Harvard Int’l Journal of Innovation Research & Advanced Studies (HAJIRAS) Vol.18 (2)


HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATION RESEARCH & ADVANCED STUDIES (HAJIRAS)

VOL.18 (2) JUNE, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 0199 – 4818



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HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,

Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,

MA 02138.

 Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;

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Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.

Copyright © 2022 Harvard Research and Publications International

Email: harvardnigeriapublications@gmail.com    ||   Phone: +234 (0) 802 5604 997.

 



 

 A STUDY OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF INSECURITY IN NIGERIA

 

GODWIN AGABA OCHUBE

Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

 

Abstract

Insecurity in Nigeria and its effects has been a major challenge to States in Nigeria. The activities of bandits, kidnappers, secessionists, bandits, fraudsters and the Islamic sects (Boko Haram/ISWAP) have led to loss of properties and lives in the country especially in the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities include kidnapping and hostage taking, bombing, suicide bomb attacks, sporadic shooting of unarmed and innocent citizens, burning of police stations, churches, e.t.c. bandits now engage in kidnapping, extortion, rape and armed robbery. Youths also engage in political crisis and serves as foot soldiers for politicians who uses different ethnic and religious divisive tools to set them in loggerheads with each others. This has implication on national economy. This study has showed that insecurity impacts heavily on human development, education. It has made government to channel resources meant for infrastructure and human capacity development to security votes and measures to addressing the menace. The study therefore recommends that government must be proactive in dealing with issues of insecurity in the country by addressing the problems of unemployment, secessionist’s agitations and demands by youths at the rural societies.

Keywords: Security, Insecurity, Development, Unemployment, Insurgency.

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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE, STAKEHOLDER’S ENGAGEMENT AND GOOD GOVERNANCE: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR

 

JOSEPH A. DADA

Department of Business Administration, College of Management Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This paper explores how the inclusion of stakeholders in the public sector through transformational leadership system can enthrone good governance. The application and inclusion of stakeholders in executing humanitarian programmes and projects in the public sector serve as drivers to good governance for transformational leadership system in the competitive and comparative administration and management structures in Nigeria. Conceptual research approach was used as a research design to analyse historical trends in the implementation of good governance, especially among public sector  organisations in Nigeria. Key factors relevant for satisfactory implementation of good governance were identified in accordance with the transformational leadership style. Data collection method centred on the review of current literature on transformational leadership styles, stakeholders’ engagement and good governance in Nigeria from secondary sources. The study proposed a model for a resilience approach to effectively address the current poor governance scenarios which have resulted to maladministration and other economic vices in Nigeria. Based on the availability of these reviews, validity and reliability were drawn upon to justify the goodness of fit of the research. Findings from extant literature show that beyond socio-economic and environmental issues, Nigerian leaders and public office holders need to be sensitized that bad governance invites retarded growth, poverty, retrogression and oppression, if they continued to be transactional in their leadership dealings. In terms of the aspirations of public office holders in Nigeria, the study recommends that transformational leadership approach on collective responsibility issues can only advance the country to achieve the desired results.

Keywords:      Transformational leadership style, stakehoders’ engagement, good governance, humanitarian issues and public sector

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“IGBA BOY”: AN IGBO INDIGENOUS STRUCTURE FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL WELFARE

 

IKECHUKWU ANTHONY KANU

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State

 

Abstract

The fundamental concerns of the politics of community development and social welfare include the creation of employment, promotion of income, food security, housing, and improving the conditions of the extremely poor and vulnerable, and the integration of these (vulnerable, marginalized, disadvantaged, etc.) into mainstream development. Among the Igbo of South-Eastern Nigeria, they had traditional structures with which they prospered the community and improved on the social welfare of her people, and some of these structures have endured to this time. One of these structures is the ‘Igba Boy’ incubator system for wealth creation. This piece, therefore, studied the contribution of the ‘Igba Boy’ system of commerce to the development and improvement of the welfare of Igbo society. It also studied the relationship between this Igbo apprenticeship system and the Igbo social structure of reality, the Igbo think-home ideology and the Igbo spirit of resilience. This piece established the centrality of the Igbo apprenticeship system in the creation of wealth over the years among the Igbo, thus, making the Igbo the most successful business men and women in Africa. The beauty of it is its simplicity. It is a system that does not take equity or require raising huge capital. It is driven by a human-platform and it works based on the Igwebuike philosophy that understands the other as a part of me, and thus making me responsible for the other. For the purpose of this research, the Igwebuike indigenous method of research is employed. This paper argued that there is the need for the government to invest in this incubator system for the creation of wealth and for the tackling of the problem of unemployment in Africa.

