HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (HAJHSS)
VOL.11 (6) DECEMBER, 2019 EDITIONS ISSN: 0017 – 8242
HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,
Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,
Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja,
Copyright © 2019 Harvard Research and Publications International
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BARRIERS TO SUCCESSION PLANNING IN FAMILY BUSINESSES IN PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
*EUNICE O. CHUKWUMA-NWUBA
*Faculty of Business and Law, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK.
Professional firms play significant economic and social roles in Nigeria. However, their performance of these roles is often constrained by succession difficulties resulting from inadequate attention to succession planning. This study investigated barriers to succession planning in family professional firms in Nigeria through in-depth interviews of firm founders. The objective was to ascertain the factors which constrain the firms from engaging in succession planning. Findings indicate that the barriers to succession planning operate at the levels of the founder, the potential successors, the firm, and customs and traditions. They include founders’ ignorance and unwillingness for succession planning, unavailability of a potential successor, the prevalence of sole-proprietor firms. The most significant barriers are those relating to the potential successors and the firm founder. Thus, notwithstanding barriers at the other levels, firms will still engage in succession planning if there is a willing successor, the founder is desires succession and is willing to plan for it.
Keywords: Succession planning; Business succession; Family business; Professional firms
AN EXPOSITION OF THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONFLICT IN NIGERIA
INNOCENT BENJAMIN NAMO
Political Science Department, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State
Nigeria is blessed with human and natural resources, particularly oil and gas reserves. It is also blessed with a large expanse of arable agricultural land. The cause of many gridlocks distressing the stability and development of the country are tied to these resources. Although these resources are needed for foreign exchange, they have become sources of corruption, conflict, environmental degradation affecting livelihoods of its inhabitants and its ability to deliver on its potentials as a nation. A number of reasons have been adduced for the way things are in the country including its colonial legacy, intrigue from the international community, socio-cultural as well as political factors. Political economic approach is used in explaining how these factors contribute in leaving Nigeria tottering constantly on conflict and on the edge of fracturing. This paper uses qualitative-descriptive technique to examine the root causes of natural resource conflicts in Nigeria tracing its origin to contact with western capitalism and colonialism. Findings show that a combination of economic, political and social factors, often accompanied by parochial interests of corrupt elites contribute in limiting or diminishing opportunities. The paper concludes that Nigeria must rise above its political economic problems to make a positive lasting impact and recommends that good accountable democratic governance is necessary to move the country towards positive development outcomes.
Keywords: Political economy, Natural Resources, Conflict, Corruption, Development.
INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM IN AFRICA: PROPECTS AND CHALLENGES IN A DEMOCRATISING CONTINENT
SHAMSU ABDU DAUDA
Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Global practice of investigative reporting/ journalism has grown considerably popular since the fall of communism around 1989. The processes of globalization, international aid, and the efforts of journalism groups are some factors that aid in this spread of the practice across national borders. Because it centres on public accountability and ridding society free from crime and corruption, investigative reporting has been termed watchdog journalism, critical to development and democratization processes. Adopting a conceptual approach, this paper looks at some of the challenges the practice and its practitioners are facing in developing and African counties. It found among others repressive regimes, undue legal and ethical restrictions, poor training and inadequate facilities, scarce financial resources, and violence against the journalist. The paper recommends that donors and media development community should focus more on capacity building and provide enabling environment for the field to wax stronger in Africa. It concludes that even in the face of difficulty and sometimes apparent danger, journalists in Africa are eager to join the league of courageous investigators who dare powers that be and challenge the status quo in the public interest.
Keywords: investigative reporting, challenges, Africa, barriers, Watergate.
