African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 29 No. 2


VOL. 29 NO. 2 JUNE, 2023.



African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


A Hybrid System Using Vector Support Machine Techniques and Particle Swarm Optimization for Facial Expression Recognition


Yusuf Musa Malgwi1, Adati Elkanah Chahari2, Mariam Elias Myada3

1Department of Computer Science, Modibbo Adama University Yola, Adamawa State, 2Department of General Studies Education, School of General Education, Federal College of Education, Yola, Adamawa State. 3Department of Computer Science, Adamawa State College of Education, Hong, Adamawa State.



Our main goal in this study was to create a support vector machine (SVM) model that used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract features and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to optimize them. We compared the average execution times of SVM with PSO and SVM across different resolutions to assess the performance of our suggested model. With error rates of 5.72 percent, 8.40 percent, 11.82 percent, and 14.62 percent for resolutions of 65 by 65, 110 by 110, 155 by 155, and 200 by 200, respectively, the results demonstrated that SVM with PSO consistently outperformed SVM. Additionally, we performed an analysis using pixel-level data and discovered that SVM with PSO outperformed SVM with a resolution of 200 by 200 at a threshold value of 0.85 in terms of performance. SVM alone only managed an accuracy of 89.23%, whereas the accuracy of SVM with PSO was measured at an impressive 92.31%. Based on our thorough research, we draw the conclusion that the SVM+PCA+PSO model produces incredibly promising outcomes. This study advances feature extraction and optimization machine learning techniques by demonstrating the potential of combining SVM, PCA, and PSO for enhanced performance across a range of applications.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine, Algorithm, PCA, Particle Swarm Optimization, MATLAB




Effects of Fiber and Fly Ash on the Properties of Concrete


Gana A.J., Okoyo, O.B.

Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State



The insertion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fibers in concrete has received considerable interest due to their potential to increase the material’s mechanical performance and durability. The influence of PET fiber reinforcement on the characteristics of fly ash mixed concrete is investigated in this study. The goal is to learn how the addition of PET fibers affects the workability, mechanical strength, and durability of the concrete mixture.To accomplish this goal, a variety of concrete mixtures with various PET fiber doses are created, with fly ash serving as a partial replacement for cement. Standard tests such as slump are used to evaluate the workability of concrete mixtures. At the laboratory, mechanical parameters such as compressive strength, and split tensile strength test are conducted at different curing days.According to preliminary findings, the use of PET fibers improves the cohesiveness and workability of the fly ash mixed concrete. Higher fiber dosages, on the other hand, have been demonstrated to increase the viscosity of the concrete, potentially impacting its workability. More research is being carried out to discover the appropriate fiber dosage that balances workability improvement and mechanical performance.The study also demonstrates that PET fiber reinforcement improves the mechanical qualities of fly ash blended concrete. As addition of fiber causes a decrease in the compressive strength, it causes an increase in the split tensile strength up till a volume of 0.25% after which the split tensile strength begins to reduce.

Keywords: Effects, Fiber, Fly Ash, Properties, Concrete




Investigation of Sustainable Design Strategy to Maximise Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Silverbird Mall, Abuja and Ado Bayero Mall, Kano


Abubakar Yusuf; Ahmad Abubakar; & Zakari Tijjani Abdullahi

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.



Due to the intensive use of shopping mall, it is imperative to monitor and compare sustainable design strategy that will aid in reduction of energy consumption. There is limited knowledge on sustainable design strategy, in shopping malls at northern part of Nigeria. The aim is to identify the sustainable design strategy that maximizes energy efficiency in some selected shopping malls. During the study, two shopping malls were selected due to their intrinsic qualities which were in consonance with the phenomenon. The research was based on case study approach and data was collected through visual survey and review of existing literature. Inadequate external insulation, smooth surface finishes, spectrally selected glass (natural lightening), site external spaces, horizontal and vertical shading devices, recessed walls, landscape, natural gas and over reliance on PHCN energy source in both Silverbird mall and Ado Bayero shopping malls revealed that sustainable design strategies to maximize energy efficiency was not considered during construction of this shopping malls. The study recommends that sustainable design strategies should be considered when designing future shopping malls so as to optimize energy efficiency. This comparative study will provide reference and assist decision making for effective sustainable design in other parts of the country.

Keywords: Sustainable design strategy, Shopping mall, Energy, Energy efficiency and Energy consumption.




Relationship among Lecturers’ Work Conditions, Work Ethics and Undergraduate Students’ Academic Achievement in Federal Universities of North Central Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria


*Iyala Felix Emeka (Ph.D.); **Ahmad Shuaibu Abdullah (Ph.D.); ***Ogbo Adamu Omaku (Ph.D.); & ***Anyakorah Dorothy Chinye

*Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Veritas University, Abuja. **Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Federal University, Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State. ***Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



The study assessed the relationship among lecturers’ work conditions, work ethics and undergraduate students’ academic achievement in Federal Universities of North Central Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria. It was guided by two research questions with corresponding objectives and hypotheses. The research design used for this study was a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 5844 academic staff. The sample size of the study consisted of 1461 respondents. The instrument used for data collection was validated and it yielded 0.74 as the validity index. It was pilot tested and 0.76 was obtained as the reliability index. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Pearson product moment correlation was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between lecturers’ workload and work ethics in Federal Universities of North Central Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria and there is a significant relationship between lecturers’ workload and undergraduates students’ academic achievement in Federal Universities of  North Central Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria. The study recommended that to improve the academic achievement of undergraduate students in Federal Universities of North Central Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria, a few courses should be assigned to lecturers to enable them to teach the students diligently to avoid the stress that comes with much workload that induces poor academic achievement among undergraduate students.

Keywords: Lecturers’ Work Conditions, Work Ethics, Undergraduate Academic Achievement and Workload




Power Integrity Requirement of New Generation of ROV for Deep Sea Operation


Prof Dr Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju



Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) system requires powerful vehicles to support the bollard thrust and tool power required for deepwater tasks. Evolving deeper waters, vehicle support for heavy-duty tasks demand, deepwater subsea construction, repair and maintenance require efficient ROV power pack to support these tasks. Typical work-class ROV systems provide maximum power levels ranging from 100 to 200 horsepower that produce impressive thrust in either vertical or horizontal directions. Problem associated with ROV power pack include inefficiencies in the power system designs that limit peak system performance thrust curves, inability of the hydraulic system to adjust to varying demands, environmental concern related to energy usage and ship husbandry. This paper addresses the design and development of a variable pressure power delivery and propulsion system that significantly increases overall system efficiency to maximize use of available power.

Keywords — ROV, electric power, reliability, deep water, offshore.




Ethical Evaluation of Teamwork and Church Development in the 21st Century


Utsua, T. Peter PhD; Ishaya Oyiwosei Owusakyo PhD; & Danasebe Shagari

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Nasarawa State University Keffi Nigeria



The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of team environment on the development of the church in the 21st Century. Empirical literature in this study provided the basis for the study gap. The motif that guided the study was that which leans towards dealing or solving practical issues in a real team environment rather than focusing on procedures as Zukauskas submitted in 2018. The researcher adopted the descriptive method of research. This is to best show that, teamwork is good because it increases efficiency and effectiveness by bringing different minds to focus on the same problem in order to encourage mutual support. Many Christian organizations, Universities and colleges rely on teams. They include team-communication and team management in their courses of study to educate their members with the view of achieving the organizational set goals and benefits. The researcher discovered that, for teamwork to achieve benefits, individual members of such teams must work well together. They would need to be able to put the thoughts of their own accomplishments aside in order to work for the benefit of the team and the organization.  The building of the tower of Babel in Genesis chapter 11:1-9 was referred to as good example of breakdown of team management and we saw that the goal was not achieved. It concluded with the recommendation that, since teamwork is regarded as a dynamic process involving two or more people with complementary background and skills, sharing common goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating the situation at hand, team work should be used by church organization with the view of achieving church organizational goals, improving relationship and maximizing productivity.

Keywords: Ethical, Evaluation, Teamwork, Church, Development.




Women Empowerment and Pet Projects of Wives of Heads of State in Nigeria: An Assessment


Abdullahi Abdulkadir; & AbdulRauf Aliyu Yusuf

Department of Social Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State



The paper discussed the impact of Pet Projects of wives of Military and civilian Heads of State through the review of existing literature and covers the period from the time of Maryam Babangida to Patience Jonathan. It begins by introducing the challenges of gender disparities, then proceed the briefly discuss the concepts First Lady and Pet Project; adopted the Gender and development and Women Empowerment theory as the framework of explaining the impact of Pet Projects of wives of Heads of states; analyse the impact of their Pet Projects which the paper identifies as very important but recommends certain measures to improve their operation.

Keywords – First lady, Pet Project, Non-Governmental Organization, Women Empowerment, Head of State




Formulation of Emulsion Paint Using Hydroxylated Mahogany Seed Oil/Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymer as Binder


1Jildawa, Daniel, 2Nkafamiya Iliya .I  And  1Uzoh, Raymond D*

1Materials Science Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Chemistry Department, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria



This research study developed a copolymer binder for paint production using conventional polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and hydroxylated, epoxidized mahogany seed oil (MSO). Seed oil from mahogany was extracted, epoxidized and hydroxylated and was blended and copolymerized with conventional polyvinyl acetate in different ratio of 10 to 60% of hydroxylated oil to form HMSO/PVA copolymer binder. The copolymer binder formed was characterized, and subsequently used as a binder in formulation of emulsion paint. The important physico-chemical parameters of the formulated paint were analyzed and compared with paint formulated using only  PVA and acceptable value in quality was achieved  comparable to  commercial paints. Paint produced from the copolymer binder was found to be of good consistency, smoothness and uniformity and conformed to coating standards. The formulated paint using HMSO/PVA copolymer binder showed increase in gloss, adhesion and flexibility, which are major drawbacks  in paints produced using conventional PVA as  binder. The study  further proved  that paint produced from the HMSO/PVA copolymer showed good resistance to acids, alkalis  and salt medium compared to the pure PVA binder based paint.

Keywords: Extraction, Epoxidation, Hydroxylation, Copolymer, Polyvinylacetate




Regenerative Agriculture, a Sustainable Ethical Way to Help Transform the Textile and Fashion Industry


Sikiru Gbenga K.; Olori Oke Olusolape; Olorundare.O.; Ayorinde James.; Oladejo Afolabi O.; & Adedire O.

Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria



The fashion industry is one of the biggest contributors to global pollution. As sustainability is becoming an important topic for both agriculture and the textile sector, there is an increasing market demand for plant-based fibers production. Diversified farming systems, such as agroforestry and regenerative Agriculture, have received considerable attention for their potential to contribute to more environmentally sustainable and socially just agricultural methods, that offers a smart use of water and soil nutrition. They can be a direction for rural development through contributions in agrobiodiversity, livelihood diversity, labor availability and economic growth. In this study, the research methodology was based on a systematic literature review and secondary data collection and analyses. The aim was to investigate initiatives towards sustainable textile fibers cropping, including different species and plantation methods. The results indicate few cases worldwide and suggest cotton as the main experimented specie, generally cultivated with two other ones. They were identifying three methods applied in cotton crops: (1) crop rotation, (2) agroecological intercropping and (3) agroforestry. Results also demonstrates different production challenges, concerning machinery development to mixture crops, ideal species groups, economic viability and process scalability. Forest management methods that can sustain good mixes of tree species need to be designed, promoting rich agrobiodiversity landscapes. Thus, defining, measuring and rewarding good farming practices are the main possible drivers to motivate farmers to change to new approaches towards sustainability in textile fiber production. Further investigation is demanded to evaluate different species possibilities and cropping maintenance, as well as addressing public policies and coordinating stakeholders’ interests.

Keywords: Regenerative Agriculture; Agroforestry; Textiles Fibers, Sustainability, Cotton and Wool.



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