African Scholar Journal of Science Innovation & Tech. Research Vol. 24 No. 9


VOL. 24 NO. 9 MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2878-1894



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


A Secure Metadata User Intranet Mailing System


Maryam Abdullahi Musa1; Mohammed kabir Dauda2; & Abubakar Umar3

1,2,3Department of Mathematical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi



The Intranet Mailing System is only useful within a company or organization. In today’s fast-paced society, where every qualified person is in desperate need of work, people join places and work at unusual hours. Because of the organizations shift schedules, it can be difficult for one shift’s employee to communicate with another shift’s employee. In these cases, Intranet Mailing comes in handy. If a firm has an Intranet Mailing System available to all of its employees, the system proves its worth. Employees can register and send emails to any other registered employee, making communication more efficient easier.

Keywords: Intranet, mailing, Employees, Organization, Metadata




Estimation of Low-Energy on the Basic of Neutron – Proton and Proton – Proton Interaction


PJ Manga1, M.U Hashimu2, Mary Akko3

1&2Department of Physics, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 3Bakari Dukku Government Day Secondary School, Bauchi State-Nigeria



In this study, we established a qualitative understanding of the physical quantities which characterize nucleon-nucleon interaction and pion nucleon based on the fact that nuclear forces at low energies in the nucleon-nucleon system are mainly determined by the one-pion exchange mechanism. The result of the computation governed by Yukawa potential as recommended by meson field theory at lowest energies scattering length and effective range shows that the highest energy is obtained at the interaction of proton-proton where the scattering length is in the range of (2.85 – 2.90) g/cm while the effective range is recorded to low. On the other hand, high energy value was obtained at a value of (2.00 -2.05) g/cm of effective range interaction a while low energy was recorded in the case of scattering length at the same length. The charge pion –nucleon coupling constant is obtained at a value of  this physical quantity expressed excellent agreement with the experimental value of  . This shows electromagnetic interaction associated with the correction will be likely added or removed from the experimental values of the nuclear – coulomb-low energy parameters of scattering. PACS numbers: 13.75.Cs, 13.75.Gx, 14.20.Dh, 14.40.Be, 25.40.Cm, 25.40.Dn

Keywords: Nucleon – nucleon interaction,  scattering, Yukawa potential and Energies




The Impact of Experimental Time on the Genetic Behaviour of a Bettle Insect Species with an Initial Condition (IC=1.5) Over a Longer Duration of Time


 1J.I Galadima*2R.E. Akpodee;

2Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi University Lapai-Niger State Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University.



In hybrid modeling, to investigate the impact of experimental time on the genetic behavior of a bettle insect species over a longer duration of time in generations, we have used first an analytical method to predict and observed the population proportions with a specific genetic trait in hybrid selections for some instance generations using an initial condition (IC=1.5). Furthermore, a numerical scheme ODE45 computational approach was used to study the qualitative characteristics of the bettle population proportion over a period of 40 generation with an initial condition IC=1.5 and we observe that the population proportion ranging from the base year;  t=40th generation decreases monotonically from the initial value of 1.5 We notice a drastic decrease in the population proportion from the base year;up to the   and then we notice a slower rate of decrease in the population proportion from the   up to the time of convergence with a saturated value of 1.0000(million) which is from the    to the   . The detail work and full results are presented and discussed in this study.

Keywords: dynamical system, deterministic, hybrid, convergence.




Emerging Applications of Deep Eutectic Solvents in Applied Sciences: a Review


Oguche John Enemona1; Emeniru Daniel. C 1,2; Sorgbara Franklin Lekara3; Ameh Alewo Opuada1; & Adubazi Momohjimoh Onimisi4

1Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State 2Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa State 3Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa State 4Science Lab. Technology, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa State



Recently, deep eutectic solvent (DES); being as novel and green solvent has attracted increasing interest in different areas of sciences, engineering, and medicine due to its excellent physicochemical and thermal properties. The formulation and classification of DES is dependent solely on the hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) components and their proportions. Its superiority to ionic liquids (ILs) encompasses the cheap and available starting/raw materials, and the ease of formulation and storage. DESs has gained a very wide distribution and application in various researches and industrial processes; the widest distribution being its application in synthesis. Its uses span as solvent for laboratory and industrial pretreatment, extraction, separation and purification of both inorganic metallic components and organic compounds. Though they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs, DESs has been pronounced as capacity options attributive to its physicochemical properties. Notwithstanding the innumerable uses and application of DESs, their chemical, biological and physical characteristics have not been completely investigated. Despite the benefits the solvent has limitations of corrosion, high viscosity, mixture instability and lack of physicochemical information. This review seeks to provide a brief introduction to DES while highlighting some latent potentials and limitations of the novel solvent in the various fields of application.