LEXICO-SEMANTIC DEVICES AND CONTEXTUAL MEANING IN KOFI AWOONOR’S THIS EARTH, MY BROTHER… AND COMES THE VOYAGER AT LAST
PRISCILLA QUEEN KPAREVZUA
Department of English, University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
Literal and implied meanings are inherent in literary texts and studies abound that have examined how intended meanings are construed and understood in various texts adopting various semantic and pragmatic principles. Kofi Awoonor is an African writer from Ghana that is widely known, especially for his poetic prowess; his poems “The Weaver Bird” is widely referred to in commenting on the effects of European domination of Africa. This prolific poet has some prose narratives to his credit that have scarcely received robust scholarly engagements as does his poems. This study thus, investigates Kofi Awoonor’s two literary texts: This Earth My Brother… and Comes the Voyager at Last, to determine the lexico-semantic choices deployed in the texts and how such features enhance meaning in the texts. This is to enhance the comprehension of intended meanings in the texts as scholars have described the texts as not easily accessible as it is written in poetic renditions. The study adopts the pragmatic principle from Jacob Mey’s perspective as a theoretical framework to account for contextual meaning(s), and complements that with M.A.K Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), to explain lexico-semantic realization of construed and/or intended text meaning(s). The study finds that lexical items are deployed in texts to point to meaning(s), argument(s), motives and goals of the researched texts. The lexical items lead to the understanding of the major theme(s) of texts. Some of the lexical features that occurred luxuriantly relate to concepts such as decay, corruption, death, slavery, native/home land, oppression, and freedom. The study finds that lexico-semantic devices and context contribute greatly in enhancing the understanding of the study texts.
Keywords: Lexical semantics, Implicit/Explicit meanings,
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN PROMOTING TECHNIQUES OF E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NASARAWA STATE
OGENYI, OGABA SUNDAY **WILLIAM MUSA MADAKI **MUKHTAR S. WAKEEL
*Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State **Department of Mass Communication, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia
A survey research design was adopted for this study, the population of the study consist of 78 electronic repairers and 105 environmental protection officers. Simple random sampling was used to sample 28 electronics repairers and 34 environmental protection officers in Lafia metropolis, Nasarawa State. Data was collected using 40-items questionnaire developed by the researcher based on the research questions. The questionnaire is made up of three sections: A, B and C. The instruction for data collection was validated by three experts. Pilot study was conducted using Abuja Metropolis and the reliability coefficient is of the instrument was found to be 0.89 which indicated that the instrument is capable and consistent in measuring what it is designed to measure. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research question while z-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.005 level of significant. From the analysis of the result, it was found that Social media enlighten the public on the process of collection and treatment of e-waste management. There is high level of informal activities in the treatment of ewaste in the state. E-waste that are not refurbishable are dump as landfills that cause emission and generate greenhouse gas (GHG). There is no standard center for collection and treatment of e-waste in Nasarawa State. Producer and manufacturers of EEE are not involved in the treatment of e-waste. Efficient management of e-waste will boost the economy of the state and increase the employment rate. Efficient management of e-waste reduce environmental degradation. It is thus recommended that; Different group such as non-governmental organization should be involved in the management of e-waste. The government should establish an e-waste collection system that is easily accessible to citizens; ensure the proper management of the devices at all stages (collection, transportation, storage, treatment, utilization and/or recovery and/or final disposal). The users of Electrical Electronic Equipment’s should be made to understand that their waste could be reused or recycled within the value chain of e-waste.
Keywords: E-waste, Social Media, Management, Techniques, Nasarawa State.
NIGER-DELTA CRISIS AND PARTICIPARTY CONFLICT MANAGEMENT APPROACH
*JIBRINUBALE YAHAYA, Ph.D. **ABDULLAHI MUSA ZANGO
*Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi **Department of Political Science, Peace and Conflict Resolution-National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)
Various countries in the world has resolve conflicts of resources, political or cultural values through using participatory conflict management approach that gives rooms for addressing the emerging needs that led to the conflict. Niger Delta Conflicts has its own history and causes since before Nigeria independence in 1960’s but the argument cannot be separated from failure of government to fulfils on its mandate that what has brought to the escalation of the conflict for a very long time. The paper has reviewed various relevant works on the subject matter to give the work a focus line for investigation and solving a problem. The paper has a major findings that peoples in the Niger Delta Region was lacking some basic necessities for good living , while elite groups both from traditional institutions and political office holders are highly engage in massive corruption where money means for development of the Region are diverted to personal accounts for only individuals needs not public interest in the area.The paper has a suggestion that to addressed the issue of conflict in Niger Delta, Institutions both at Federal, State and Local Government, communities leaders and members of Civil Society Groups must keep awake for their responsibility of providing for basic needs for their peoples through using scientific administrative approach indices of identifying the needs and finding an appropriates means of addressing those demands and lastly government at all level must operates open, transparentand accountable to people needs in the Niger Delta Region through purely engaging them on participatory method of identifying and resolving problems with all-inclusiveness and responsibilities.
Keywords: Conflict, Niger Delta, Good Governance, Elitism and Corruption
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KANO STATE
HADIZA LAWAN ISMAIL
Faculty of General Studies, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State Nigeria.
