African Scholar Journal of Business Dev. & Management Res. Vol. 26 No. 7 1


VOL. 26 NO. 7 SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2190-2099


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Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Entrepreneurship Education and the Challenges of Development in Nigeria


Bilkisu Abdulganiyyi Fagbemi

Department of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State Nigeria



The development of a Nation cannot be divorced from the knowledge of entrepreneurship education. The objectives and significance of entrepreneurship education towards national development were discussed along with the challenges ahead of the issue entrepreneurship education were proffered. They include inter alia implementation of suggestion to reduce poverty, in house training and retraining personnel with modern pedagogical approach to teaching, cooperative management approach which would involve stakeholders of education, NGOs, local and international philanthropists. They could provide instructional and infrastructural facilities for teaching entrepreneurial education.

Keywords: Leadership, Managerial Skills, Entrepreneurship Education, Cooperative Management, Stakeholders Teaching Facilities.




Overcoming the Underdevelopment Challenge in Africa through Digital Technological Progress and Entrepreneurship Development


1Prof. Njimanted, Godfrey Forgha 2Forbe, Hodu Ngangnchi & 3Fozoh, Isiah Aziseh

1Director, Higher Institute of Commerce and Management (HICM), University of Bamenda-Cameroon 2Head of Department of Organisational Sciences, Higher Institute of Commerce and Management (HICM), University of Bamenda-Cameroon 3Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University of Bamenda-Cameroon



This study observed that Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) has for the first time in history intensified the use of digital technology for the delivery of services due to the hit of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, when the continent has been struggling to improve on its human development indicators which are still dismal, and also when the rate of entrepreneurship activities in the continent is still gaining grounds. This current study therefore, investigates the impact of digital technology and entrepreneurship development on economic development in SSA as applicable in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Based on Regression models with Drisco-Kraay standard errors and the Causal mediation analysis, the resulted outcomes draws some key conclusions. From the baseline model estimates, we noted that both entrepreneurship development and digital technological advancements have the ability to enhance human development in Sub-Sahara Africa. The moderation outcomes show that the interaction between entrepreneurship development and digital technological advancement is positive indicating that the economic development enhancing effect of entrepreneurship development in Sub-Sahara Africa is stronger in African countries with higher levels of digital technological application. Again, the interaction of entrepreneurship development with human capital development, the inflation rate, trade openness, and global financial openness are all positive and significant, showing that the control variables improves on the positive effect of entrepreneurship development on economic development in Africa. We equally noted interestingly that the negative effect of inflation on human development is mitigated by entrepreneurship development. Moderating the effect of diital technogcal application with the vector of control variables suggests that digital technological progress does not have the strength to inhibit the negative effect of inflation on human development in Sub-Sahara Africa. We also, find that the human development enhancing effect of ICT use is stronger in countries with higher levels of human capital development. At the same time, the interaction of ICT use with trade openness, global financial openness, and control of corruption all gives positive coefficients. From our causal mediation analysis, the estimates of the indirect effects indicated that the usage of ICT in SSA indirectly reduces the economic development of the continent through new business density, the usage of ICT in SSA indirectly enhances economic development of the continent through human capital development, control of corruption, the inflation rate, and the openness of the continent to foreign trade. For a policy perspective, we recommend that efforts in terms of national budget should be directed to commercial, vocational, and technical education for job creation contrary to general education for job seekers. In this light, more than 30% of the national budget should be directed to education with 20% of budget directed to commercial, industrial and technical education. We also recommend guided openness policy to avoid excess dependency on foreign technologies and imported inflation. In this light, Africans should develop the interest of consuming home produced goods by improving on their quality and life span. In this regard, the market share of African goods in the African market should be more than what we are experiencing today. That is, about 7:3 on 1. 

Keywords: Under Development Challenge, Entrepreneurship Development, Technological Progress, ICT, Inflation, Human Capital, Education and Training.  