Keywords: Deep eutectic solvents, Formulation, Classification, Applications, Limitations




Stability Analysis of 3-Point Diagonaly Implicit Super Class of Block Backward Differentiation Formula for Solving Stiff Initial Value Problems (IVPS)


1Hamisu Musa; 2Bala Najamuddeen; & 3Kamaluddeen Umar Danmalam

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina. 2.3Department of Statistics Federal Polytechnnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.



In this research work, a Stability of the new numerical method that computes 3-points simultaneously at each step of integration is analyzed, where both zero stability and A-stability are discussed, which is the sufficient condition for any numerical method to have practical significance in solving Stiff Initial value problems. The method is developed by introducing diagonalisation in an existing fifth order implicit block method for solving first order stiff ordinary differential equations (3SBBDF).

Keywords: Diagonally implicit block method, stiff, order, zero stability, block backward differentiation formula, A–Stability.




A 2-Period Dynamic Programming Model for Determining an Optimal Ordering Policy under Stochastic Demand


Aisha, S.H. And Sani, B.

Mathematics Department, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.



This paper considers the problem of computing optimal ordering policy for single product under a periodic review inventory system with stochastic demand. Adopting a Markov decision approach, the states of the Markov chain represent possible states of demand for the models. The objective is to determine in each period of the planning horizon, an optimal EOQ so that the long run profits are maximized for a given state of demands. The decision of how much quantity to order or not to order are made using a 2- period dynamic programming over a finite planning horizon. A numerical example demonstrates the existence of an optimal state, economic order quantity, as well as corresponding profits.

Keywords: Dynamic programming, EOQ, Markov chain, stochastic demand, Inventory Management, Optimal Policy.




Appraisal of the Usage of Computer for Record Saving and Examination Processes in Junior Secondary Schools


*Dr. Tajudeen Niyi Madandola; **Mr. Abiodun Alexander Enitilo; ***Mr. Tajudeen Omoluabi Lawal; & ****Mr Shamsudeen Opeyemi Mustapha

*Department of Computer Science, Kwara State College of Education, Oro. **Department of Business Education, Kwara State College of Education, Oro. ***Department of Curriculum Studies, Kwara State College of Education, Oro. ****Ekiti State University KWCOED Oro Campus



Record saving is vital in educational system especially in examination aspect. The study is carryout to evaluate the usage of computer for record saving and examination processes in Offa Local Government Area, Kwara State. A total number of one hundred (100) questionnaires were designed and distributed equally to ten (10) selected Junior Secondary Schools in the area. The respondents were teachers and school administrators of the selected schools. The simple frequency counts and percentage was used to analysis the demographic data gathered, while Chi-square was used to test the three formulated null hypothesis. The three tested null hypotheses were rejected. It was revealed that there is correlation between man power managing the computer and record keeping, there is relevance in the use of computer for record keeping and there are several benefits in the usage of computer for prompt release of examination results in Junior Secondary Schools in Offa LGA.

Keywords:   Record, School, Examination, Appraisal, Computer.




Population Growth Model to Project Human Population in Nigeria


1Ogunjobi, Eyitayo Oluwole; 1Odusina, Matthew Taiwo 2Adeoti, & Oluwole A

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, The Oke – Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.



Nigeria population size is a question of considerable important and interest. The main objective of this study was to carry out a population projection for Nigeria. Population growth model are used to calculate population growth rate between 2022 population and 2045 population. Calculated growth rates were then used to predict figures based on the states of the federation. The projected provincial population shows that, Central Province population is set to increase from 4.5 million in 2010, to 5.1 million in 2015, to 5.7 million in 2020, to 6.3 million in 2025 and 7 million by 2030

Keywords: – Population, Absolute Population Growth Projection, Growth rate, Relative Growth and Arithmetic Population Growth




The Issues and Challenges of Machine Learning


Edino Kennedy O.; & Okorodudu Joseph

Computer Science Department, Delta State Polytechnic Otefe-Oghara ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­



Present day computer applications require the representation of huge amount of complex knowledge and data in programs and thus require tremendous amount of work. Our ability to code the computer fall short of the demand for applications. If the computers are endowed with the learning ability, then our burden of coding the machine is eased (or at least reduced). This is particularly true for developing expert systems where the “bottle-neck” is to extract the expert’s knowledge and feed the knowledge to computers. Machine Learning will produce smarter computers capable of all the above intelligent behaviour. The area of Machine Learning deals with the design of programs that can learn rules from data, adapt to changes, and improve performance with experience. In addition to being one of the initial dreams of computer science, Machine Learning has become crucial as computers are expected to solve increasingly complex problems and become more integrated into our daily lives. This is a hard problem since making a machine learn from its computational tasks requires work at several levels, and complexities and ambiguities arise at each of those levels. In this research work, we examine the type of machine learning problems and the steps to solve a machine learning problem.