Keywords: ‘Igba Boy’, Social Welfare, Community, Development, Incubation, Apprenticeship System, Ingratiation

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GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AKURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE

 

OGUNLADE, S.O

Remote Sensing/GIS section, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, the Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria

 

Abstract

This study examined the spatial distribution of public secondary schools in Akure South metropolis, Ondo state Nigeria with a view to accessing the level of compliance of government to international standard for sustainable development. Primary and secondary data were used in the study. Primary data was collected using a handheld GPS receiver to capture the coordinates of the public secondary schools and other relevant data. Secondary data included administrative map, names and addresses of public secondary schools in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed using Geographic Information Techniques. From survey carried out in the study area a total of twenty-three public secondary schools were identified. 52.2% of the schools have certificate of occupancy (C of O). 47.8% have topographic survey plan, and 52.2% has no topographic survey plan. From the findings, some government schools land has been encroached by some individual and some of these school buildings were been erected without the use of appropriate plan. So, to avoid future conflicts in new establishments of schools and proper management, it is recommended that the sitting of public secondary schools by the Government in the study area should be done including accessibility factors in relation to population in accordance with the land use act and also there is need to create an information and communication technology unit that will be responsible with creating and managing of geospatial information that will aid decision making.

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ETHICS IN ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

 

ANGO NUHU ALIYU (PhD)

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate and identify the importance of ethics in accounting practices and whether ethical accounting practices has any influence on the overall business performance and to create a guideline to encourage accounting professionals to understand and adopt ethical practices. The study explores how various demographical variables, specifically focusing on culture, gender and religion influence on an individual’s ethical decision-making process. The data used in this study was collected from the relevant literatures. The portals’ filters were used to identify the relevant literature to the research. The sample was chosen based upon the four themes including influence of ethical accounting practices on culture, gender, religion and impact on overall business performance. This study revealed that culture does not necessarily influence on ethical behaviour and decision-making. Conversely, a positive correlation has been found between the religion beliefs and ethical decision-making process. However, this research does not clearly point out the influence of ethical accounting practices and its influence on the business performance. This research also highlighted partial connections between how unethical accounting practices and fraudulent activities can become a threat to the business existence. The sample size and research technique restrict the results from generalising.

Keywords: Ethics, Business Performance, Accounting Practices, Decision-Making Process

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TRANSFORMING AFRICAN CITIES THROUGH PUBLIC SECTOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CIVIL SERVICE REFORM: A BLUEPRINT

 

*UMARU MUSTAPHA ZUBAIRU; & **SULEIMAN YAKUBU

*Department of Entrepreneurship, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management, Baze University, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

 

Abstract

To develop a practical developmental blueprint which African cities can adapt to transform themselves into prosperous, vibrant and resilient cities. This paper adopts a qualitative research approach by conducting focus group interviews with three experienced civil servants in order to develop a workable blueprint that can guide African city leaders to improve the lives of their citizens. This paper suggests that combining public sector entrepreneurship and civil service reform is a viable strategy to transform African cities. However, two important prerequisites must be in place for success to be attained: Leaders with the political will and moral courage to truly serve their people. African cities must become proactive and rely on the resources, human and otherwise, that they possess to make themselves more liveable, prosperous and resilient; the current popular strategy of relying on foreign assistance exclusively as the way to success is foolhardy and naïve. The road to prosperous, vibrant and resilient African cities is a long and painful one, but one which we must take for Africa to truly achieve its potential. African leaders and its people must be willing to take this hard road of insistence on excellence, meritocracy and vibrant public entrepreneurship and civil service reform for things to getter better.