Exploring Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurs and Business Performance in Lokoja Metropolis, Kogi State Analysing Women Access to Money and Family Commitments


*Ogaraku Nneoma Bridget; & **Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu (PhD)

*Imo State University of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Umuagbo, Owerri Imo State. **Department Of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, P O Box 129 Lokoja Kogi State



The study aimed at exploring factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in Lokoja Kogi State. For the study, a survey research design was employed, using Taro Yamane formula to obtain a sample size of 190 from a population of 363 women entrepreneurs who are members of the Lokoja Business Women Association. The 190-sample size was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected through well-structured questionnaires designed using five-point Likert scale, 184 questionnaires were returned out of the 190 distributed. Data was presented and analyzed using SPSS version 21 simple liner regression, Anova and path coefficient to determine the level of relationship between performance vis-à-vis access to finance, level of education, family commitment and socio-cultural factors affecting women entrepreneurs. To ensure reliability the researcher used Cronbach Alpha reliability test to obtain the level of reliability of the research variables. The study made several findings which are that access to finance, level of education and socio-cultural factor have a positive and significant relationship with performance of women entrepreneurs while family commitment has a negative and significant relationship with the performance of women entrepreneurs. The study made the following recommendations among which are that government should make and implement policies and strategies that would give women equal access to education, productive resources like their male counterparts, government should provide interest free loans to help women entrepreneurs expand their businesses, women should invest in self development and build strong support network for their businesses.




What Role Do Industrialization and Urbanization Play in Energy Consumption? Evidence from Nigeria


*Ugwu Stella Ifeyinwa; **Joyce Oritsematosan. Binitie; & *Nabila Olasumbo Adeyeye-Ahmed

*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. **Consultancy and Business Development Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office.



This study seeks to examine the role of industrialization and urbanization in energy consumption in Nigeria during 1981-2016. The estimated autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was derived from the energy demand theory. Both long-run and short-run effects of industrialization and urbanization on energy consumption (total energy use, Petroleum and electricity consumption) were analyzed. The results show that industrial output has significant positive influence on aggregate energy consumption in both the long-run and short-run, while the industrial share of aggregate output produce negative effect in the long-run. In addition, the impact of urbanization is positive and significant in both the long-run and short-run. Both the long-run and short-run results reveal that industrial output as well as industrial share of total output (industrialization) have insignificant effects on electricity consumption Further, both carbon intensity and urbanization have significant positive effect on electricity consumption in the long and short-run. In the case of petroleum consumption, industrial output and share of industrial output in total output (industrialization) have significant effects in both long and short-run. Further, carbon intensity has a positive effect on petroleum consumption in the long and short-run, while urbanization reduces petroleum consumption in the long and short-run accordingly. Some policy recommendations were articulated based on the findings.

Keywords: Industrialization; Urbanization; energy consumption; ARDL time series modeling; Nigeria; Aggregate Energy and Industrial Output.




Natural Resource Rents, Human Capital and Industrial Development in the (Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Region


*Ugwuoke Augustine Chika; **Uzowulu Gloria Chiagozie; & Nwalupue Nnamdi Mark

*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office



This study assesses whether natural resource rents can enhance the positive association between human capital-industrial development. Using a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over the period of 1995-2015, the author will make use of charts, tables and equation modelling as a method of analysis, the empirical findings confirm an insignificant impact of human capital on industrial development in the presence of natural resource rents. In addition, we find evidence of direct drag effect of education expenditure on industrial development.

Keywords: Industrial Development, Education, Health Expenditures, Natural Resource Rents, Human Capital, Natural Resource and Findings.




Improving Organizational Competitive Advantage: The Dimension of Total Quality Management Approach


Aluko Ayodeji Rufus; Babalola, Sulaimon Olaseni; & Rabiu Abodunrin Alimot Adebukola

National Productivity Centre, Osun state office



The survival organizations amidst increasing competitions occasioned by changing global markets depend on creating opportunities that will enable them override their competitors. Improving organizational competitive advantage through total quality management appear to be the surest way to survive the onslaught of rising competitions occasioned by the global business activities. Total quality management (TQM) improves competitive advantage by enhancing quality considered in the literature as the embodiment of the expectations of consumers, is thus, a positive approach to increasing consumer satisfaction, reducing production’s cost and products/service’s price while increasing productivity. The strength of TQM in assisting organizations to capture and sustain competitive advantage centres on continuously satisfying the dynamic change in the tastes of consumers using its three segment of continuous improvement, customers’ satisfaction and process improvement. TQM is a management strategy that coalesce individual beliefs, values and ways of the employees to align with organizational strategic plans of increasingly satisfying consumers’ expectations, as an instrument of achieving organizational goals. Whereas the implementation of TQM’s concept of customers’ orientation and quality improvement, help organizations to capture competitive advantage; its principles like leadership and commitment of top management, proper implementation of enterprise’s culture, continuous training, customers’ orientation, create ground for sustenance of competitive advantage.

Keywords: total quality management, quality, customer satisfaction, competitive advantage, improvement, consumer and productivity




Do Remittance Inflows Drive Industrialization and Productivity? Evidence from Nigeria


*Sulyman Abdulmajeed Olayinka; **Aganah Kauna; & **Onipede Adenike Mary

*Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office **Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office



This paper specifically investigates the direct and indirect effect of remittance inflows on industrialization (measured with industrial output). In general, it examines whether remittance inflows drive industrialization in Nigeria. Annual time series data from World Bank’s Development Indicators and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin 2015 were used. The autoregressive distributed lag model based on unconstrained error correction model (ARDLUECM) was employed in investigating the direct effect while the indirect effect was determined using the Restricted Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Results from ARDL Model demonstrate that remittance inflows have significant positive effect on industrialization in the long run but not in the short run. This implies that the direct effect of remittances on industrialization happens only in the long run. Secondly, results from Restricted VAR Model reveal that private sector credit (i.e., measure of financial development) is an effective transmission channel through which remittances drive industrialization. This result suggests that remittances have indirect effect on industrialization. In summary, these findings suggest that the inflows of remittances directly and indirectly drive industrialization in Nigeria in the long run. In line with these outcomes, we recommend that the development of the financial sector is necessary; in order to enhance the movement of remittances to the Nigeria industrial sector. Also, the proper utilization of remitted funds in productive activities is vital in order to attain industrial growth and development in Nigeria. 

Keywords: Remittances, Industrialization, Private Sector Credit, Industrial Growth, Development, ARDL Model, and Restricted VAR Model




Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Organizational Trust on Workplace Deviant Behaviour in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks


Abdulrazak Nuhu; Jika Usman; & Sani Usman Audu

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Administrative and Business Studies, Numan, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



This study examined the effect of psychological contract breach on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational trust in the Nigerian deposit money banks. The study adopted cross sectional and survey research design. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing five-point Likert scale. The population of the study is 771 staff of the listed deposit money banks in Kaduna metropolis. 263 employees were drawn as sample using Yaro Yamane (1976) sample size formula as well as probability random sampling technique. Regression and correlation analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The findings review that there is significant relationship between psychological contract breach and workplace deviant behaviour. Therefore, it is recommended that managers should ensure that promises made to employees are fulfilled so that employees do not perceive their psychological contract has been breached, and also improve on long term career progression, career openings clearly practiced to gain employee confidence.

Keywords: Psychological contract, workplace deviant behavior, psychological contract breach, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Organizational Trust.




Diversification Into Agricultural Production And Other Non-Oil Mineral Resources As A Panacea To Solving The Problems Of Unemployment And Insurgency/Banditry In Northern Nigeria


*Ma’aruf Tijjani; **Sani Musa Zakire; & ***Shitu Sani

*Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, School of Continuing Education. **Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, Department of Economics. ***Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbots Kano, Kano State Nigeria, Department of Adult and Non-formal Education



The aim of this study is to examine the effect of diversification into agricultural production as a panacea to solving the problem of unemployment in northwestern part of Nigeria. Using simple statistical analysis, result of the study has indicated a negative and significant relationship between agricultural production and unemployment rate from the year 2015 to 2020. The study recommends that government in Nigeria should improve on mobilization of people to understand and harness the processes of diversification. It should also try to improve and provide infrastructural facilities such as; power supply, markets, roads, seaports, airports. etc to help in easy movement of goods and services.

