balance, Employees, Access Bank.




Employee Counseling Amidst Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19) and Human Resources Challenges: A Case Study of Some Commercial Banks in Abuja, Nigeria


*Rev. Fr. Dr. Bahago Samaila Benedict; **Nduji, Romanus

*Department of Educational Foundations, Veritas University, Abuja **Department of Business Administration, Veritas University, Abuja



The international community has witnessed the devastation occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the origin and the end of this pandemic are yet to be determined, it is quite worrisome to observe the number of lives, jobs and businesses lost to the scourge across the globe. The situation calls for empirical investigation. Hence, this study examined Covid-19 and Human Resources Challenges in selected commercial Banks in Abuja, Nigeria and the need for employee counselling to help those affected by the scourge of COVID-19. The population of the study was two thousand five hundred and ninety-two (2592) comprising of senior and junior staff of some selected Commercial banks in Abuja. The sample size of 487 was obtained from the population using Godden formula. The mode of analysis consisted of simple percentages and frequency distribution as data was obtained from the primary source (questionnaire). It was established that the dynamics of work have greatly changed from the traditional way of working from organizational premises to working remotely from home. Consequently, HRM has shifted to online platform since physical contact with customers is prohibited in order to maintain social distancing as one way of preventing covid-19 spread. These changes have been associated with different negative implications and some positive implications as some HRM experts find it more flexible and convenient to work remotely. The study also concluded that the long-term implications of COVID-19 are currently unknown, there is little reason to believe its impact on organizational life will be short-lived. It is recommended that employee counselling be provided especially for affected staff of such organizations and that organizations focus on forward thinking, building on the major assumptions that the main challenge being faced globally is not singular, anomalous event, but is instead associated with a new reality that offer different new opportunities that all human resource profession and all organizational scholars must embrace to cope with the changing times.

Keywords; Human Resource Management, Mechanisms, Employee Counselling, Covid-19 pandemic and Commercial Banks in Abuja.




Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on the Industrial Output in Nigeria


Adaeze U. Ewah; Chukwuemeka – Eze Chioma; & **Okechukwu Solomon Kene

*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre 



The study examined the impact of selected macroeconomic variables on the industrial output in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1970 to 2016. To determine the long-run and short-run dynamic interaction between the variables, the study used Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The study has found evidence of long-run relationship between the variables. In the short-run, gross fixed capital formation and health expenditure have been found to have positive effect on industrial output in the country. However, unemployment, inflation, and exports have had negative effects on industrial output in the short-run in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends that Nigeria should focus more on encouraging domestic savings and investments as well as strengthening the weak industries which have not fully used their capacity to the fullest so as to prevent them from shutting down. Nigeria should also actualize the reduction of the cost of doing business in the country by making the institutions efficient as well as providing a better environment for both domestic and foreign investments.

Keywords: Industrial output, Exports, Inflation, Unemployment, Industries, Expenditure.




Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Improved Method of Office Management/Administration


Mrs I.G. Abraham-Ibe (M Phil)

Department of Office Technology and Management, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos.



Information and communication technology entails the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of voice, pictorial and numerical information by a micro-electronic based combination of computer and telecommunication devices.  This paper focuses on how information and communication technology has improved the method of office management in the present dispensation.  It also highlights the factors that can be considered when determining the media or technology that is most appropriate to a situation in office management.  The activities of ICT organization was considered through personal interviews, observation and review of related textbooks.  From the findings, it was revealed that the application of ICT has brought tremendous improvement in the methods of office management in the present dispensation. The study offered recommendations that offices should provide ICT equipments as it improves efficiency as well as increases productivity.  Also, that government and companies should support ICT programmes in institutions to encourage students towards office education courses.

Keywords:  ICT, Telecommunication, Management, Office Administration, Organisation




Taxpayer Identification Number and Tax Evasion in Ondo State, Nigeria


*Oladejo Kayode S.; & **Ogunseye Tomilola E.