Keywords:      Public sector entrepreneurship, Civil service reform, Political will, Moral courage, African cities

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WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF PEARL MILLET VARIETY (PENNISTEUM GLAUCUM L WALP) IN MAIDUGURI, SAHELIAN SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

 

*J. A. BASSI; & **W.B. AKANBI

*Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Crop Production and Soil Science, Ladoke Akintola, University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

An experiment was conducted 2015 cropping seasons in the North East of Nigeria to examined water use of pearl millet varieties. The crops were grown on a sandy loam soil in spatial arrangement typical of husbandry practices of the region. The soil is characterized by rapid drainage and low water holding capacity. The results showed that pearl millet plant ,single leaf area,  number of tillers, per plant were  higher for SOSAT-C-88 than ZATIP or LACRI-9702-1C. Panicle diameter, panicle weight, grain yield per ha and straw yield were higher for SOSAT-C-88 than the other varieties. Results indicated that SOSAT-C-88 increase water use rate over LACRI-9702-IC and ZATIP variety as transpiration by this variety may be substituting for soil evaporation. Root zone water storage of was sufficient to maintain a long duration variety ZATIP that was able to make use of water that otherwise would have been lost to drainage during the dry season. As they was no evidence of water stress up to pearl millet harvest. SOSAT-C-88 variety increased the efficiency of utilization of soil water and produced higher growth and yield components. It is concluded that water supply may not be the most limiting constraints on crop production in such conditions.

Keywords: Pearl millet variety, water, soil depth, soil profile

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NEWER ENERGY INTEGRATION ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENERGY DIVERSIFICATION FOR AFRICA DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY

 

OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE; & STEVE O. IKHELOA

Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This paper presents the recent advances in the grid management of solar photovoltaics (PV). The challenges and development related to the renewable power grid and hybrid power management issues are discussed with the salient methods and techniques to overcome the key power quality challenges and the future scope to overcome the grid penetration issues, especially variation in the intensity of energy sources and demand management.

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COMPARATIVE ANTI-DIARRHEA ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHS PULP IN CASTOR OIL AND MAGNESIUM SULPHATE-INDUCED DIARRHEA, ENTEROPOOLING AND INTESTINAL TRANSIT MODELS

 

ASIAT NA’ALLAH1, MUTIU A. ALABI1*, JAMIU B. AHMAD1, FATAI A. KAREEM2, AYODEJI O. OBATOYE3, BARAKAT OLORUNSHOGO1 AND RUKAYAT AKINODE1

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University Malete, P.M.B. 1530 Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Gateway Polytechnic, Saapade, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Production, Analytical and Laboratory Services, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

In developing nations, diarrhea is a common health problem characterized by gut secretion and motility dysfunction. Nigerians tradopractitioners use a wide range of medicinal herbs to curb this menace, among is Citrullus colocynths. The pulp of C. colocynths is heavily utilized in the management of diarrhea, hence the need to ascertain the efficacy of C. colocynths as a reliever of diarrhea. The anti-diarrhea activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of C. colocynths pulp (ECCP and ACCP respectively) was investigated using castor oil and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)-induced diarrheal model, gastro-enteropooling and intestinal transit models. Control was administered distilled water (2 mL/kg, p.o.), diarrhea group received either castor oil or MgSO4 (2 mL/kg, p.o.), standard drug received loperamide (2 mg/kg, p.o.), while treated groups received either ECCP or ACCP (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, p.o. respectively). In castor oil or MgSO4 diarrhea model, ECCP and ACCP prolonged the onset of diarrhea significantly (p < 0.05), decreased the total number and weight of diarrhea feaces corresponding to the increment seen in the % inhibition of diarrhea feaces. Similarly, ECCP revealed a decrease gastrointestinal motility significantly (p < 0.05) justifying the reduction seen in peristalsis index. There were observed significant reduction in the weight and volume of the intestinal contents (p < 0.05) in enteropooling and PGE2 model of diarrhea. In conclusion, the results obtained confirmed the anti-diarrhea activities of ECCP and ACCP and therefore provide evidence for the use of this plant traditionally by tradopractitioners.

Keywords: Diarrhea, Citrullus colocynths, castor oil, magnesium sulphate, enteropooling.

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN WEB APPLICATIONS USING C-MEANS AND LOGISTIC REGRESSION ALGORITHM

 

*DAMILOLA DAVID POPOOLA; & **DR. MICHAEL OLAOLU AROWOLO

*Department of Computer Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State. **Department of Computer Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State.