Keywords: Complex knowledge, Computer Applications, Programs, Coding, data




Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Programe (CAI) on the Performance and Retention of Senior Secondary School Students in Mathematics in Borno State, Nigeria


Mari Likita; And Mamuda Hamman Mshelizah

KICOE, Maiduguri. **MULCA, Maiduguri



The study investigated the effects of Computer Assisted Instruction program on performance and retention of senior secondary school students in mathematics (logic and algebraic process) in Maiduguri Metropolitan zone of Borno state, Nigeria. The research design of the study was Quasi- Experimental design .The populations of the study consisted of twelve (12) government senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan zone that have computer facilities, with a total number of three thousand and twenty one (3021) students. The sample consisted of three senior secondary schools purposively and proportionately selected consisting of (318) three hundred and eighteen students with a combination of boys and girls. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The logic, Algebraic process and mathematics performance test (LAAPMPT) was administered to student as pre- test, posttest and post posttest. The results of the students were analyzed using t- test statistic to test the hypotheses. The result showed that the students taught logic and algebraic process using computer assisted instruction program performed significantly better than those taught using conventional method of instruction, students using computer assisted instruction have higher retention level than those taught using conventional method of instruction. Also the results indicated there was no significance difference on the performance of male and female students taught logic and algebraic process using (CAI) Computer assisted instruction program. Therefore based on the findings it was recommended that Computer Assisted Instruction program be encouraged for teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in local government headquarters where there are computer facilities in Borno state.




Assessment of Industrial Potentials of Some Yeast Isolates from Pawpaw, Banana and Orange Fruits Grown Locally in Bauchi State


Ebu Bridget; Yusuf Halima; Ijebor Funmilayo Deborah; Haruna Hamza Salihu; and Shehu Amina

Department of science laboratory technology, Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.



A study of the industrial potentials of yeast isolates from pawpaw, banana and orange fruits grown locally in Bauchi state was carried out. The parameters analyzed includes estimation of yeast potency, flocculation rate, ethanol tolerance, Protein and Vitamin content. The three species of yeast identified include Saccharomyces cerevisiae A,B,C,D. Candida tropical C,D and Saccharomyces ferméntati B,C,D. The result of the analysis showed that all strains compared favorably with the industrial yeast with respect to temperature tolerance, protein and Vitamin content. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae A,B,C,D compared most favorably with the industrial yeast in viability, tolerance to alcohol concentration up to 20% and a high flocculation rate of 0.75m1/10minutes than Candida tropicalis C,D and Saccharomyces  fermentati  B,C,D. Furthermore, the temperature tolerance showed no difference with the standard at both 37℃ and 42℃ at 5%  level of significance. The importance of mass production yeast strains have been stressed.

Keywords:  Assessment, Potentials, Yeast isolates, pawpaw, banana and orange fruits.




Numerical Simulation Solution for Coupled of Partial Linear Differential Equation of Fumigant Transport in Stored Grain


1Aliyu Gambo; 2Suleiman Sabo; & 3Salisu Lukunti

1,2 & 3Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This paper is a mathematical numerical simulation solution approach to the model of coupled partial linear differential equations of grain stored fumigation. The model is based on phenomena of advection-diffusion transport process of solute mass for the fumigation distribution of phosphine gas concentration in a cylindrical silo containing grain and the model is one dimensional advection diffusion coupled with partial linear differential equation. The model solved using finite difference method (FDM) while Octave software is used in the simulation. The results showed the convergence of FDM by the error convergence on FDM, it also shows that the solution has less error if the increment  is smaller. The results showered that during fumigation process, the behaviour of phosphine gas concentration based on graph of the results, the length of the time phosphine gas concentration could be taken for covering the silo is independent of the amount of boundary fumigant concentration (BFC) injected to the silo. While for concentration in the grain inside the silo, the time is depending on the BFC where the more BFC in the silo, the higher concentration received by the grain. Furthermore, when the velocity increase, the time taking for phosphine gas concentration during fumigation is reduced. In addition, when less amount of BFC is injected to the silo and higher velocity of the model, then during the fumigation processes the least amount of concentration the grain absorbs.

Keywords: Numerical simulation of finite difference method on model of fumigant transport.