*Department of Accounting, College of Management Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria. **Audit Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria



This study assessed Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) as a tool to reduce tax evasion in Ondo State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises of 440 staff of the Ondo State Board of Internal Revenue. Simple (SBIR). Simple Random Sampling Technique was used to pick the sample size of 209 staff of SBIR of the study. The source of Data is primary data gathered through the use of structured questionnaire. Data collected were presented using frequency tables analyzed through the use of simple regression. Result revealed that TIN have significantly reduce tax evasion in Ondo State, Nigeria (P=0.000<0.05). The study concluded that the introduction of TIN has led to reduction in tax evasion in Ondo State, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that there should be increase in campaign of TIN registration by tax payer, this will further reduce tax evasion and increase the revenue generated by the state

Keywords: Tax Identification Number, Tax Evasion, Tax Payer, Tax Administration, Tin Registration, Tax Compliance




An Assessment of Human Capacity Building on Organisational Growth: Conceptual Discuss


Sokomba Joshua

Registry Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria



The study investigates concepts of human capacity building in an organizational growth, challenges and the way forward.  Human capacity building is the bed-rock of any organization; no organization could strive to sustainable development without reference to the structures and policies that enhance its human capacity.  Organizations established several programmes geared towards improving human capacity building, such programmes includes academic training, seminars, conference, workshops and professional programmes etc.  These programmes have not yielded the desired result because of inadequate policy implementation that guarantee sustainability among the stakeholders.  The study has provided measures towards ameliorating these inadequacies and urges the relevant stakeholders to consider the recommendations for policy design and implementation strategy in achieving human capacity building in an organizational growth.

Keywords: Human capacity building, stakeholders, sustainable development, policy implementation, and organizational growth.




Conflict Management and Employee Performance in Nigeria Public Sector: A Case Study of the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State


Ahmed, Jeleel Abioye; & Popoola, Emmanuel Kolawole O.

Department of Public Administration, the Oke-Ogun Polytehcnic, Saki



This study examined the assessment of conflict management and employee organization performance in Nigeria Public Sector, a case study of The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. The study identified how organization objectives and performance can be used to achieve effective conflict management. The study adopted survey design. Questionnaire was used as instrument of data collection and a total of 100 respondents were selected for the study using purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Hypotheses was tested through regression analysis and correlation co-efficient. The study revealed that adoption of effective conflict management of employees will lead to organization performance. Organization management conflict mechanism systems influence productivity of employee in the organization. The study concluded that conflict management has significant positive relationship with organizational performance at The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. The study recommended that organization management should try to adopt inclusive and collaborative strategies in conflict management and at the same time, strive to involve union-leadership or employee representative in vital decisions that affect the workforce. This will limit conflictual situations in the organization.

Keyword: Conflict management, employee, organizational performance, strategies, collective bargaining.




The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Payroll Operations for polytechnics in Nigeria


Akilu Umar Bakari

School of Business and Management Technology, Department of General Studies, the polytechnic Bali



Payrolling of staff in polytechnics lays significance on prompt rewards and productivity. Payment of salary in polytechnics is a key to performance effectiveness, efficiency and service success. This work discusses the role of Information and communication technologies (ICT) in payroll operation for polytechnics in Nigeria. Information and communication technologies (ICT) refer to several forms of information exchange between two or more computers through any of the several methods of interconnection. These technologies provide speedy, low-cost and convenient means of communication. The adoption of these technologies in polytechnics in Nigeria federal and state government have been found to have direct positive impact on the institutions efficiency and have led to more rapid acceleration of development in the country. Technology is transforming human resource (HR) practices and activities by improving their effectiveness in managing organizational resources. The use of relevant technology in HR would increase organizational ability to meet new challenges such as globalization and increase of diversity in workplaces. Computerized payroll system is one of the technologies commonly used in HR and measured as the heart of HR activities. Utilization of Information Technology (IT) is now entered in a very good condition that can be used in every aspect of life. Utilization of good IT will generate benefits for its users in utilizing IT. As well as in the field of employee payroll information systems are needed in the polytechnics system, by utilizing IT, will be faster in processing data and generate payroll reports are also fast. The study proposes some recommendations and suggests other avenues for more research as well.