 

Abstract

Intrusion detection systems have become a crucial requirement for every firm to safeguard applications from intruders. One of the security methods used as an additional line of defense to stop web security breaches is the intrusion detection system (IDS). Although it is an established tool for identifying network-based assaults, web application security is still in its infancy. The paper’s main goal is to provide a full understanding of the detection system’s design process in relation to online applications. It uses Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression classifiers with a C-Means clustering on incursion datasets. All proximity metrics used in C-Means clustering approaches are included in the simulation. The confusion matrix is used to compare the accuracy of the clustering techniques. The outcome demonstrates that SVM and C-Means combine to produce superior clustering accuracy. K-Means is therefore a preferable choice for designing intelligent intrusion detection products.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection Systems, Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression, C-Means, K-Means

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EFFECT OF SCHOOLS SUPERVISION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BASIC SCIENCE STUDENTS IN AHOADA EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE NIGERIA

 

NWALA, LONGINUS Ph.D

Department of Integrated Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of schools supervision on the academic performance of Basic science students in Ahoada East Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Six research questions and six hypotheses were raised to guide this study. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study with a study population of two hundred (200) junior secondary school students, and one hundred and seventy five (175)  junior secondary schools was used for the study through a multi-stage sampling technique which was adopted to select three hundred and seventy – five (375)  participants. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection and all were analyzed, using simple percentage and chi-square statistical tool to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed the level of effect school supervision has on the academic performance of secondary school students on Basic science which was 76.9% indicating that more than half of the total respondents as opposed to less than 40% of the respondents that indicated 24.1% and based on that, it was concluded that the rate of school supervision is directly proportional to the academic performance of secondary school students on Basic science as a hallmark for educational improvement. It was recommended that government should increase effort on finding school supervision as to improve the quality of education which are of great significance toward students’ academic performance.

Keywords: Effect, supervision, academic performance, basic science, students

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ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL POTENTIALS OF SOME YEAST ISOLATES FROM PAWPAW, BANANA AND ORANGE FRUITS GROWN LOCALLY IN BAUCHI STATE

 

EBU BRIDGET; YUSUF HALIMA; IJEBOR FUNMILAYO DEBORAH; HARUNA HAMZA SALIHU; AND SHEHU AMINA,

Department of science laboratory technology, Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

A study of the industrial potentials of yeast isolates from pawpaw, banana and orange fruits grown locally in Bauchi state was carried out. The parameters analyzed includes estimation of yeast potency, flocculation rate, ethanol tolerance, Protein and Vitamin content. The three species of yeast identified include Saccharomyces cerevisiae A,B,C,D. Candida tropical C,D and Saccharomyces ferméntati B,C,D. The result of the analysis showed that all strains compared favorably with the industrial yeast with respect to temperature tolerance, protein and Vitamin content. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae A,B,C,D compared most favorably with the industrial yeast in viability, tolerance to alcohol concentration up to 20% and a high flocculation rate of 0.75m1/10minutes than Candida tropicalis C,D and Saccharomyces  fermentati  B,C,D. Furthermore, the temperature tolerance showed no difference with the standard at both 37℃ and 42℃ at 5%  level of significance. The importance of mass production yeast strains have been stressed.

Keywords: Assessment, Potentials, Yeast isolates, pawpaw, banana and orange fruits.

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EFFECTS OF ADDIE AND DICK & CAREY TEACHING INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND RETENTION IN MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANIC WORK IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN NORTH – CENTRAL, NIGERIA

 

DR ALI, AWALU MALIKI; & MUSA SAATU AUTA

Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan

 

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of Addie and Dick and Carey teaching instructional models on technical college student’s academic achievement and retention in Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work. The study was carried out in North – Central, Nigeria. four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 1011 National Technical Certificate Year Two students (NTC II) 2019/2020 session made up of 778 males and 233 females. The sample for the study was 99 drawn through purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a 40- multiple choice objective Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work Achievement Test (MOVMEWAT). And motor vehicle mechanic work retention test (MOVMEWORT) was the same as the achievement test, except for the fact that, the items in the achievement test were re-organized.  The instrument was validated by 5 experts from the department of Industrial and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Kuder Richardson 20 (K-R20) method was employed to determine the internal consistency of the instrument which yielded a coefficient of 0.82. The mean was used to analyse data relating to the research questions while the ANCOVA was employed to analyzing data relating to the test of hypotheses. The result of the study indicated among others that students taught using Dick and Carey Model performed academically higher in MVMW than their counterparts taught using the Addie instructional Model.

