African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 25 No. 2


VOL. 25 NO. 2 JUNE, 2022 ISSN: 2910-1083



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


National Intellectual Capital and Sustainable Development: Nigeria in Perspective


Amanda Olowoniyi

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Humanities, Social and Management Sciences, Elizade University



This paper explores the relationship between national intellectual capital and sustainable development in Nigeria. Using the National Intellectual Capital Indicator (NICI)model, the paper relied on secondary sources of data. It is descriptive and analytical. The findings showed that intellectual capital is the bedrock of sustainable development. It is also gathered that Nigeria is yet to integrate, substantially, national intellectual capital into sustainable development, leading to dearth of data on the matter. The paper recommends that, for Nigeria to fully harness her intellectual capital, attention must be paid to developing and retaining her human capital, which is the intangible asset required to drive her on the path to sustainable development in the global economy which is knowledge based.This calls for a joint effort from both the government, academics and civil society at large with policies that would increase the value on human capital and stifle the output loss to brain drain.

Keywords- Intellectual capital, human capital, sustainable development,




Enhancing Image Security Using Data Encryption Standard, Discrete Wavelet Transform Watermarking, Residue Number System and Gaussian Filtering


Bolaji Asaju; Damilola David Popoola; Professor Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Kwara State University, Malete



Image encryption is the process of transforming images for its security. The security of digital images has attracted more attention recently due to the need to send images without fear of being attacked. Different schemes have been used to address security problems such as Data Encryption Standard (DES) using Residue Number System (RNS) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using RNS. However, the former has a blurry result. Therefore, this thesis presents the enhancement of image security using Data Encryption Standard, Discrete Wavelet Transform Watermarking, Residue Number System and Gaussian Filtering. The developed system utilized RNS on a reversible watermarked image using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and encrypted using Data Encryption key. The encrypted images was converted to RNS with the moduli set {2n+1 -1, 2n, 2n-1} this process completes the encryption stage. The decryption was done using the Chinese Remainder Theorem and the cipher key was provided for DES decryption, which also performs reversible watermarking. The Gaussian filter is then introduced to get the original-colored image. The Gaussian filtering was introduced to help remove blurriness in the process of encrypting and decrypting the images which gives the scheme a better Peak-signal-to-Noise-Ratio and justifies the effect of adding filtering to image processing modules of the developed systems. The deployment of this combined model has the capability to protect sensitive image file from being exposed to the unauthorized user while being transferred to its target destination. The result obtained shows that the proposed system has a better average encryption time and has higher level of security with the inclusion of an additional layer of security when compared with the existing system.

Keywords: Image Encryption, Data Encryption, Residue Number System, Advanced Encryption Standard, Discreate Wavelength Transform, Reversible Watermarking.




Globalization, Development and Underdevelopment


*Olugbenga Charles Adewale, PhD; & **’Bimbo Ogunbanjo

*Department of Mass Communication, Ecole Superieure Technologies Avancees et de Management (ESTAM University), Segbeya, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. **ISM – Adonai University, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. [Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria].



The term ‘globalization’ has increasingly come to be associated with the era in which we live and reflects the degree to which our lives and the societies in which we live are influenced by processes and trends which are global as opposed to national in origin. This paper: explores the links between globalization and development, looking at arguments about both the negative and positive aspects of the relations between the two; examines the realities of a shrinking world as an increasingly unequal world and the persistence of ‘unequal geographical development’; presents an updated picture of the global digital divide showing just how unequal the world is in terms of communications; reviews economic aspects of globalization, especially what is referred to as ‘global shift’ in the manufacturing sector and the emergence of what are referred to as ‘global production networks’; defines and explores the realities of the joint processes of global convergence and global divergence as key systems leading to homogeneity in patterns of consumption for those who can afford it, and heterogeneity in respect of production and ownership; reviews aspects of cultural globalization; considers political aspects of globalization; and overviews protests against the current forms that globalization is assuming in the form of the anti-globalization and anti-capitalism movements, including urban social movements.

Keywords: Globalization, Global Shift, Global Production Networks, Global Convergence, Global Divergence, Development, Underdevelopment




Umezinwa’s Denial of Globalisation as a Process and Modality of Being: A Critical Response


Ikechukwu Anthony Kanu

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya



The present paper is a response to the work on “Globalization in Africa: A critical reflection on Kanu’s concept of globalization as a Process” published in AMAMIHE: Journal of Applied Philosophy (20. 1. 206-224) by Dr. Umezinwa. This paper is supposed to be a response to a chapter the present researcher contributed to and a book edited by Umezinwa titled “African philosophy: A pragmatic approach to African problems”. In this book, the present researcher wrote on “Globalization, Globalism and African Philosophy”. Contrary to the present researcher’s view of globalization as a process and a modality of being, Umezinwa argued that globalization is man-formulated policy and not an ontological reality. He argued that it is factitious and propagated through the shenanigans of its originators, the West. He, therefore, called on Africans particularly to be wary of its chameleon-nature, comparable to a Trojan horse. In this paper, the researcher argued that Umezinwa has not been able to prove that globalization is not a process or a modality of being; he has only succeeded in the denial of his being as a globalizing being or reality. In his paper, he has only succeeded in proving that he is a being that globalizes with no consciousness of globalizing. The present research, therefore, still holds that Africans have a responsibility to globalize. The method of research employed in this piece is the critical, Igwebuike (an indigenous holistic approach) and systematic approaches.

Keywords: Globalization, Umezinwa, Africa, Modality of Being, Philosophy, Process, Kanu




A Sustainable Development Framework and Application of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC): A Review Paper


Mustapha Kassim; Umar Bello; & Koiranga Abdullahi Hammanadama

Department Of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.



Mobile cloud computing (MCC) is the combination of cloud computing, mobile computing and wireless networks to bring rich computational resources to mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing providers. It offers variety of opportunities that help the organizations to improve their operations and use technology more efficiently. Mobile cloud computing has formed the conceptual and infrastructural basis for tomorrow’s computing. The global computing infrastructure is rapidly moving towards cloud based architecture. Cloud services can be provisioned as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and they can be deployed as private, community, public or hybrid clouds. Cloud computing provides several advantages like ease-of-deployment, no maintenance and up-front costs, and rapid and efficient scalability. But it does pose several challenges with regards to security of data and privacy issues. If security is not robust and consistent, the flexibility and advantages that cloud computing has to offer will have little credibility. This paper presents a review on the cloud computing concepts architecture and application as well as security issues inherent within the context of cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Service models, Deployment models, architecture, Data security.




Impact of Credit to the Private Sector on Manufacturing Sector’s Output in Nigeria


*Nwachukwu Chika Nnenna; **Oti Amadaere Tonye; & ***Anoliefo Marycynthia Chioma

*Procurement Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters. **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters. ***Productivity Measurement and Index (PMI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters



This paper sets out to examine the impact Credit to the Private Sector on manufacturing sector’s output in Nigeria.  For this purpose, empirical data was utilized from 1981Q1 to 2015Q4. The order of integration of each series was determined by testing for stationarity using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillip-Perron (PP) tests. The Johansen’s cointegration test was then carried out to determine the presence of long-run equilibrium relationship amongst the variables. The Johansen’s cointegration tests results showed that all the variables are cointegrated thus indicating the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship amongst the variables under study. To draw empirical evidences, both long-run and short-rum Error Correction Model (ECM) were estimated and the Wald test of coefficients restrictions were performed to establish the financial sector-real sector (manufacturing sector) linkage in Nigeria by determining the casual effects among the coefficients of the variables. The results revealed that both in the long-run and shortrun, private sector’s credit have significant negative effects on manufacturing sector’s output. Based on the results, the study concludes that the financial sector causes growth in the real sector (manufacturing), thus, depicting the supply-leading response.

Keywords: Monetary Incentives, Private Sector’s Credits, Manufacturing Sector Output, Manufacturing Capacity Utilisation, Supply-Leading Response, Demand-Following Response, Error Correction Mechanism (ECM)




The Effect of Co2 Proportion on Exhaust Emissions of a Direct Injection (DI) Gas Engine Fuelled with a High Carbon Dioxide (Co2) Content-Natural Gas


Ayandotun B. Wasiu1,2, A. Rashid B. A. Aziz1, Rasheed Adewale Opatola3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia. 2Mechanical Engineering Dept., The Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria.



Sometimes, raw natural gas from gas reserves is not directly harness able due to high CO2 contents ranging from 25 to 89%. For instance, in Malaysia over 13 Tscf of hydrocarbon gas remains undeveloped in high CO2 fields with the individual field CO2 content ranging from 28% to 87%. Capturing the CO2 is often capital intensive and commercially unviable. This paper underscores part of the outcomes of a study carried out on a facility at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. It investigates the effect of high CO2 content-natural gas, as automotive fuel, on exhaust emissions in an internal combustion engine at 180OCA and 300OCA BTDC injection timings. For this experimentation, the natural gas fields were simulated by adding CO2 at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% to pure natural gas, and tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at a varying engine speed to study the effect of injection timings on emission characteristics of the engine. Experimental results show that generally, the presence of high carbon dioxide content in the natural gas reduces the heating value of the mixture when compared with pure natural gas but however could be enhanced with injection timing of 180OCA BTDC particularly for 20% CO2 proportion in the mixture. There was a reduction in the NOX and CO emissions but an increase in the unburnt hydrocarbons (THC).

Keywords: free-piston engine, CNG-CO2, compressed natural gas, engine performance.




Development of Multilingual Dictionary for English and the three popular Nigerian Languages (Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo)


*Idris Ya’u Idris; *Suberu Yusuf; Madu Ifeyinwa; **Aminu Agabus; *Amatullah Aliyu Yahaya; *Lawan Garba; *Yamusa Idris Adamu; *Sunusi Abdulhamid Dantata; & *Okonkwo, Ogochukwo John;

*Computer Science Department, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi. **Computer science department, Army University Biu, Borno state.



The ever increasing growth of the mobile technology is giving birth to more powerful devices like smart phones which provide many of the functionalities of personal computers in addition to making phone calls. As these devices are becoming more and more functional, they are penetrating quickly into every society of the world. Electronic Dictionaries (EDs) are one example of such applications which can be used as an electronic reference resource containing a library of words and their meanings. In countries like Nigeria, with various language sets, such a Multilanguage dictionary is essential for ease of communication among citizens of the country as well as other foreigners.  However, the currently available dictionary applications on these devices cover mostly the western languages and no focus had been given to develop these applications for languages like the ones spoken in Nigeria. This research presents the first attempt for design and implementation of a Multilanguage ED for English, Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo languages on handheld devices. The system has been successfully developed and tested on an emulator of an Android based smart phones before deploying it on the target device.




Proposal for Relocation of Entrepreneurship Demonstration Centre of Federal Polytechnic Mubi


Fatima S. Medugu; Tpl. Rabiu Mohammed Usman; & Josephine Alexander

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Entrepreneurship as a trade or course is important to students because it help them to be self-employed thereby creating job opportunities to some student after graduation. This will also help in reducing the rate of unemployment among graduate and will go a long way to reduce the teaming youth’s joblessness. The study therefore focused on the existing entrepreneurship center. The data collected during the study reveal that the space for the center is inadequate to host the student population in the whole school considering the number of trades available for student to be trained in. Hence, proposal for relocation in made to a more spacious site. Recommendation and proposal is made through a propose design plan as shown on the sketch in the report.

Keywords: Relocation, Entrepreneurship, Demonstration, Unemployment, Self-employed.




An Appraisal of Information Technology as a Tool for Effective Curriculum Delivery amidst Insecurity Challenges in Nigeria


Shaibu Hassana; Egga Blessing; & Kwasau Bitrus Samaila

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya



The Nigerian education system is deep into crises on multiple fronts, including the area of funding,Infrastructural facilities politicization of education, inadequate instructional materials, dynamic curriculum and access to quality education. However, the recent spate of killings by bandits and mass kidnappings of school children for ransom in some part of the country arguably represents the gravest threat and crisis to the educational system. Despite several claims to checkmate this spate of insecurity, much attention has not been given to technology as alternative means of implementing the curriculum. This study discussed the state of insecurity with a brief history of insecurity cases and learning in schools. The study also focused on the significance of Maslow theory with special interest on the second level of its hierarchy of needs as an essential aspect of human life for the actualization of educational goal. The study ascertain the importance of technology in teaching and learning process and concludes by providing some simple information technological measures for education stakeholders, curriculum planners and curriculum implementers to redesign the process of implementing educational programs through technology that may enhance curriculum content delivery in Nigeria especially in areas affected by insecurity crisis and conflict.

Keywords: Information technology, Education, Insecurity, Curriculum delivery




Economic Benefits of Litigations on Cyber Criminals


Anyaehie Juliet Chizoba

Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State



Cybercrime is the most disruptive threat for financial markets, but at the same time is the most underrated by both regulators and financial institutions. Cyber-attacks have already caused considerable damage to detail retail banking, mainly through credit card and payment scams. The infrastructures of the markets mostly involve digital systems, thereby coming within the scope of cybercriminals. If losses generated by cyber-fraud in the retail world are capped by the size and the utilization of an account, the potential damage from a cyber-attack on financial infrastructures is limitless. In addition, markets react to new information from traditional (newspapers) and innovative media platforms (social media), the quasi-totality being stored on the Internet. Thus altering reality and spreading rogue information is another way cybercrime can inflict damage on markets. With the creation of centralized counterparties a group of a small number of institutions indirectly expose all of the financial sector to cyber-risk, with consequences which have not yet been well studied and understood.




Effects of Addie and Dick &Carey Teaching Instructional Models on Students’ Interest in Motor Vehicle Mechanic Work in Technical Colleges in North – Central, Nigeria


Dr. Ali, Awalu Maliki; Yakubu Anthony; & Ahmad Muhammad Danjuma

Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan



This study was undertaken to determine the effects of Addie and Dick and Carey teaching instructional models on technical college student’s interest in Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work. The study was carried out in North – Central, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 1011 National Technical Certificate Year Two students (NTC II) 2019/2020 session made up of 778 males and 233 females. The sample for the study was 99 drawn through purposive sampling technique. The instrument was, Motor Vehicle Mechanic Work Interest Inventory (MVMWII) with 30- items interest inventory. The items in the MVMWII were developed to portray students’ feelings towards studying Motor Vehicle Mechanic Works with or without the Addie and Dick & Carey models. The items were generated from the information obtained from the review of literature on interest in learning as well as other related literature. The items of the interest inventory were based on five-point Likert scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (UD), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD). The scale is weighted as follows: SA=5, A=4, U=3, D=2 and SD=1. The Motor Vehicle Mechanic Work Interest Inventory was used to test students’ Interest in studying Motor Vehicle Mechanic Work and it was administered as pre and posttest.). The instrument was validated by 5 experts from the department of Industrial and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Kuder Richardson 20 (K-R20) method was employed to determine the internal consistency of the instrument which yielded a coefficient of 0.82. The mean was used to analyse data relating to the research questions while the ANCOVA was employed to analyzing data relating to the test of hypotheses. The result of the study indicated among others that students taught using Dick and Carey Model performed academically higher in MVMW than their counterparts taught using the Addie instructional Model.

Keywords: teaching, models, interest, effect, motor vehicle




Quality Evaluation of Biscuits Produced from Wheat and Sweet Potato Enriched with African Yam Bean Flour.


Salamatu Ibrahim1; and Donaldben N. Stephen2

1Department of Hospitality Management, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.



The objective of the study was to add value to sweet potato based biscuits, the sweet potato was processed into flour; while the African yam-bean seed was sorted to remove the stones, dirt’s and unwholesome materials, washed, fermented in lime water, sundried, roasted and processed into flour and sieved. The African yam-bean flour was substituted at 00, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % into wheat and sweet potato composite flour were used for the production of biscuits. Functional, proximate composition of the biscuits, physical and sensory properties of composite biscuits were determined. Significance difference (P<0.05) was observed Bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and foaming capacity increased from 0.63 to 0.79 g/cm3, 1.24 to 211 g/g, 1.98 to 2.29 g/g and 1.60 to 2.09, respectively with an increase in the addition of African yam-bean and sweet potato flour. The crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, moisture and ash increase from 6.21 to 14.64 %, 3.58 to 4.97 %, 0.89 to 1.33 % and 4.10 to 4.76 %, 11.09 to 13.89 % and 1.36 to 1.98 % respectively; while the carbohydrate content of the biscuits decreased from 76.43 to 66.66 % respectively with increase in the addition of the African yam-bean and sweet potato flour. The physical properties of the composite biscuits such as the weight, thickness, diameter and spread ratio ranged from 7.58 to 9.38 g, 9.67 to 14.00 mm, 33.67 to 39.00 mm and 2.66 to 3.63 respectively. The average means scores for the appearance, crispness, taste, aroma and overall acceptability increase were observed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the appearance, taste and aroma while there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the crispness and overall acceptability.

Keywords: protein; composite flour; proximate; physical properties; diameter




Assessment of Metal Steel Waste Management Practices in Ajaokuta Steel Company, Kogi State, Nigeria


Oloruntoba Gabriel1; Atsumbe, B. N.2; & Usman, G. A.2

1Dangote Cement Public Limited Company, Obajana Plant, Nigeria. 2Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



The study assessed Metal Steel Waste Management Practices in Ajaokuta Steel Company, Kogi State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted in Ajaokuta Steel Company, Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of 144 respondents which consists of 60 engineers, 50 technologists and 34 technicians in Ajaokuta steel company as total respondents from the study. 25 item structured questionnaire, developed was used to collect data for the study from the respondents. The instrument was divided into two parts (1 & 2), part 1 consist of instructions and personal data as section A while part 2 consist of two categories sections B & C of the questionnaire items and were face validated by three experts. The overall reliability coefficient for the entire 25 items questionnaire was determined to be 0.968. Weighted mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses 1 & 2 at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that all metal wastes collection practices items were agreed on by the respondents. Hence, metal wastes collection practices were required for Metal Steel Waste Management in Ajaokuta steel company. It was also found out that the metal wastes recycling practices in Ajaokuta steel company were observed as agreed on by the respondents. In addition, the findings on hypotheses 1 revealed that there is significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the three groups of respondents (60 engineers, 50 technologists and 34 technicians) as regards the metal waste collection practices. In the same vein, hypotheses 2 revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the respondents as regards the metal wastes recycling practices. It was therefore recommended among others that metal steel waste management practices should be utilize by Ajaokuta steel company in other to reduce wastes and improve its profitability. Engineers, technologists and technicians should be given further academic and professional training on maintaining precision rules during production of components in other to reduce metal wastes.




Effect of Public and Private Sectors Investment on Infrastructural Development in Nigeria


Agunuwa Ekokotu Vincent (Ph.D); Brotoboh Efemuaye Dennis

Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Oghara



The focus of this study is on the effect of public and private sector investments on infrastructural development in Nigeria. The main objective is to empirically examine the links between public and private sector investments and the level of infrastructural development in Nigeria. The study covered the period between 1994 and 2020. The Co-integration test and Error Correction Model  (ECM) were used. The result of the ADF unit root test indicates that all the variables were I(1). The result of the Johansen Co-integration test indicates the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The result of the ECM shows that Private Sector Investments (PINV) and Proceeds from Privatization ( PFP) as proxy for Public Sector Investments, have a positive and significant impact on the Gross Fixed Capital Formation ( GFCF) being proxy for Infrastructural Development. The External Reserves ( ERS) has a positive but insignificant impact on the GFCF. The ECM shows a satisfactory speed of adjustment. The paper recommends amongst others, that the government should provide a conducive environment for establishment and operation of private investments as their contribution to infrastructural development in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized, and also, public and private partnership investments should as well be encouraged.

Keywords: Private investments, Public investments, External reserves, Infrastructural development, Co-integration.




Arduino-Based RF Water Level Monitoring System for Overhead or Underground Water Tank


Mohammed Kabiru Halidu; Aliyu Buba Dahiru; & Mohammed Hassan Yakubu

Computer Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Water plays a vital role in our day to day life. Most houses, especially in urban areas, uses overhead or underground water tanks for water storage and usage. Overhead and underground water storage tanks are normally opaque, which means the water level in it cannot be observed or monitored visually from the outside, thus the need for water level monitoring systems. This work proposed an RF wireless water level monitoring system that uses RF for communicating the water level data from the transmitter section to the remote receiver section of the system. In the study, two circuits are used, first is the transmitter and second is the receiver. An Ultrasonic sensor is used in the transmitter circuit, which measures the distance of water level from the upper point of the Tank. The distance is measured in centimeters and sent to receiver circuit using RF communication. the result were collected shows that, at a transmission distance of XTR=1m to 10m, and 10 to 20m, (i.e. the distance between the transmitter and the receiver) the readings collected at the receiver is the same with the calibrated readings on the water tank. Which shows that the system performs accurately at a distance of XTR=1m to 20m. When the XTR distance is increased to 30m, there was little or no reception by the receiver, thus, no reading was recorded at XTR=30m. This shows that the system performs at a maximum of XTR=20m, i.e. the range of transmission of the system. Though theoretically, the RF module specification shows that with antenna attached, the transmission range can cover a distance of 100m.

Keywords: Arduino, RF Transmitter & Receiver, Water Level, Monitoring, Control



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