Keywords: Diversification, Agriculture, Production, Unemployment




Relationship Marketing and its Impact on Customer Drive and Retention Motive of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria


Bello, Babatunde Sikiru and Abdulsalam, Abdulmutalib Adinoyi

Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida Niger State



The banking industry and other financial institutions are competing among themselves hence, the need to strategize on how to retain as many good customers as possible. The Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) studied in this work are Zenith Bank and First Bank operating in Bida Town. The study is intended to determine the extent to which relationship marketing can influence customer drive and retention motives in Deposit Money Banks. Related literature was reviewed. The study used descriptive research design and simple random sampling method. The population for the study is estimated at 18,500 out of which a sample of 392 was taken via Taro Yamane formula. Close-ended questionnaires were administered. Descriptive and T-test statistics were used to analyze the data. A major finding revealed that quality service, good communication and trust influence customer retention in deposit money banks. The study concludes among others that relationship marketing in customer retention drive is very vital for firms to move beyond service delivery and satisfy both their existing and new customers. It was therefore recommended that management of banks should always emphasis on qualitative service delivery and not just service delivery by all staff to customers in order to achieve their customer loyalty and retention objectives.

Keywords: Relationship Marketing; Impact; Customer Drive; Retention; Motive; Deposit; Money; Banks.




Improving Productivity through Small Medium Enterprises (SMES) for Economic Development in Nigeria


Imosun Mojisola Adenike; Alabi Adetoyin Oluwafunmilayo; & John Egwa



This paper seeks to examine how various efforts made by government and other institutions to improve productivity of SMEs thereby effecting the entire GPD growth in the country yielded result.   An attempt was also made to examine Conceptual clarifications as well as the Overview of government efforts to enhance SME productivity. A Cross country analysis of finance models and link between SMEs growth and overall economic development is also discussed in the paper .In addition, the methodology will be a comparative analysis of difference measures put in place by other nations of the world like India were carried out in this work which enables the paper to proffer out appropriate recommendations needed to promote not only the growth of SMEs but also to enhance their productivity which is the basis for obtaining quality of lives as well as economic development

Keywords: Small, Medium Scale Enterprise (SMEs), Productivity, Economic Development, Growth, Analysis and Government.




Non Current Liabilities and Earnings per Share Growth in Selected Listed Consumer Goods Firms in Nigeria


*S. Abdurrazaq; **Dr M. N. Ahmed; & **Dr L. O. Mustapha

*Department of Accountancy, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Accounting, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna



The study examined the effect of non-current liabilities on the growth of earnings per share (EPSG) in listed consumer goods firms in Nigeria. The proxies for non-current liabilities were deferred tax liabilities (DTL), borrowings (BRW), retirement benefit obligations (RBO) and Lease liabilities (LSL). The research adopted was correlational research design. The population of the study was 21 listed consumer goods firms in Nigeria. The sample size was 10 selected listed consumer goods firms in Nigeria, using judgmental sampling technique. Content analysis of the annual reports of the selected companies was carried out in a trend of 10 years (2012 2021). The descriptive and inferential statistics were mean, standard deviation, regression analysis, t-test and chi-square, all were run STATA 13. The findings reveal that each of DTL, BRW and LSL is negative and insignificant on the EPSG. Only RBO is positive but also insignificant. The major recommendations hold that the managements of companies should review and reset maximum threshold of gearing in order to accommodate non-current liability items within debt-equity ratio set for capital structure.

Keywords: deferred tax liabilities, borrowings, retirement benefit obligations, lease liabilities and earnings per share growth.




Effect of Training on Performance of Public Administrators during Covid-19 Pandemic in Federal Capital Territory Abuja


1Ahmed Aliyu Tanko, 2Adamu Isyaku Ibrahim & 3Justin Shekwoyadu Zakoyi

1 Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State – Nigeria. 2&3Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State – Nigeria.



The outcome of coronavirus in 2020 had change the way everything is done in the world today, public administrators are expected to perform their duties diligently at the time that their services are needed to meet the challenges posed by COVID-19 but this is often not achieved in practice because their attitudes towards COVID-19 pandemic is too fearful. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of training on the performance of public administrators during COVID-19 pandemic in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. Survey method was used and data was analyzed using Descriptive Statistics and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses. The findings showed that off the job training, on the job training and vestibule training has affected the performance of public administrators during COVID-19 pandemic in FCT Abuja and the general well-being of employees. The study concluded that lack of training affects performance of public administrators during COVID-19 pandemic in FCT Abuja. In light of these, the study recommended that seminars, workshops, conferences and in-house instructions should be organized for public administrators to ensure that every stakeholders are properly trained. Coaching and job rotation should be practically oriented for public administrators during COVID-19 pandemic in FCT Abuja to ensure that every stakeholders are properly trained. The government should empower organizations in various units with the training tools to improve performance of public administrators and give room for contributions for any changes on the training tools in use.

Keywords: Administrators, COVID-19, Pandemic, Performance, Training.




The Impact of Entrepreneurial Skills on Firm Performance in Nigeria


*Christiana L. I. Tanze; **Oyigbenu Zipporah Elijah; & **Zhebago Emmanuel Peter

*Department of Accountancy, School of Administration and Business studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. **Department of Public Administration, School of Administration and Business studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria



Manufacturing industries is one of the key economic drivers worldwide and entrepreneurial skills should be fully utilized well to ensure growth of these industries since the government has neglected many resources and concentrated on exploitation of oil. For a country to attain high entrepreneurialeconomy levels  in terms of high net profit returns, salient dynamic features of these manufacturing industries should be addressed prompting this research which is seeking to establish the effects of entrepreneurial skills on financial performance of listed manufacturing industries in Nigeria. The study’s specific objectives are: to investigate the effect of resourcefulness on financial performance of listed manufacturing industries, to examine the effect of risk taking on financial performance of listed manufacturing industries, to determine the effect of creativity on financial performance of listed manufacturing industries and to investigate the effect of leadership skills on financial performance of listed manufacturing industries. The research will adopt a research design that is descriptive and a sampling method known as stratified random to get the sample size.  The collection of primary data will be from direct responses from listed manufacturing industries by using structured questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used in analyzing data where multiple regression and correlation analysis will be used to examine the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable.

Keywords:  Entrepreneurial skills, Leadership skills Firm performance, Resourcefulness




Sustainability Reporting and Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria


*Obiah Mmadubuike Emmanuel; *Apkelu Azunna E.; **Igben Harvest; & ***Nwankpa Ikechukwu Raymond

*Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus) **Commissioner, Public Compliant Commission, Delta State ***Business Manager, Access Bank Plc, Nigeria



This study examines the sustainability reporting and financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study employed quasi-experimental research design to establish the relationship that exists between sustainability reporting and financial performance indices (return on assets – ROA, return on equity – ROE, and earnings per share – EPS). Purposeful sampling technique was employed to select five (5) deposit money banks quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and approved by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Secondary data, covering 2012 to 2021 financial years, were extracted from annual reports of the study sectors, using a content analysis method. The data are analyzed using SPSS, Version 23. Panel Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression method was employed in estimating the unknown parameters in the study’s regression model after conducting diagnostic and preliminary tests to ascertain that the data set are reliable and not misleading. Empirical results showed that there is a negative non-significant relationship between sustainability reporting (SR) and the performance indices (ROA, ROE, and EPS) of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommended that: only relevant information which increases the performance indices should appear on the disclosure checklist; sustainability reporting practices should be country-specific; and bank executives in Nigeria should increase and monitor the level of investment (resources, time, and energy) in order to ensure that sustainability reporting has significant impact on financial performance.

Keywords:   Sustainability, Sustainability Reporting, Financial Performance, Deposit Money Banks.




Small Scale Entrepreneurship Women Involvement and   Poverty Eradication in an Endless Inflational Economy in Nigeria


*Ajayi Johnson Kolawole; **Abubakar Sarafadeen Bayo; **Amusat Rasaq Bamidele; & **Abdullah Shuaib

*Department of Public Administration, The Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo state. **Department of Business Administration, the Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo state, Nigeria.



Entrepreneurship accounted by women has become important all over the world, especially in developing countries where it plays not only an economic role but a social role as well, changing communities and consequently, the whole society. The purpose of this study was to do an empirical analysis on the impact of women entrepreneurship on poverty alleviation among households in Saki metropolis. The study made use of primary sources of data. A structured questionnaire was used and administered on a sample of 80 respondents randomly selected from among the leading women entrepreneurs in the metropolis. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics including percentages, tables and chi-square statistical tool of analysis. Findings from the study shows that  women entrepreneurship activities in Saki metropolis have significant influence on poverty alleviation as a result of increase in income on the part of these women which eventually has a multiplier effect on the lifestyle and economic status of the respondents. It is recommended that government should create an enabling environment for businesses to thrive, provide the necessary infrastructure and incentives for women entrepreneurs so as to assist them reaching their zenith in their business journey. Also, all the entrepreneurship support programmes initiated by the government to assist entrepreneurs should be adequately empowered and mandated to perform their statutory responsibilities.

 Keywords: Women entrepreneur, Metropolis, Entrepreneurship, Economic development, Social infrastructure.




Assessment of the Contributions of Co-Operative Societies in the Development of Entrepreneurship among Youth in Kaduna State, Nigeria


*Augustine D. Buden; *Muritala A. Olaoye; & **Bashir Mmamman

*Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, Federal Co-operative Collage, Kaduna.



This research work was conducted to assess the contributions of co-operative societies in the development of entrepreneurship among youth in Kaduna State. The following research questions guided the study were; What are the activities of co-operative societies in developing entrepreneurship attitude among youth in the study area? What are the challenges of the co-operative societies in entrepreneurship development of youth in the study area? Multi-stage sampling techniques were employed in selection of 201 co-operative members in Kaduna metropolis. A questionnaire was developed based on 5-point Likert scale to gather the data. Frequencies and simple percentages were used to analyze the respondent bio data while mean score was used based on the research questions. Research results show that the  activities of co-operative societies in developing entrepreneurship attitude among youth includes assisting members in developing business plant, encouraging savings habit among youth, creating cheap and easy avenue for loans,  providing socio-economic security to youth and creating awareness on self reliance e.t.c result also show that challenges of the co-operative societies in entrepreneurship development of youth include weak financial strength, poor management, lack of managerial and technical know-how and fraud and financial malpractice. It was recommended among others that the youth should be encouraged to join co-operative society which will attract the attention of the government. Since most government policies revolves around the youth.

Keywords: Assessment of contributions, Co-operative societies, Development, Entrepreneurship among youth.




Capital Market Indicators and Economic Growth In Nigeria


*Agunuwa Ekokotu Vincent (Ph.D); *Ighoaguonor Onovughe Wilson; & **Johnson-Itabita Patience (Ph.D)

*Department Of Banking And Finance, School Of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Oghara. **Department Of Business Administration & Management, School Of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Oghara



The main objective of this paper was to empirically investigate the impact of capital market’s indicators on the level of economic growth in Nigeria during the period between 1980 -2020. The study used data collated from CBN Statistical Bulletin and annual report of Nigeria Bureau of Statistics, and Nigeria Stock Exchange, while Co-integration and it’s Error Correction Model (ECM) was used to analyze the data. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that GDP did not improved significantly during the period. Same was Market Capitalization but Initial Offers, Total Value Traded and All Shares Index improved significantly. The Johansen co-integration showed the evidence of long run co-integration which was also confirmed by the ECM result. The result revealed the speed of adjustment of about 73percent. The Granger causality test showed that there was unilateral causality relationship that ran from MCAP to GDP and not the reverse. This suggested that it was changes that occurred in MCAP that brought about the changes in GDP and was not the reverse. But there was no causality effect of IPOs, TVT, ASI and GDP.  To determine the impact of the indicators on GDP the impulse response check test was conducted. The impulse response result revealed that one period standard deviation shock on MCAP had a positive impact on GDP. Same was IPOs, TVT, and ASI respectively, Based on the results of the findings, the paper recommended amongst others that there should be an active participation of the real sector, the Government and her Agencies in the market through the issuance of bonds, to increase Initial Offerings, Total Value Traded, All Share Index as well as market capitalization for a robust involvement of the market in the growth of the economy.

Keywords; Economic Growth, Market Capitalization, Gross Domestic Product, Real Domestic Product, Error Correction Model




Authentic Leadership Style and Employee’s Performance: The Moderating Role of Job Crafting in Adamawa State 


Adamu Ahmed Girei; Rafiatu Ahmed Digil; & Rifkatu Ibrahim

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State



This paper examined the possible moderating effects of job crafting on the relationship between authentic leadership style and employees’ performance in Public higher institutions in Adamawa State, Nigeria. A total of 387staff from public higher institutions in Adamawa State Nigeria participated in the study. Questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection and structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed for data analysis. Results supported the hypothesized effects of authentic leadership style and job crafting on employees performance. In addition, job crafting moderated the relationships.  Specifically, the findings indicated weaker negative relationships between authentic leadership and employees’ performance for individuals with low as opposed to high levels of job crafting. This study contributes to authentic leadership style literature by integrating job crafting into the authentic leadership style model. It is recommended that institutions should train the employees through (seminar and workshops) to become better aware of the characteristics and behaviors of authentic leadership and Job crafting as they affect employees performance.

Keywords: Employee’s performance, authentic leadership, job crafting




Petroleum Profit Tax: It’s Impact on the Economic Growth of Nigeria


Iriabiji Uareme Emmanuel ** Elhomun Daniel Ehi** Kolawole Bamidele Aminat



The study examines the assessment of the petroleum profit tax: it’s impact on the economic growth of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of petroleum profit tax on national income, the impact of petroleum profit tax on gross domestic product and the impact of petroleum profit tax on per capital income. Ex post facto was the design used for the study. The study adopts linear regression, descriptive and correlation matrix. The population of the study was the national economic data relevant to the study. The findings of the study show that PPT have negative and insignificant effects on Gross Domestic Products (GDP), National Income (NI) and Per Capital Income (PCI).

Keywords: GDP, NI, PCI, PPT




A Survey on the Effects of Training and Development on the Performance of Employees at Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin


Saka, T. A., Salman, A. K., and Akewusola, L.

1&2Department of Business Administration and Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. 3Department of Office Technology and Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin



The success or failure of any organization, whether in the public or private sector, depends largely on its human resource. Thus, the human element is the bloodstream of an organization. The main objective of this paper is to examine the effect of training and development on employee performance. Descriptive survey research is employed. The target population is Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin, with only two hundred (200) staff selected for the study using simple random sampling, across the number of available departments. A well-structured questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale was used to collect the majority of data, and it was administered mainly through quantitative methods. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between training and development and employee performance at a 5% level of significance and that a selective hiring system in training and development has a significant impact on employees’ performance at a 95% confidence level (ẞ=1.056; t=25.773, p=0.000<0.05). The study concluded that training and development increased specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities, which led to greater performance and selective hiring. Following the institution’s needs for operational efficiencies, it is recommended that the criteria for selecting employees should be defined and made known to all employees.

Keywords: Training and Development, Performance-based Hiring, Employee Efficiency, Selective Hiring



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