Keywords:      teaching, models, academic achievement, retention, effect, motor vehicle

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THE IMPACT OF AUDIT COMMITTEE EFFECTIVENESS ON GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF VAMULMU NIGERIA LIMITED

 

ABDULLAHI ADAMU DODO CNA

Department of Accountancy, School of Business and Management Technology, the Polytechnic Bali Taraba State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Audit committee debate in recent times has increase due its perceived roles in ensuring good corporate governance practice, several regulations and measures to prevent the occurrence of corporate failures, as provided by corporate governance codes were propounded. One of the measures accepted was the establishment of audit committee. The AC is perceived to be a means of strengthening the external financial reporting process, and also facilitating the detection and prevention of corporate misconduct and scandals. This paper studied the impact of audit committees in the face of corporate performance and mismanagement. The study used both primary and secondary sourced data to investigate the roles and the impact of AC in the cases of corporate governance, a qualitative case study method was employed to investigate the corporate performance and the AC activities. The study found that in addition to the formal processes recognized or outlined by the code of corporate governance, governance outcome are largely influenced by the non-formal processes and power relationship existing in the corporate environment. The non-formal processes are not captured with precision in the code of corporate governance and so, it’s an area that is unexplored in the extant research on AC activities. The result is conformity with the research hypothesis that state that there is a positive relation between the AC and the good corporate governance outcome and so, it suggest the need to identity the caliber of persons that forms the ACs in every organization.

Keywords: Audit Committee, Governance, performance.

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CLOUD COMPUTING’S IMPACT ON EDUCATION

 

YAMUSA IDRIS ADAMU; LELE MOHAMMED; & YAKUBU NUHU DANJUMA

Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnics Bauchi

 

Abstract

Every country’s economic growth is dependent on its educational system. Now that classroom teaching is changing and students are becoming more technology-focused, we must consider how to incorporate new technologies into the teaching and learning process in this changing environment. Cloud Computing is one of the most recent technologies available today. Educational institutions can outsource noncore services and focus more on providing students, teachers, faculty, and staff with the tools they need to thrive by sharing information technology (IT) services in the cloud. This article examines the impact of cloud computing on the educational system and how we may use this technology to give a high-quality education.

Keywords: Higher education, cloud computing, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS.

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EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava) IN THE CONTROL OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH GARDEN EGG FRUITS (Solanum gilo)

 

*OLORUNDARE, OLUFUNKE OLUFUNMILOLA; *MAFUYAI JULIUS; *GBENGA SIKIRU KOLA; *AYORINDE JAMES OLASUNKANMI; & **AGU CHIBUZOR GERALD

*Federal college of forestry, Jos. Pest Management Technology department. **National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Bacteria Vaccine Production Division

 

Abstract

Garden egg is a type of eggplant that is used as food crop in several countries in Africa. It is grown as an annual plant and is one of the most consumed fruit vegetables in tropical Africa. It’s medicinal power has the ability to cure high blood pressure and also a good source of nutrition for human body (Danquah and Ofori, 2012). Guava leaf extract has antimicrobial activity and has shown to inhibit the growth of fungi in different dilutions and concentrations (Puntawong et al,.2012; Anas et al., 2008). The postharvest diseased of garden egg was evaluated. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of different concentrations of guava leaf (Psidium guajava) extract of fungi isolated from garden egg fruits in some market in Jos. Infested garden eggs were inoculated into Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and pure cultures were obtained. Identification of isolated fungi were made based on the cultural characteristics and microscopic examination. Pathogenicity test was carried out on the healthy garden egg to determine if fungi isolates was responsible for the rot. Sensitivity test was carried out on isolates at different concentration of 5ul, 10ul, 15ul and 20ul using disc diffusion method (Padron et al., 2012). The data were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the mean value were separated using Duncan Multiple Range test. A Complete randomised design (CRD) was used and experiment was replicated 3 times with 5 treatments including control. The results revealed that Mucor sp, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp and Yeast were responsible for the spoilage of garden egg. The mean weight loss and diameter of rot caused by the fungi isolates shows that Aspergillus niger gave the highest weight loss of 63.1g and diameter of rot 39mm while the yeast gave the least weight loss of 10g and rot of 27.3mm. The result of the sensitivity test showed that there was significant difference at the days of exposure with P value < 0.001 and also significant difference for individual at different concentration. 20ul gave the best action for all fungi isolates while 5ul gave no inhibitory effect. This implies that guava leaves extract is effective for the control of fungi isolated from garden egg fruits.

Keywords: Guava Aqueos Extract Garden Egg Fungi Pathogenicity

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A PROPOSED APPROACH TO COMBINING FORECASTS

 

ISMAILA A. BOLARINWA; & BUSHIRAT T. BOLARINWA

Department of Statistics, the Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

An approach to combining multiple forecasts into single forecast is proposed. The method which utilizes all-possible-regressions approach measures in-sample forecasting ability through the adjusted coefficient of determination and out-of-sample forecasting ability, through mean square error to pick best subset of individual model forecasts for predicting the actual series values. The inspiration behind combining multiple forecasts into single forecasts remains the desire to obtain more accurate forecasts. Experimental results with solar radiation data indicate that the proposed method is better than mean and median forecast combining schemes. Hence, the approach may be used for combining forecasts towards attaining improved accuracy.

Keywords: Series, Forecasting, Adjusted R square, Mean, Median

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STUDENTS’ ENROLMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-EASTER STATES OF NIGERIA: ANALYTIC VIEW

 

TEMITAYO OLUWAKEMI OLAITAN

Department of Educational Foundations, College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State

 

This Research Study is an Offshoot of Institutional Based Research Sponsored by Tetfund.

 

Abstract

Issues surrounding students’ enrolment have become a source of concern to all and sundry. One of the fallouts of students’ enrolment is the school overpopulation which affects effective management and realization of objectives of secondary education. In order to ascertain whether or not students’ enrolment impact on management of secondary schools, this study digs into students’ enrolment and management of secondary schools in North-Eastern States of Nigeria. It was a descriptive study guided by four research questions and hypotheses. The total population comprised 4,434 principals and vice principals across 1,478 secondary schools in the study area out of which 443 sample size was randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire (which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.79% when computed in Cronbach Alpha analysis with the aid of SPSS) was used as instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer research questions while Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that students’ enrolment significantly impact on norms of class size, maintenance of discipline, management of finance as well as principals’ administrative effectiveness in secondary schools. It was therefore concluded that as far as North Eastern States of Nigeria is concerned, to a reasonable level, students’ enrolment significantly impact on management of secondary schools. Among others, it was recommended that government should make policy for payment of secondary education tax by companies, and that policy should enforce that only degree holders in educational administration and management are made secondary school principals in order to ensure effective management of secondary schools and attainment of objectives of secondary education.

Keywords: Student’ enrolment, finance, class size, discipline, management, secondary education

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THE IMPACT OF THE RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR ON THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

 

OBINNA CHILEKEZI

Insurance & Risk Management

 

Abstract

This study examined the impact of Russia Ukraine war on global economy and global institutions like the insurance industry; which was extended to the African and the Nigerian insurance industry. This is a qualitative research using mainly primary data for reviews. Data were also collected through the interview method from 25 insurance practitioners in Nigeria on the subject of investigation. These respondents were selected using the purposive sampling method. The results from the reviews and interview showed that the war would impact negatively economy and the insurance industry. The same should be expected to happen to the African and the Nigerian economies and their insurance industries.

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ASSESSMENT OF METAL STEEL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN AJAOKUTA STEEL COMPANY, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

 

OLORUNTOBA GABRIEL1; ATSUMBE, B. N.2; & USMAN, G. A.2

1Dangote Cement Public Limited Company, Obajana Plant, Nigeria. 2Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The study assessed Metal Steel Waste Management Practices in Ajaokuta Steel Company, Kogi State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted in Ajaokuta Steel Company, Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of 144 respondents which consists of 60 engineers, 50 technologists and 34 technicians in Ajaokuta steel company as total respondents from the study. 25 item structured questionnaire, developed was used to collect data for the study from the respondents. The instrument was divided into two parts (1 & 2), part 1 consist of instructions and personal data as section A while part 2 consist of two categories sections B & C of the questionnaire items and were face validated by three experts. The overall reliability coefficient for the entire 25 items questionnaire was determined to be 0.968. Weighted mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses 1 & 2 at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that all metal wastes collection practices items were agreed on by the respondents. Hence, metal wastes collection practices were required for Metal Steel Waste Management in Ajaokuta steel company. It was also found out that the metal wastes recycling practices in Ajaokuta steel company were observed as agreed on by the respondents. In addition, the findings on hypotheses 1 revealed that there is significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the three groups of respondents (60 engineers, 50 technologists and 34 technicians) as regards the metal waste collection practices. In the same vein, hypotheses 2 revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the respondents as regards the metal wastes recycling practices. It was therefore recommended among others that metal steel waste management practices should be utilize by Ajaokuta steel company in other to reduce wastes and improve its profitability. Engineers, technologists and technicians should be given further academic and professional training on maintaining precision rules during production of components in other to reduce metal wastes.

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REFOCUSING ON EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS: A VERITABLE TOOL FOR OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT GRADUATES’ ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND 21ST CENTURY WORKPLACE

 

UKONU, EGBE ELIZABETH; & HABU, JUNGI UMAR

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This paper brings to the fore the essence of refocusing on employability skills as a veritable tool to make OTM graduates fit for entrepreneurship and the 21st century workplace. Employability is not just about getting a job, it is about a broader set of skills and attributes that will enable a graduate to be successful throughout their working life, whether self-employed or working of someone. Employability skills required by the OTM graduates includes but not limited to hard and soft skills. Hard skills are the technical skills that include ability to access and navigate the computer, word processing which is the ability to create, edit, save, retrieve and delete documents, ability to use the photocopier, ability to copy, move, rename, justify, centralise, left align documents, ability to scan, infact the ability to use the Microsoft Office package among others while soft skills include various skill set such as leadership, business management, time management, creative thinking and problem solving. Soft employability skills are vital for promoting innovation, business growth and competitiveness. As good as these skills are for smooth running of the 21st century office, there are some factors that hinder the acquisition of these skills, which include: lack of or inadequate Infrastructural facilities, inadequate funding of the education sector, lack of motivation to the lecturers by not constantly sending to workshops and conferences and even study fellowship leaves for training and retraining in their areas of specialization, and students not exposed excursion during their training. Based on the foregoing, the following recommendations were made: Office Technology and Management graduating students should endevour to familiarize themselves with all hard and soft skills necessary to make them relevant in the 21st century workplace, the Nigerian government should make enough funds available for the acquisition of instructional materials in Higher institutions of learning in Nigeria especially the polytechnics to acquire the relevant equipment among others.

Keywords:      Refocusing, employability, entrepreneurship, OTM graduates, 21st century office

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IMPACT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ON GROWTH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN CONTINENT: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA (2006 – 2020)

 

OMOTAYO AJIBIKE ADEKOLA; SEGUN WALE OLAYINKA; KHADIJAT AYOBAMI ADEAGBO; & JADESOLA ABIODUN ADEPOJU

Department of Accountancy, the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The study assessed the impact of small and medium scale on growth and economic development of African continent using Nigeria as a case study covering the periods of 2006 to 2020. The study was carried out due to the high value placed on small and medium enterprises in the world. The industry had been playing conspicuous role which had brought sustainability to most countries. The study adopted ex-post research design using time series data for the period of 2006 to 2020. Secondary source of data collection was employed and the data were obtained from statistical bulletin of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study indicated that a unit increase in explanatory variables result in increase in Gross Domestic Product, therefore, a significant positive impact exist between activities of small and medium scale enterprises and economic development of African continent. The study recommends that African continent should empower their small and medium enterprises and provide enabling environment which will encourage utilization of full capacities of resources which will enable exportation of goods and services, thereby increase their foreign earnings.  

Keywords:      SMEs, Growth, Economic development, Africa continent.

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HARNESSING ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET TO TECHNICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA IN THE 21ST CENTURY

 

ABUBAKAR IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD, PhD; & BASHEER GARBA FAGGE

Metalwork Technology Department, School of Secondary Education (Technical), Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, Kano State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Technical education is a bedrock for employment but the system is facing set back due to the lack of appropriate Entrepreneurial Mindset model. Consequently, developing a conceptual model is the main aim of this work for integration into technical college programs; thus sustainable entrepreneurship development in Nigeria enable the students to be self-employment after their graduation. The method employed to analysed the data is Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Accordingly, Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS), Version 23.0 was utilized to perform a CFA on the 201 respondents from the overall sample of 364 to determine if the factor structure needs adjustment. The result of the study shows a modified measurement model of the significant relationship between the responses of teachers and that of entrepreneurs on the 8 significant elements of entrepreneurial mindset needed by the students of technical colleges for sustainable self-employment in Nigeria. Therefore, going by the modified model it has been established that to achieve appropriate integration of entrepreneurial competencies into technical college programs, these significant elements of entrepreneurial mindset should be put into consideration.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Mindset; Technical College; Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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EFFECT OF FIRMS-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS ON CORPORATE CASH HOLDING OF LISTED MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA

 

SHAMSUDDEEN, SHEHU SAEED; & IDRIS IBRAHIM

College of Business and Management Studies, School of Business and Financial Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Cash holding decision is one of the most significant decisions taken by the financial managers of any manufacturing firms. The decision not only depends upon the theoretical view but also the firm–specific variables of the economy. This study therefore examines effect of firm-specific characteristics on cash holding of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The population of the consist of 51 manufacturing firms listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange, while the adjusted population of 35 firms was arrived based on availability of data. Correlational research design was adopted. The study was anchored on free cash flow theory, trade-off theory and pecking order theory. Multiple regressions were employed to analyses data extracted from annual report of selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria from the period of 2012 to 2019. The result of the findings shows that growth opportunity and research and development have positive and significant relationship on corporate cash holding. However, negative and significant relationship was found between leverage and corporate cash holding. In line with the findings, the study therefore recommends that managers should rationally presume that a firm with high quick asset replacements, high debt, and equity expense should maintain lower cash holdings. If for the unusual object, a firm with high quick asset delegates, high debt, and equity expense has high cash holdings, this force is a flag of a potential agency conflict. Furthermore, managers of manufacturing firms should not settle too much cash on their hands because it will lead to deterioration in the market for capital.

Keywords: Cash holding, Decision, Firms, Manufacturing.

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CASE STUDIES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTACTIVITIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL NGOS IN JOS METROPOLIS

 

*HABILA, OPTIMISTYOHANNA; **BOGORO AUDU GANI; & **LUMI ZAMAN

*Tertiary Education Trust Fund, No. 6, Zambezi Crescent, Off AguiyiIronsi Street, Maitama,FCT Abuja, Nigeria. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

In recent times, Jos metropolis has witnessed a rapid increase in the number of NGOs involved in environment related interventions,but the NGOs involved in solid waste management and the specific solid waste management initiatives these NGOs carry out in the metropolis has not yet been fully exploited.  This study was aimed to identify NGOs involved in solid waste management operations in Jos metropolis and assess the specific solid waste management activities they carry out. Using purposive approach, 115 NGOs were identified in the study area and questionnaires administered to them all. The study results revealed that 50% of NGOs in the metropolis are involved in different solid waste management intervention initiatives, and that Environment is the fourth (11.3%) major thematic area of intervention of NGOs in the metropolis. The finding revealed eight different types of activities embarked upon by NGOs in solid waste management in the study area: Community sensitisation and mobilisation (25.0%), capacity building (17.5%), sanitation and garbage collection (15.0%), advocacy/policy (12.5%) and Monitoring and Evaluation and direct service delivery each accounting for 10.0%. Waste/garbage transportation and dumping comes in seventh (7.5%), while composting sits eighth on the log, contributing 2.5%.Featured in the selected Case Studies of specific solid waste management activities of the NGOs areCentre for Healthcare and Economic Empowerment for Women and Youth(CHCEEWY) which activity is waste removal and public education on waste disposal in Tudun Wada, Jos North, followed by Balm of Gilead Empowerment Mission International (BOGEMI) which activity is evacuation of Three Trash-blocked Wells at school for the Blind, Zawan, Jos South.  Also covered isTearfund’s work through funding of the Jos Green Centre (JGC) to carry out waste collection and recycling in Jos metropolis, and that ofFlame of Hope Centre for Poverty and Disease Control which wascommunity mobilisation and evacuation of waste at Bassa LGA. Finally, the activities of AfriFoundation Agenda for Sustainable Environment (AFASE) on Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Audit on GSM Masts in Jos metropolis and Lead Posioning Audit at Wase LGA as well that for Civil Liberties Organisation (CLO) and the Plateau Environmental Coalition, a policy initiative tagged ‘Advocacy for Review of Policy on Ecological Justice in Plateau state’. It is recommended that the Plateau State government considers NGOs as partners in progress and adopt an all-encompassing frame work that allows for their active participation including all relevant stakeholders in the various environmental activities embarked upon by the responsible government agencies. Similarly, other local and development partners with interest in environmental management need to assist the NGOs by partnering with them through funding, technical support, research among other things.

Keywords: Environment, NGOs, Solid Waste Management

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