English is a second language in Nigeria, a lingua-franca and a language of communication. It is the medium of instruction at all levels of education that is from primary to the tertiary institutions level, yet teachers find it difficult to teach it at all levels especially at primary school level. Hence, this research studies focuses on the investigation on the problems of teaching English at primary level selecting 6 samples out of total population of 10 primary schools in Tarauni local government, Kano state. Therefore, the main objectives of the study are (i) to investigate the academic qualification of English teachers, (ii) to highlight the problem of English among primary school pupil’s (iii) to find out if there are any problem encountered by teachers of English. To achieve these objectives, questionnaire was used for the teachers. The data collected was based on questionnaires administered to the respondents. The findings revealed that most of the teachers are not qualified to teach English language, but most of them are using teaching aids to supplement their teaching. It also finds that the students make use of library for English purposes. From this analysis it was discovered that, the factors contributing to poor performance in English language among primary school pupil’s include: inadequate number of teachers, unqualified teachers, mother tongue interference and students background. Based on the above findings, the following recommendations are offered: The schools should be supplied with adequate number of qualified teachers. School facilities such as library, language laboratory, infrastructural facilities and teaching aids should be provided to each school. English teachers should be made compulsory to submit the pupil’s progress sheets to the head of the school, so that the head will know how far the pupils are progressing and dictate what difficulties are being encountered by the pupils.
Keywords: Problem of teaching English, Primary school pupil’s, teachers, Mother tongue interference and Qualification of teachers.
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN ENHANCING PRIMARY SCHOOL MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
*UMAR MUHAMMAD Ph.D **BASHIRU UMAR ALIERO ***DR. H.S. ALIERO
*Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto **Department of Education, Kebbi State University of Science Tech, Aliero ***Department of Educational Foundations, Kebbi State University of Science Tech, Aliero
This paper examined Role of Communication In Enhancing Primary School Management In Nigeria: Issues And Challenges, Concept of Communication, Concept of Primary School Management, Avenues of Communication, Function of a Primary School Manager, Importance of Communication in Primary School Management, Communication in an organization such as school serves various functions, Communication Flow, Issues and Challenges, the paper concludes that, Communication is an important ingredient and vital instrument in any given organization. It is the means by which organized activity is unified. It is the pillar upon which social inputs are fed into the social system. The paper recommends that, Channel of communication needs to be modern, effective and as personal as possible if management of large organizations such as the school is to maintain close ties with teachers and encourage maximum performance. Finally, it is recommended that, the head teacher and staff need to work together to build trust in the working relationship.
Keywords: Communication, Primary School, Management, Nigeria
THEATRE FOR DEVELOPMENT (TFD) AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR LOCAL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT: AN ACCOUNT OF THE ZANGON TAMA EXPERIENCE
ABEL IDEBE, Ph.D
Department of English, Gombe State University, Gombe
Local Communities in Nigeria and Africa as whole are seriously faced with massive developmental challenges. These challenges are quite evident in their standards of living. More scathing is the fact that the approaches to addressing the development challenges encountered in local communities in most cases have left communities to just have an attitude of dependency on ‘expert’ knowledge and official interventions in addressing their local issues, which in many cases in the country end up in unrealized dreams. Although local communities by themselves may not be able to address the humungous developmental deficiencies that they are faced with, nevertheless their inputs to identifying, discussing, and proffering solutions as well as sustaining development goals and projects cannot be overemphasized. Thus the need to pursue local community development that empowers and gain the active collaboration and participation of the members become fundamental in the elevation of their marginalized status. This paper therefore explores the potentialities of TFD as a useful development communication approach for community engagement, social cohesion and transformation. The Zangon Tama TFD experience is herein examined to contextualize the proficiencies of TFD as an effective tool of engaging and addressing social challenges faced by local communities.
Keywords: Community, Theatre for Development (TFD), Zangon Tama, Development and Participation.
THE JIHADI EXTERNAL INFLUENCE IN NIGERIAN PRE-COLONIAL CONFLUENCE AREA, 1809-1900
MAIYAKI M. MEJIDA
Department of History, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
Events with far-reaching consequences made the nineteenth century history of Nigeria quite intriguing. There were struggles for political control or commercial supremacy; Islamic and Christian Missionary movements were common. Some of these events destabilised the erstwhile pre-nineteenth century societies while others effected gradual changes in the people’s patterns of life. This study examined one of the events, the jihad, which greatly affected the socio-political history of not only the confluence area but the entire Northern Nigeria. Specific attention was given to the socio-political changes and challenges created by the two Nasarawa and Keffi sub-emirates of Zaria. This study has found out that by 1812 the hegemony of the non-Muslim polities had been overthrown and replaced by Fulani authority. New administrative reforms were introduced in line with the new political dispensation. By this, the Hausa and Fulani state builders swung the pendulum of relationship and planted the seed of ethnic contestation.
Keywords: Jihadi, Nasarawa, Keffi, Confluence, External
THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ORGANIZATION EFFICIENCY
Department of Mass Communication, School of Communication and Information Sciences, A.D. Rufa’i College For Legal And Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.
Effective communication at all levels of the organization improves organizational success and employee relations. This paper aims at examining the role of Communication in the Organizational Efficiency. It will particularly look into conceptual meaning of communication as defined by communication scholars, the levels of communication role of communication in promoting the objectives of organization, barriers to effective communication. The paper will further suggest ways to effective communication as applied to organization. The paper finally recommends that, organization should ensure that, Public Relations unit is well equipped with facilities that can give room for professionalism in the process of communication so long as they want yield good results and ensure efficiency and productivity in their day to day management of organization.
Keywords: Communication, Organization, Efficiency, Roles, Organization Efficiency
TERRORISM IN NIGERIA: A CASE OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY
*ASHIGAR A. K. SATOMI & **DANJUMA ABUBAKAR UMAR
*Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri **Department of Industrial and Labour relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri.
This paper explores the current problems posed by Boko Haram terror group in Nigeria and the confusion regarding the exact causes of the violence. Many theories have been advanced to explain the socio-economic issues revolving around the problems, all of which are treated in it. The paper also posits that as a result of the geographic proximity of Nigeria to Cameroon, Chad and Niger, the linkage of people from the four countries and the porosity of Nigeria’s borders in the North-East geopolitical zones, Boko Haram has developed into a system of conflict. Therefore, it cannot be annihilated without a synergy.
Keywords: Terrorism, Terror Group, Insurgency, Extremist group, Terrorist and Boko Haram
FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN NIGERIA; CRITICAL PATHWAY TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:
SOGUNA MACDONALD DANIEL
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Lack of freedom and fairness in conduct of elections has been identified as one of the fundamental challenges of Nigerian elections since independence in 1960. It has become a recurrent decimal in the country’s electoral history which therefore demands thorough investigation and renewed thinking. This is because, often times, the absence of free and fair elections in Nigeria has threatened political stability, economic development and national security. This paper examines the concepts of free and fair election, the predisposing and motivating factors responsible for the institutionalization of electoral fraud in every election conducted in Nigeria. The work examines electoral irregularities and its impacts on the economic development of the country. A review of this study using historical analytical method shows that the phenomenon posed serious challenges to the economic development of the country. It is therefore argued that these challenges could have been avoided if Nigeria has implemented genuine electoral reforms and conducted genuine free, fair and credible elections.
Keywords: free and fair elections, electoral history, economic development, national security.
EXAMINATION OF SYSTEM THEORY ON WORKERS PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ADAMAWA STATE
GAMBO AHMAD AND GODIYA RICHARD
Department of Public Administration School of Management Technology, Federal Polyechnic Mubi
This is a paper on the examination of system theory on the workers performance and productivity. The paper therefore attempts to examine the paradigm importance of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) with particular reference to systems theory. The paper also reviews the related literature by focusing on the links between theory and practice in relation with the activities of National Directorate of Employment. The central objective of the study is to examine the impact of NDE on the Adamawa state economy. Finally, conclusion was drawn and some recommendations were alsoproffered and lastly the references.
Keywords: System, Theory, Performance, Examination, Productivity.
NIGERIA AND THE AFRICA IN ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES (2000 – 2019)
MUSTAPHA, AYODELE HARUNA
Department of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
The African continental integration came into existence as a result of the agitation by the African leaders to unite for political, economic, cultural and social unity. Shortly after those countries started gaining independence from their colonial masters to formed independence state with or without any economic/ political cooperation or affinities. The global reality of international dynamism warranted the necessity for states to integrate towards the continental Africa as observed and obtainable in the European Union (EU) platform. This involved pooling of all economic forces (trade, monetary etc.) and political union tendency to serve all states. The study interrogates the role of Nigeria in the past, present and future of the African Union member states towards continental economic and political integration. It x-rays the support Nigeria has tendered to the continent, its perception with regards to African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) their challenges and prospects towards integration like lack of political will in the part of African leaders to surrender their sovereignties for supernatural governments, ownership questions and leadership vacuum. The study posits to provide possible solutions like economic gains behind integration and show of political will. The interference in the internal affairs of member states allowable in the African Union’s article provides for transparency and accountability. The paper makes use of both primary and secondary sources to elucidate data while it adopts integration theory to midwife the study.
Keywords: Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, National interest, National Security, Continental Integration
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (1948) VIS-À-VIS RIGHTS UNDER SHARI’AH AND CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF RIGHTS ABUSES/VIOLATION AMONG THE MUSLIM NATIONS. EXCUSES AND DEFENCES
SABO KARABI GIADE
A.D.Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, P.M.B. 004 Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
This write up is aimed at observing some of the Fundamental Human Rights that were guaranteed under the common wealth as well as the shariah legal system. However the Rights under the shariah legal system were not just left without exceptions or conditions. The Rights discussed here include the Right to life, right to freedom of association, right to marriage, right to give testimony and the right to wear closes. All the right stated were not just guaranteed without hindrance of obstacles. Right to life for instances can be infringed where somebody caused the death of another, an in Qisas or law of equality. Right to freedom of association is equally curtailed where one is not allowed to sit with hypocrites. Right to marriage is not allowed to marry the women married by their fathers etc. Right to give testimony is not allowed to a person if it will create suspicion. Right to wear clothes is equally not left without limit as women were not allowed to wear transparent clothes.
Keywords: Excuses, Rights, Declaration of Human Right, Abuses/Violation, Universal
VOTE BUYING, DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION AND THE QUEST FOR ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP IN NIGERIA’S FOURTH REPUBLIC
NWACHUKWU EMMANUEL UCHE
Political and Governance Policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan
Nigeria’s electoral process has been confronted with daunting and enormous challenges which bedevil the conduct of free, fair and acceptable election both within the country and the international community. However, the major and crucial problem in Nigeria’s electoral system is that of vote buying (and selling). Although, political process requires funding in order to operate. However, the lavish spending for political exercise in Nigeria is antithetical to democratic consolidation. It is believed the money spent by politicians on elections will be recovered when they are elected into office, thereby defeating the principles of accountability. Consequently, the electorates are denied the opportunity to make the right choice and the resources that would have been used for developmental purposes are diverted into individual pockets. But Despite the regulation of political finance in the electoral act, it has been observed that its application still remains a mirage. The source of data for the study was through secondary sources. The data collected were content analyzed. This study therefore, exposes the nature of vote buying and selling as a form of electoral malpractice whose root causes may be linked to illiteracy, poverty and a zero-sum game of political exclusion. Overall, the paper recommended that Nigeria needs to tackle illiteracy, poverty, unemployment and regulate election spending etc, in order to guarantee credible election.
Keywords: Vote-buying, Accountable leadership, Democratic Consolidation, Fourth Republic
CLASSICAL AND CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP MISDEEDS THWARTING AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF NIGERIA
ROBERT, ODEY SIMON
Gokin and Dab Educational Services and Consultancy, Lafia; Bridge Gate Research Consult Ltd, Abuja, Nigeria
The past and present in/deliberate misdeeds of Africa’s neo/colonialists and Africans themselves, especially African political leaders and other elites, continuously thwart the development of the continent. The misdeeds of most African leaders and elites are worse than those of the colonialists, which the same crops of elites often re-emphasise as the only cause of Africa’s ageing woes. Other misdeeds against Africa are hatched by the African populace. This paper thus aims at rousing consciousness to the ageing and rising misdeeds against Africa, towards attaining deserving development. Relying largely on secondary data, employing qualitative approach, objectivism and the plausible tools, it reveals that while the colonial invasion of Africa left it naked, poor, underdeveloped, and in various nationhood woes, the post-independence African political leaders and elites aggravated the problems, meting out worse cruelty on the continent and its peoples. The contemporary leaders and elites are the worst. The citizenry also contribute to the leadership misdeeds thwarting Africa’s development. Consequently, bad/failed leadership, paralysed democracy and elitism, abject poverty, hunger and suicide, endemic corruption, heightened illiteracy, ignorance, insecurity, violent crises and social vices, westernisation and culture erosion/attrition, over dependence on foreign aids, international debt, etc. characterise Africa. Africa’s ideal development that would have been attained by now remains a mirage because of the sustained and continuous misdeeds and plagues unleashed on Africa by its leaders, elites, populace and the neo/colonialists. Patriotism and rejection of dubious and incompetent leaders and elites are major ways out.
Keywords: Classical/Contemporary, Leadership Misdeeds, Thwarting, Africa’s Development, Nigeria
AN ANALYTICAL INQUIRY INTO ORIGIN OF OGBOMOSO LOMOLEHIN MASQUERADE AND ITS ESSENCE
*ADEYEMO, PETER ADEWOLE, PH.D. AND **OBADOFIN, SAMUEL BAMIDELE
*Fine and Applied Arts Department, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria **Fine Art Department, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
This paper consciously investigates the origin of Lomolehin masquerade, one of the elder masquerades in Ogbomoso town of Oyo State, Nigeria. This is as a result of struggles to address the dearth of information on individual traditional masquerades, especially among the Yoruba of South-western Nigeria, as against the general study of masquerade traditional aspects, such as religious, social, cultural and political, which have been repeatedly studied. Each traditional masquerade, however, is believed to have its own specific attributes and essence that distinguishes it from others, yet it has been given scant or no attention, most times, in literature. Makinde (2005) and Omipidan (2017) are among the very few authors that ever pin-pointed their masquerade studies to the specific/individual ones, hence, the justification of this paper. A qualitative method of research with historical approach was, therefore, adopted to analyze and discuss the obtained data from both the primary and secondary sources, employing a purposive sampling technique. The paper briefly x-rays the origin of masquerades in Yoruba land and later expounds the essence of Lomolehin masquerade. Finding reveals and concludes that Lomolehin masquerade is not indigenous, but a war masquerade that was brought into Ogbomoso over a century ago from elsewhere, and its actual ancestral linkage has been lost to time due to lack of historical records. Thus, the paper recommends that, in the masquerade scholarship, efforts should be intensified by scholars to study other specific traditional masquerades to increase the knowledge of the general public on them and their essence for cultural continuity and posterity, other cultural festivals of importance inclusive.
Keywords: Inquiry, Lomolehin masquerade, Origin, Ogbomoso, Essence
ART HISTORY AND THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES
LABIJA COLE IFITUMI
Federal Government Girls College, P.M.B. 1088 Zaria, Kaduna State.
The indispensable role of Arts could play in the process of nation building in the 21st century, it is quite unfortunate that it seems governments, curriculum planners, and other stake holder in education sector all over the world, do not consider the prominent role that the Arts could play in raising awareness which poses a great challenge. The challenges Arts history faced in 21st Century. Unawareness of the relevance of the Arts to society, Non-professionalism of Art teachers and the government policy that pose the attitude of Governments all over the world towards the Arts is encouraging a lack of emphasis on the Arts due to the fact that their attention and focus is on how to produce goods for export, build railways, manufacture homemade goods, and how to improve the technological standards of the country. Internationally, there is a growing body of Creative Arts learning and engagement that has a range of positive outcomes in terms of the lives of young people both in and out of school settings. Repositioning of teaching and learning of Arts history in 21st Century. Conclusion, and recommendation and have been stated accordingly along with references.
Keywords: Century, 21st Century, Art History, Challenges, curriculum planners
IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
The purpose of this study is to examine the leadership styles adopted by organizations and their influence on the job performance of employees in organizations in Nigeria. The objectives that guided the paper were: to find out the various types of leadership styles and the roles of a leader in an organization, and to identify the impact of leadership styles on employee performance. The study however focuses on the autocratic, democratic, bureaucratic and laissez faire styles of leadership and the relationship between these styles and employee performance. The paper is a literary work; hence it derived its data from secondary sources: journals, textbooks, research theses, reports and reviews, etc. The path-goal theory was adopted as the theoretical framework of analysis for the study. The paper argued that leadership styles influences employees’ job performance. Based on the findings and the literatures reviewed, democratic leadership has greater impact than laissez faire, autocratic and bureaucratic styles; in organizations where the leader practices democratic leadership style, there is improved employee satisfaction and performance. It was recommended, amongst other things, that the use of a democratic leadership style at all levels should be encouraged because it exerts a positive influence or impact on employees’ job performance because it tends to allow room for a freer and greater involvement of employees in issues concerning the organization.
Keywords: Leadership styles, Autocratic, Democratic, Bureaucratic, Laissez faire, Job performance