African Scholar Journal of Built Environment & Geological Research Vol. 29 No. 4


VOL. 29 NO. 4 JUNE, 2023.



African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


The Effects of Air Entraining Admixture on Pervious Materials


Gana A.J.; & Anifowose D. A.

Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State



This research work aimed at establishing the effects of air entraining admixture on pervious materials. Such as granite, gravel and glass. The workability, density, flexural strength and compressive strength of the bonding capacity will be put to the test based on the type of admixture used. Concrete batches were determined and compared to that of a control batch. The batches were prepared with a cement ratio 1:6 that is cement to aggregate.To increase the durability and freeze-thaw resistance of conventional concrete, air entraining admixtures are frequently utilized. These admixtures improve the concrete matrix’s resistance to freezing and thawing cycles by introducing minute air bubbles. The idea is that air entraining admixtures might provide pervious concrete with comparable advantages, adding more strength and durability without reducing its permeability. The study’s findings show that the addition of an air-entraining admixture enhances pervious concrete’s functionality. The additive enhanced the pervious concrete’s freeze-thaw resistance, lowering the risk of cracking and degradation. Furthermore, the permeability of the concrete was not considerably affected by the addition of the air-entraining admixture, indicating that the intended properties of pervious concrete to drain water can be preserved. According to these findings, using an air-entraining admixture in pervious concrete may increase its longevity and resilience to freeze-thaw cycles. This study helps us understand how to make pervious concrete combinations that work well for different purposes, especially in areas that experience frequent freeze-thaw cycles.

Keywords: Effects, Air, Entraining Admixture, Pervious Materials




An Analytical Study of the Variables that Influence the Indoor Environmental Quality of Northeast Nigerian Churches


John A. B.; Prof. S. N. Zubairu; Prof. R. E. Olagunju; and Dr O. K. Akande

Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Today, Christianity in Nigeria has increased in churches in large cities to the point where Nigeria now has the highest number of churches per capita globally. As good as that is, the concern of this paper was whether building professionals consider indoor environmental indices performance about worshippers’ comfort and well-being. This paper aimed to compare the indoor environmental performance of church buildings to develop design guidelines for improved environmental indices performance of churches in North-East Nigeria. Ten church buildings were purposefully chosen, and the effects of temperature, CO, CO2, RH, PMs, HCHO, TVOCs, Radon, Sound, Ventilation, Moisture, Dewpoint, and Lighting were investigated using a questionnaire, observation, and indoor environmental detectors. A case study evaluation was used to evaluate this pragmatic approach. The paper found that seven out of fourteen parameters had low performance on church members in North-East Nigeria. The paper recommends that information about the danger of these indices be made public. Creating a design guideline to improve worshippers’ comfort and well-being became necessary.

Keywords:  Indoor Environment; Church Buildings; Performance; Northeast: Nigeria.




Solid Waste Management in Indonesia: What Lessons for Nigeria


Dr. Danladi E. Bot 

Dept of Defence and Security Studies, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College Nigeria, Abuja, PMB, 323, Herbert Macaulay Way (North), Central Business District



The issue of solid waste management has become a matter of global concern. As the world’s population continues to grow, so does the amount of waste being produced. Additionally, as waste generation increases, so does the importance of having an effective solid waste management system in place. However, nation’s across the world face many challenges when it comes to properly managing their solid waste. In particular, for countries like Indonesia and Nigeria, waste management has been a growing concern that both nations have been grappling with. In the case of Indonesia, it has made some progress in this regard, by instituting an economy of waste, that is turning waste management there, into a dynamic, fast-changing, economic sector-a direction Nigeria can draw lessons from.  Using largely secondary sources, the paper found that, Indonesia established national strategies to address challenges related to waste and environmental management. It also found that, in Indonesia, various regulations and standards have been introduced for waste management, with many of its towns have sewer-related laws. The study also discovered that, in the case of Nigeria, the waste crisis has been exacerbated by rising quantities of waste and changing consumption and production patterns, poor regulation and limited management capacity and resources. As a way forward, the paper recommends that, Nigeria should shift its understanding to seeing ‘waste’ as ‘resource’ just as has been the case in Indonesia; and finally, improvements in precise data collection has to be instituted in order to achieve sustainable waste management in Nigeria.