Biometric Approach as a Means of Preventing Identity Theft


Alhaji Adamu Abdullahi1, Shitu Abdullahi Lame2 and Fatima Abubakar Maikudi2

1,2&3Department of Computer Science, A.D. Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies Misau, Bauchi State.



Biometric technologies have the potential to provide convincing evidence of who actually performs a given transaction, because each person’s biometric characteristics are thought to be unique and difficult to reproduce.  Biometric technologies work by measuring and analysing human physiological or behavioural characteristics.  Physiological characteristics are those associated with a part of the body.  The fingerprint is probably the best known example; however, face and hand shape, and retina and iris patterns are also examples of physiological characteristics. This paper aims to briefly address some of the biometric technologies used how biometric systems work. Also a brief summary of identification process and identity life cycle management.

Keywords: Biometric, identity theft, authentication, identity life cycle.




Effect of Oil Spillage in Oceans


Chinelo Gloria Ike

Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Microbiology Option), School of Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Oko



An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity. Oil is the most common pollutant in the oceans. The fate of spilled oil depends on the oil properties and on environmental conditions. It is very important to recognize the dynamic nature of spilled oil because the properties of spilled oil can change over time. It is important to monitor the continuous changes in the properties of the spilled oil, as response strategies may have to be modified. Oil Properties crude or refined oils vary in their physical and chemical characteristics. These characteristics affect their volatility, toxicity, weathering rate and persistence. Oil spills have a devastating and long term impact on waterways and coastal areas around the world. Seabirds are frequently affected by offshore oil spills. Spills can severely harm turtle eggs and damage fish larvae, causing deformities. Shellfish and corals are particularly at risk since they cannot escape the runaway slick. Oil spills are also responsible for tainting algae, which perform a vital role in water ecosystems. Oil spills can be partially controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment and adsorption. As the world advances technologically, unfortunately accidents do happen and spills reoccur more frequently than we would like. This paper focuses on the society to accept responsibility for repair of damage to environment through human intervention and carefully targeted cleanup activities.

Keywords: Oil spill, bioremediation, sorbents, booms, skimmers




Markov-Switching Regression Model on the Relationship between GDP and Inflation in Nigeria


Micheal, Vincent Abiodun1 and Adenomon, Monday Osagie2

1Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Statistics & NSUK-LISA Stat Lab, Nasarawa State University, Keffi (NSUK), Nasarawa State, Nigeria.



Application of Markov-switch models to Nigeria’s economy especially the macroeconomic variables in order to determine how it relates to policy making cannot be under-emphasized. This study investigates the relationship between gross domestic products and inflation in Nigeria using a time series data from 1960 – 2019 with the aid of Markov switching regression model. Markov switching vector autoregressive (MSVAR) model is used to determine the structure of inflation in Nigeria.The results from this study concludes that the Markov-Switching Regression model is a high-degree flexible model having captured regime shifts in the mean, variance and the parameters of the vector autoregressive process. Also, it is observed that inflation series is well fitted by the MSVAR model and the filtered probabilities can be deduced. This was accounted for by the estimated parameters and the filtered probability plots of regime 1 and 2 and they have high transition probabilities of 0.985513 and 0.97144. The expected durations that corresponds the probability in a regime are 69 and 35 respectively showing that inflation on the economic growth will remain in the origin state almost two times before moving to the second state. Hence, this study concludes that there is regime switching structure in the dataset.

Keywords: Gross domestic product, Inflation, Regime Switch, Probability, MSVAR.




Simple Regression Models’ Comparison Using Goodness-Of-Fit Measures


Esemokumo Perewarebo Akpos; & Bekesuoyeibo Rebecca

Department of Statistics, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, PMB 110, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria



The study is on simple regression models’ comparison via goodness-of-fit measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Anthropometric status of school pupils in State primary schools in Mbaitoli Local Government area of Imo State. The dependent variable is weight, while the independent variable is height. Eight regression models; Linear, Quadratic, Polynomial, Logarithmic, Hyperbolic, power, Exponential growth and Square root were stated. For the ease of data analysis, E-views package was implemented. Four model selection techniques for comparison known as; MSE, AIC, SIC withHQIC was employed. The result revealed that the Exponential growth regression outperforms the other seven models studied to examine the relationship between weight and height of primary school pupils. Hence; other models that were not employed in this study should be studied by researchers and as well compare results.

Keywords: AIC, SIC, HQIC, Simple Regression Equations, Mean Squares Error




Mineral, Proximate, Phytochemical and Infra-Red Analysis of Nicotiana Tobacum Leaf


1Adebayo, O.R., 2Afolabi, F., 3Adegoke, B.M., 4Efunwole, O.O; and 5Adedokun, A.A.