Keywords: Role, Information and communication technologies (ICT), Payroll, polytechnics, Nigeria. 




Taxation and Revenue Generation: Evidence from Borno State Board of Internal Revenue Service


Mohammed Yusuf 1 and Nuhu, M. A.2

1Department of Accountancy, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State. 2Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State.



This study examine the Effect of Taxation and Revenue Generation: Evidence from Borno State Board of Internal Revenue Service.  Primary source of data was used in gathering the required information for the study with the aid of structured closed-ended questionnaire.  Purposive sampling technique was used to arrive at a sample size of fifty (50) drawn from the total population of ninety-five (95) respondents. Simple linear regression was employed to predict whether the predictor variables namely, tax avoidance and tax evasion have significant effect or not on the dependent variable, that is, revenue generation. It was found that tax avoidance and evasion have significant effect on revenue generation evidence from the state board of internal revenue Maiduguri, Borno State implying that the internally generated revenues drastically fall due to the attitudes of taxpayers’. The study recommends that the State Board of Internal Revenue Service should ensure an enforcement of penalties for tax defaulters, avoidance, evaders and these penalties should be made clearer and public. This will create real threat and actual carrying out of audit inspection, inquiry, penalty and punishment for an errant taxpayer. The current tax procedure should be amended to provide for establishment of a professional and independent tax tribunal that could hear matters of fact and law in relation to the assessment under appeal.

Keywords: Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, Revenue Generation, Taxation. SBIRS




The Relevance of Internal Control System in Organizational Environment


Samuel Abraham Adegbile1; Moses Baidu Suleiman2; & Hamidu Umaru3

Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P. M. B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State.



The paper assessed the relevance of internal control system in organizational environment. The existence of any organization is to be able to provide values that will justify the objective for setting it up, be it public or private concern. This cannot be effectively achieved without having good internal control system that will ensure that resources of organization are properly safeguard, check and well managed.  Internal control system is a whole system of control, financial and otherwise established by management to oversee the activities of the organization. Although, the research work is a non-survey. The researchers conclude that internal control system is the measure procedures put in place by the management of an organization in order to help in providing complete and comprehensive means of securing the financial and non-financial transactions. Therefore, the responsibility for the prevention and detection of irregularities and fraud rest on effective and efficient internal control system of any organization. Similarly, the researchers recommend that management of any organization should ensure that the accountants and audit staff are well recruited and trained properly in order to know how to manage the organization internal control system in more efficient manner. Also, there should be regular evaluation of control in order to determine the effectiveness in operation and identify weaknesses, so that corrective actions can be taken.

Keywords:  Internal Control System, Control Environment, Control Activities, Monitoring and Information and Communication System




Effect of Taxation on Profitability of Businesses in Nigeria


*Agunuwa Ekokotu Vincent (Ph.D); **Johnson-Itabita Patience (Ph.D)

*Department Of Banking And Finance, School Of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechic, Otefe Oghara. **Department Of Business Administration/ Management, School Of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Oghara.



The paper assesses the effect of taxation on the profitability of businesses in Nigeria. The main objective is thus to ascertain the effect of the key components of tax on business profitability in Nigeria. The study covered the period from 1994 to 2020. The Co-integration and the Granger causality tests were used. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test result indicates that all the variables became stationary after the first differencing was taken at 1% level of significance. The Johansen Co-integration test indicates a long run relationship among the variables. The Parsimonious Error Correction Model ( ECM ) result indicates that the Value Added Tax ( VAT ),Petroleum Profit Tax ( PPT) and Company Income Tax ( CIT ) have positive and significant effect on business profitability. The ECM indicates a satisfactory speed of adjustment. On the basis of these findings, the paper recommends amongst others, a spread of the tax net revenue which should be efficiently utilized to facilitate improvement in business profitability.

Keywords: VAT, Petroleum Profit Tax, Company Income Tax, Business Profitability, Co-integration.




Financial Deepening, Banking Fragility and Economic Growth in Western Africa: An Exposition of Panel Cointegration and Causation


Nasiru Adamu

Department of Economics, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State.



The role of financial deepening in achieving both short-run and long-run growth hs been widely acknowledge in the financial economics literature, the assertion was built on the Schumpeterian finance-growth connections. This paper seeks to investigate the connection between financial deepening, financial fragility and economic growth in western Africa. This study used secondary data, specifically annual data for seven (7) countries from Western Africa which were selected based on probability sampling for a period of thirty-one (31) years (1989-2019). Analysis conducted in the study includes; panel unit-root test as a condition for stationarity, fully modified OLS, Panel Cointegration and Panel Causality test. This study concludes that financial deepening has a positive and statistically significant impact on Economic growth in Western Africa, While the impact of financial fragility on Economic growth is negative and not significant in the Western Africa Sub-region. Findings of the study is in line with the two theories of financial deepening and financial fragility. It was recommended that policy makers within the Western African Sub-regions should formulate policies that will improve accessible and affordable credit to the private sector which should include Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in addition to the need for effective institutional arrangement that will reduce the number of non-performing loans and bad debts which will also mitigate the negative spill-over effects arising from financial fragility and financial crisis.

Keywords: Financial Fragility, Financial deepening, Economic Growth, Causality, Western Africa.




The Effect of Online Advertising on Consumer Purchase Intention


Sarki Zakari Shehu, Abubakar Zubairu Abdullahi, Bala Zahra’u Malami & Kasimu Abdullahi.

Department Of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State



This study aim at investigating the effect of online advertisement on consumer purchase intention. The study was guided by three (3) objectives, research question and hypotheses, which were: To identify the online advertising media use by Nasco group of companies. To examine the impact of online advertising on consumers ability to purchase the products of Nasco group of companies. To determine the challenges militating against the application of online advertising in Nasco group of companies. The study used structured questionnaire to gathered data. Simple percentage, t-test, Spearman and ANOVA were used to analyzed data. And the study found out that there is significant  effects on online advertisement media on  consumer’s purchase intention. The study also revealed that unreliable network services and poor usage of online sites are among the major challenges on the use of online advertising. Finally, the researcher recommends that the company should introduced diverse online advertisement media in marketing its products among others.

Keyword: Advertising, Purchase Intention, Online Advertising, & Consumer




Value Relevance of Accounting Information and Share Price: Moderating Influence of Corporate Governance Practice of Listed Firm in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE)


Yusuf, Ova Mutalib; Akpan Edem Okon; Iriabije Emmanuel Uareme; & Yusuf Mohammed Sani

Accountancy Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Accounting information has been described as one of the key factors considered by investors when taking investment decisions. The relevance and reliability of such accounting information may be influenced by corporate governance practice which brought about changes in share prices. This situation is more in a developing economy like Nigeria. Evidence in the literature has shown doubt as to the relevance of such information needed for investment decision. Yet, investors need this accounting information in order to measure business performance and as well as investment decision making. Previous studies focused on the role of accounting information on share price and completely underestimated the moderating effect corporate governance practice on the relationship between Accounting Information and Share price of listed firms in Nigeria. Therefore, this study extended on the Ohlson model to incorporate corporate governance  practice so as to examine the mediating effect of Corporate governance on the relationship between value relevance of accounting information and share price of listed companies in NSE. The study concludes that governance practice influences the relationship between Accounting information and share price among list firms in Nigeria.

Keywords: Value Relevance, Accounting Information, Share Price, Moderating Influence, Corporate Governance Practice and Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE)




Effect of Organizational Commitment on Employee Turnover Intention Using Old Generation Commercial Banks in Ilorin as Case Study


*Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli; and **Bolawa Toun Olanrewaju

*Department of Business Administration, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai **Department of Business Administration, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



The regulatory and competitive dynamics in the Nigerian Banking industry compelled Old Generation Banks (OGBs) in Nigeria to alter their Human Resource policies and practices, which may affect the banks’ Human Resource outcomes when investigated. Thus, this study interrogated whether employees’ organizational commitment exerts significant effect on turnover intentions in OGBs in Ilorin metropolis. OGB employees were randomly sampled and surveyed using structured questionnaire. Research data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics, while the research hypotheses were tested using regression at 5-percent significant level. Accordingly, the study confirmed that organizational commitment exerted significant influence on employees’ turnover intention in OGBs in Ilorin. However, only normative commitment is a strong predictor of employee turnover intention. The study, therefore, recommends that the OGBs’ Human Resource executives should not only sustain but upgrade normative commitment indicators (training and development and related investment on banks’ personnel) so as to reduce turnover intentions among the bankers and avoid accompanying costs of positive turnover intention.

Keywords: banks, human resource policy, competition, commitment, turnover, Nigeria. 




Impact of Entrepreneurship Characteristics on International Start-Up


1Okoh Chiedu Vincent; & 2Dr. Mustapha R.A

1Vice Chancellor Office, Uniben, Benin City. 2Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete.



Entrepreneurship is identified as the revival and driving force of many economies which is more often than not met with plethora of obstacles of which start-up issues has been one of the greatest impediments. Entrepreneurship studies needs and wants of human side and the entrepreneurs and their characteristics. This study seeks to determine the Impact of Entrepreneurship Characteristics on International Start-up. As a qualitative study, the methodology involve Exploratory Research Method (ERM), Descriptive design was adopted to examine the entrepreneurial trait, characters, behaviour and passion that result to business start-up and other entrepreneurial ventures. The target population in this study involves Nigerian graduate from Ibuso Area of Delta State. 5-Likert Scale Questionnaire, interview and observation was adopted to collect data. Findings shows that there is a need to increase entrepreneurial empowerment scheme to encourage Nigerian youth to express their entrepreneurial traits. This study recommended that there should be more training, development, and support of entrepreneurs in order to promote effective practices.  More effort should be put to help entrepreneur’s positions in empowerment institutions so as to create benefit from their capabilities and achieve an international start-up.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Traits, International Start-up.




The Efficient Market Hypothesis: A critical review of Equilibrium Models and Imperical Evidence


Mukhtar Abdullahi

Department of Banking and Finance, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State



This paper critically reviews the concept of efficient markets hypothesis (EMH). The key aim of this study is to explain the informational efficiency of the capital market as uphold by Professor Eugene Fama. Therefore, attempt was made to review the empirical study conducted around the globe testing the efficacy of this theory as well as some of the price equilibrium models were equally reviewed in order to attest this fact. The study efficiently found that EMH is much relevant theory as empirical studies conducted by various researchers around the globe confirms the markets efficiency at weak form of efficient market hypothesis. More so, some of the price equilibrium models reviewed substantially indicates presents of efficiency element that explain the fundamentals of the EMH.

Keywords: Efficient markets, Weak form of efficiency, Equilibrium models




Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Nigeria


Umaru Samaila Mazadu.1, Mohammed Dansabo Usman2, Lawal Umar Umar3

1Department of Economics, Borno State University, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Economics & Development Studies, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. 3Department of Accounting, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria.



The paper evaluates the determinants of foreign direct investment inflow in Nigeria within the context of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) estimation technique. The study utilizes annual data for the period 1981 to 2018, which were sourced from the Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and World Bank’s World Development Index (WDI) data on Nigeria. The bound test result confirms the existence of cointegration. The result further reveals that foreign reserve, inflation rate, infrastructure and population growth are positive and significant determinants of foreign direct investment in both long run and short run. The findings also depict that disequilibrium in the model is corrected at 97.8% adjustment speed annually. The diagnostic test confirms that the coefficients are stable, given that the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ lie within the 5% critical bound. To increase the attractiveness of FDI to Nigeria, the study, therefore recommends that government should create an investor-friendly environment in the country and invest heavily in basic infrastructure.

Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Determinants, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique.



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