Keywords: Alternative Energy, Economy, Indonesia, Nigeria, Solid Waste, Solid Waste Management, Waste




Review of Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency in Shopping Malls


Abubakar Yusuf; Ahmad Abubakar; & Zakari Tijjani Abdullahi

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.



Shopping malls is crucial to man. It is not only sited for selling and buying or a place for resting, having fun, and socializing but creates job opportunities and also influences the economy positively. For both construction and operation of shopping malls, energy is paramount. Shopping malls is ranked as one of the energy consuming buildings worldwide. It is essential to assess factor that will aid or reduce energy consumption in shopping mall. In order to design an energy efficient shopping mall, some factors have to be considered to reduce energy consumption. The aim is to identify factors that affect energy efficiency in shopping mall. This study will provide reference on factors to be considered to improve energy efficiency during design and operation of shopping malls globally. Several articles and reports on different factors affecting the rate and intensity of energy efficiency are critically reviewed in this paper to evaluate the influence to the shopping mall.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, Shopping mall, Energy consumption, Building and Factors.




Cultural Heritage and Palace Structural Symbolism in Architectural Modernization: A Case Study of the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria


Olarewaju Felix Adeyemi

Department of Architectural Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State.



In establishing synchronization between architecture and culture, it follows that architecture must “house” the activities of culture. Architectural design must therefore be able to provide space in which this activity and lifestyle can take place. While it is a fact that both architecture and culture are dynamic in nature and will move towards what is better, culture must not easily succumb to architectural demands and its attractiveness. The purpose of this research was to investigate four distinct palaces, each of which had been used by its inhabitants to make use of their traditional resources and to conserve their cultural legacy as well as their palace symbols for their people and generations yet to come. The characteristics and architectural methods that were used to reflect and represent the cultural histories of the four distinct communities were identified. The methodology of the research included both descriptive analysis and visual surveys of four palaces, which are: Etsu of Patigi palace, Etsu of Tsaragi palace, Etsu of Lafiagi palace, and Etsu of Bida palace. The results of the visual survey indicate that the community structures that were researched are capable of brilliantly expressing and preserving the cultural characteristics and legacy of their people, regardless of the practices that are practiced. The research, however, came to the conclusion that the use of architectural strategies in the protection of historical and cultural heritage is of great significance to both people and their region.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, Palace symbolism, Architectural modernization, Middle-belt, Buildings, Structures.




Appraisal of Material Management in Selected Construction Site in Kaduna Metropolis


Dalhat Eneyemire Lawal; Liasu Abdulrafiu Anaza; & Ogunniyyi Temidayo Abayomi

Department of Building, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic.



This research is to examine the materials management on building construction sites. Also to establish these: damage by mishandling and re-work due to poor workmanship, inadequate storage facilities on site, delay in material supply, inadequate supervision, poor site security, weather and other natural occurrence, alteration of designs, over ordering of construction materials, theft and vandalism are the causes of material wastage on building construction sites and the factors affecting effective material management on construction sites are as follows: design changes, lack of proper work planning and scheduling, inefficient workforce, fraudulent practices /negligence and corrupt practices, lack of security personnel, waste on construction site and lack of or inadequate storage facility. Furthermore, the research identifies the following as measures for effective material management on building construction site: employment of skilled craftsmen and operators, training of both management and other staff, employment of store keeper and security personnel; procurement requisition to specify quality, quantity and delivery time; ensuring proper planning and scheduling of building works, introducing material management at the design stage and consideration of weather conditions. The Findings show that procurement of materials with requisition from site is more common with the contractors and its best practice of materials procurements for construction sites for effective materials management. This study recommends that Contractor should make provisions for training and retraining of management and site personnel in order to improve their efficiency for effective material management and contractors should ensure the use of skilled craftsmen for their works and provide efficient supervision with professionals to ensure effective material management on building construction sites.

Keywords: Appraisal, Material, Management, Construction Site, Kaduna Metropolis



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