1,2,3,5 Department of Applied Sciences, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. 4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree



Plants used in folk medicine can be the leaf, seed, or the whole plant that possess healing properties. Traditionally, some tribe use Nicotiana tobacum leaf juice for itchy eye remedies. Mineral, proximate, phytochemical and Infra-red analysis of Nicotiana  tobacum were evaluated. The analyses were carried out using various standard analytical techniques. The mineral compositions (mg/kg) sodium (32.019±0.001), potassium (153.000±0.011), calcium (47.200±0.002), calcium (47.200±0.002), magnesium (74.180±0.020), iron (1.080±0.002), zinc(0.304±0.010), manganese (1.100±0.012) and copper (0.013±0.001). The result of the vitamin C is (2.630±0.010). The proximate compositions (%) revealed ash content (6.900±0.200), moisture content (5.300±0.020), crude fat content (2.200±0.031), crude fibre content (23.900±0.130), protein content (29.500±0.015) and carbohydrate content (32.200±0.027). The qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals were alkaloids (15.033±0.016 %), flavonoids (2.735±0.011%), steroids (10.100±0.200 mg/g), terpenoids (3.287±0.010 %) and glycosides (23.211±0.033 mg/kg). The functional groups showed the presence of primary amine, alkene functional groups, Sulfate. The results suggest that Nicotiana tobacum may be significant to achieve a sustainable  development in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Primary amine, Nicotiana tobacum, Infra-red analysis, traditional medicine




Determination of Optical and Structural Properties of Lead Sulphide (PbS) Thin Film Using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD)


*1Wante H.P (PhD), 2Midala I. H & 3Ayigun S

*1&2Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics Unit), Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 3Department of Applied Physics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.



In this study, lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were produced on glass slide substrates using a simple and easy-to-control approach, followed by large-area films, utilizing a chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The reactive substances used to obtained the PbS layers were (Pb(NO3)2), (NaOH), (SC(NH2)2) and H2O for different concentration and dipping times, at constant room temperature. The surface morphology was determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). Spectroscopy measurements of transmission, reflection, and absorption were used to determine the optical characteristics. Changes in dipping durations and reaction solution concentrations were used to alter the thickness of these films. Experiments revealed that the shape and optical characteristics of PbS films were modified by growth conditions and thermal treatment.




Design Considerations of Anaerobic Digester for Production of Biogas Loaded With Cow Manure


Yakub Baba Ahmad

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P M B 35, Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria



Nigeria plays an important role in the development and propagation of renewable energy technology. The production of biogas is of growing interest as depletion of fossil-fuel resources. Although the production of biogas through anaerobic digestion is not a new idea, commercial anaerobic digestion processes are often operated at well below their ideal performance due to a diversity of factors. The study designed a domestic biogas plant, which if adopted can reduce the bioenergy consumption by a significant percentage. From the research and design, a family in rural area with between 5 to 10 cows can produce a minimum of 2 to 3 m3 of gas which is adequate for lighting and cooking needs of a rural family with an average of 4 to 6. However, there exists a dearth of literature on the design considerations that would lead in the development of anaerobic digesters aimed at creating useful commodities from the ever-abundant bio-waste. Consequently, this paper provides the important issues and analyses about the design of a household anaerobic digester.

Keywords: Renewable energy; Bio-energy; Biogas; Cow dung; Anaerobic Digesters.




Production of Biogas in a Laboratory Batch Digester Using Cow Dung


Ijebor Funmilayo Devora; Haruna Hamza Salihu; Ebu Bridget; Ahmed Aisha; and Isa Amina S.

Department of Science Lab. Tech. Schoolof Science Tech. Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Biogas originates from bacteria in the process of bio-degradation of organic material under anaerobic condition. Biogas is a mixture of gases that is composed chiefly of methane (CH4), Carbon-dioxide (CO2), Hydrogen (H2), and Hydrogen sulphide (H2S2). The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion was carried out using cow dung.  Three drums digester were used for the study. The pH of the slurry before anaerobic digestion was 6.2 for cow dung. The pH, Temperature and proximate analysis of the sample, before digestions were determined using standard method. The total aerobic and anaerobic counts for the cow dung are 89×105 and 75×105 before digestion, 49×105 and 82×105 after digestion. The cultural morphology revealed Gram positive rods with creamy irregular edges and the identified organisms are Bacillus species and Clostridium species. Table four contains the result of the daily biogas yield in millimetre and daily temperature reading after 2 weeks (14days) retention time which show a higher gas yield of 58ml at day 10. The result of this research shows that high quality of biogas can be produced using cow dung.



Receive Updates

No spam guarantee.

I agree to have my email transferred to MailChimp ( more information )

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *