HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (HAJECM)
VOL.13 (4) DECEMBER, 2020 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0378 – 3349
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ANALYSIS OF NEED FOR A SHIFT AWAY FROM HIGH STAKE EXAMINATIONS FOR ASSESSING NIGERIAN UNDERGRADUATES: A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION STUDENTS
ISRAEL OKECHUKWU OGBONNA, PhD
Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Nigeria
Graduates of Nigerian universities are being criticized for their rote learning and acquisition of low hands-on skills. For this to be corrected there ought to be fundamental changes in the method of learning in the universities. This Paper attempts to show one of such changes to be a shift away from high stake examinations by jettisoning the present National Universities Commission (NUC) Benchmark Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS) model whereby higher marks (60%-70%) are awarded for end-of-semester examinations and lower marks (30%-40%) are awarded for term papers, continuous assessments, short quizzes or short tests. It is being proposed that in its stead, a model be adopted in which higher marks (60%-70%) are awarded for term papers, continuous assessments, short quizzes or short tests and lower marks (30%-40%) are awarded for end-of-semester examinations. With case study of Environmental Valuation course in Nigerian universities and cross-sectional research design type, this work used structured questionnaires administered in Nigerian Universities among Specialist Lecturers of Environmental Valuation and the related discipline of Land Economics as well as undergraduates studying the course. The result showed that 83.33% of the Specialist Lecturers and 100% of Environmental Valuation undergraduates voted for a change from the current assessment model to a model that awards higher marks for term papers, continuous assessments, short quizzes or short tests and lower marks for high-stake semester examinations. To remove rote learning and produce hands-on graduates in Nigerian universities, we therefore recommend that, by a review of the present National Universities Commission’s Benchmark Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS), Nigerian universities should shift away from over-emphasis on end-of-semester examinations and move towards emphasis on term papers, continuous assessments, short quizzes or short tests.
Keywords: Analysis, High Stake Examinations, Assessing, Undergraduates, Environmental Valuation
AN OVERVIEW STREET GUIDE MAP OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT METROPOLIS BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
*YUSUF M. INUWA; *DR. MUSA, S. I.; *ABDULMUMIN O. ABDULSALAM; *DR. SHUAIBU, M. A.; **MUSLIM BARAU; & ***ABDUL AZIZ DAUDA.
*Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi State, Nigeria. ***Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Abubakar Tatari Ali State Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
The implication of Remote Sensing data and Geographic Information System techniques in map making cannot be Overemphasized, Because of its capacity to combine spatial data with non-spatial data and also represent the result, information in an easier to understand. More than a few works have been taken benefit of the GIS Techniques to create and modify street maps using High Resolution Images. It’s more reliable to utilize in street guide map expansion in Bauchi local government metropolis street guide map, Bauchi State, Nigeria. This work intends to overview the new development road, by updating the old street guide map in to new digital composite map of Bauchi metropolis that will ease navigation and help the student, visitors and tourists to their various destinations in the town. And it will serve as a platform for decision making for various researched that shows the needs of location, road network analysis, site suitability analysis and extending other social amenities such as water pipelines, roads, street lights in the town.
Keywords: GIS, remotely sensed data, imagery, Digitization, Bauchi, Metropolis, Street Guide Mapping,
ACCESS DELAY FEATURES IN BUILDINGS: PERCEPTION OF EFFECTIVENESS IN PHYSICAL SECURITY IN JOS URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS
ARC JOSEPH OKO OKO; ARC. DEMENONGU, I. JAMES; PROF. MICHAEL O. OGUNRAYEWA; & DR DETUR GWATAU
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.
Access delay features are deliberate measures taken in and around buildings to decelerate, impede, or hold-off attempts at gaining physical entry. This strategy is of importance and relevance in the effort to checkmate unauthorized access which is best conceived at the design stage. This paper investigated the relationships between most frequently used access delay features and the perception of their effectiveness in Jos urban residential areas. Data was collated from seven civil residential estates with 735 residential units. Access delay features were examined against the perception of effectiveness in performing access control functions. The study used a conceptual model which identified six dependents variables of access delay features and investigated them against the back drop of their perceived effectiveness by 260 residents that formed the sample size in the study area. Data was obtained using the questionnaire survey and observation approaches. From the information obtained, the perceptions of effectiveness of access delay features against checkmating unauthorized access were analyzed using The Chi Square Test of Independence. The result showed that residents’ perceptions indicated significant degree of correlation with the access delay variables employed. Furthermore, the six access delay features used in the study were subjected to analysis to evince the order of preference in which they presented as perceived by the respondents. The study implied that safety and security of lives and property could be enhanced if adequate attention is paid to access delay features and that these features exist in an order of preference.
Keywords: Access delay features, perception, physical access control, urban residential areas.
INFLUENCE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN KOGI STATE, A CASE OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
1AGBONIKA DANIEL OJODALE, 2PROF. WILLIAMS, AKANMU PAUL
Department of Building, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Nigeria
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) systems provide a feasible way to maintain a healthy environment. the purpose of this study is evaluation of indoor air quality as relating to ventilation rate and its effect on energy consumption in Kogi state, a case of Lokoja metropolis residential buildings. With a view to ascertain the present states of the indoor air quality as it relates to ventilation rate of residential buildings in Lokoja and compare with standard with respect to energy efficiency. This was achieved through random sampling of the Lokoja housing estate, where out of 83 buildings 51 were conducted via the measurement of the carbon dioxide, temperature, relative humidity, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and the energy consumption of selected buildings via the use of Indoor Air Quality Visual Monitor and Watts Clever Wireless Energy Monitor. Direct-reading instruments employed during the study showed CO2 levels in measured areas of the facility to be generally between 420 and 700 ppm. The average temperature inside the building was in the low to mid-22’s and the indoor relative humidity ranged from the low to high 51’s. 18,482 kWh was the total energy consumption for the total hours for the experiment which was 16 hours for one month and the cost of the energy consumption for the month/16 hours was N6,299 as shown above. This indicated that the rate of energy consumption is on the high-side.
Keywords: Energy Consumption, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), Ventilation Rate.
MAJOR CONSTRAINTS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIAN
1ITORO E. UDO; 2NSIKAK E. UDO; & 3UDUAK J. UKO
1&2Department of Quantity Surveying, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic.
The accomplishment of sustainable process within the built environment has taken over the state of construction. As far as construction continues in this modern era, sustainable practices will continue to be an important necessity. Most countries on the world have been faced with frequent challenges when adopting sustainable constructional practices and Akwa Ibom State is not an exception. This study, therefore investigates the factors impeding the acceptance of sustainable construction in Nigeria. The aim of this study was achieved by seeking the opinion of various construction professional within Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for this study and the data collection was analysed using descriptive statistics. sFindings from the study revealed that inadequate knowledge and lack of expertise in sustainable construction practices are the greatest constraints faced in the bid to adopt sustainable construction. The study concluded that if attaining full sustainability is the goal of the Nigeria Construction Industry professional bodies and relevant government agencies must organise workshops and training to educate construction professionals on their practicable roles on delivering sustainable development. Furthermore, experts in the field of sustainable construction preferably from countries which have fully adopted the concept should be invited to be part of some construction projects so as to provide on-site guidance and mentorship for local professionals.
Keywords: Sustainable construction; Nigeria construction industry; Construction professionals; Sustainable development and constructional practices.
MAPPING AND MANAGEMENT OF GLOBAL SYSTEM OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM) MASTS USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH
ZAKARI, DANLADI; AHMED, BABAYO; ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA; & ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State
Data Analysis involves the integration of individual data sets acquired by different methods and possibly at different times. Analyzing data normally comprises of two principal phases: Choice of data and analysis of the data chosen. Arcview 3.2a was used in this research to provide functions for analysis of data chosen and for storing the results of such analyses. Data may be selected according to geographic location and thematic content. The questionnaires distributed to the GSM network operators and individuals within Bauchi metropolis was used for the analysis. This research was aimed at “Mapping of GSM Masts within Bauchi Metropolis” using geographic information system (GIS). Data obtained were carefully analyzed, stored, integrated, manipulated and used for database creation and Composite Map was produced portraying all the Masts of the various Network Providers within Bauchi Metropolis. Several queries were made to test the efficacy of the database for easier management of global system of mobile communication.
Keywords: Network, communication, database, integrating, manipulating and masts.
GIS-BASED ANALYSIS OF THE LOCATION OF PETROL FILLING STATIONS IN DAMATURU METROPOLIS
1LAWALI RABIU; 2DAUDA WAZIRI A.; & 3MUSA KALIDAI GANA
1&2Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. 3 National Center for, Remote Sensing Jos
The study was conducted to assess the spatial distribution pattern of petrol filling stations in Damaturu metropolis against the physical planning standards set by Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Yobe Urban Development Board (YUDB). The research aim at providing information that will serve as a guide for petrol filling stations distribution planning to the policy makers of Damaturu metropolis. The geometrical data of filling stations were generated using hand held Global Positioning System Garmin76CSx receiver, and the attribute data were generated through office records, site inspection and oral interview. The satellite imagery, street map, and boundary map of the study area were obtained from Yobe State Ministry of Land and Housing. The data were imported to ArcMap environment of ArcGIS 10.3 software. The attribute data were linked to spatial data to enable the researcher examine the spatial distribution of the petrol filling stations, which in turn revealed their spatial pattern. All the analyses were performed in ArcMap environment using spatial analyst and proximity tools available in the software. The findings revealed that there are 66 filling stations located along the 8 roads in the study area, of which 89% are owned by Independent marketers, 8% owned by Major Marketers, and 3% owned by NNPC. However, most of the filling stations satisfied the minimum requirement of 15 meter from the road (98.5%), all the filling stations met the minimum distance of 100 meter from the health care facilities and schools. However, many filling stations did not meet the criteria of 400 meter minimum distance to other stations where located on same road side. The point pattern analysis revealed that the spatial distribution pattern of the filling stations is clustered. The research recommends that the regulatory agencies should look in to the issue and take appropriate measures to ensure that filling stations operators comply with the standards.
Keywords: GIS, Filling stations, DPR, Location, and Physical Planning Standards
STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF HEURISTICS ON REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT DECISIONS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS.
1MURITALA, A. O., 1AJIBADE, N. A., 1ADELEKE, M. A., 2ONIFADE, A. O.
1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 2Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.
Investment decisions are deemed as a deliberate and rational process based on availability of information. Though at times people are usually found to hold little information but yet end up making general decisions. Heuristics factors are simple rules of thumb which explain how people make decisions, arrive at judgments and solve problems when faced with complex situations or in cases where the available information is incomplete. This study sought at assessing the influence of the heuristic factors on real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. The study was guided by Heuristic theory. A census of 126 registered real estate investors from Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland and Ikeja was undertaken. Primary data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire composed of closed ended questions. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.7 was used to ascertain test of the reliability of the data collection instrument. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to analyze data with the help of statistical package. Inferential statistics was also carried out to establish the nature of the relationship that exists between heuristic factors and real estate investment. Data was interpreted with the help of 0.05 significance P-values. Model fitness R2, ANOVA statistics and regression coefficient were generated. Prior to running a regression model, normality test was conducted. The study findings indicated heuristics factors have a positive and statistically significant relationship with real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. This study concludes that real estate investors in Lagos Metropolis sometimes do not make investment decisions rationally but are influenced by heuristic biased decisions. The study recommends that Lagos State Government should establish a mechanism to ensure that the prices of real estate in specific regions are availed to enable investors evaluate price changes as it may influence their decision to buy or sell the investment.
Keywords: Heuristics, real estate investments, decision making, Lagos Metropolis, sustainability.
ASSESSMENT OF ICT AND E-LEARNING FOR SCHOOLS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
DAUDA ALI MADU; KABIRU ZAKARI; & OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The Federal Government of Nigeria through its agency, the Federal Ministry of Education has incorporated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Electronic Learning (E-Learning) as a subject of study at all levels of education system especially in the era of Covid-19 pandemic. Looking at the ICT infrastructures for effective teaching and learning of this subject/discipline in the various schools of Environmental in Bauchi metropolis, it seems not to be adequate for the teeming students. This study therefore assesses the availability of ICT infrastructure for effective teaching and learning in the various schools of Environmental in Bauchi State, Nigeria. It adopted survey research design. The population of the study comprised 44 ICT/Computer related lecturers and all students of Environmental (N=5,300) in Bauchi State. Proportionate stratified simple random sampling technique was used to draw sample of students into the study, while all the ICT/Computer education lecturers were used since it has a small population. Researchers self-developed structured questionnaire, known as questionnaire for availability of ICT infrastructure was used as an instrument for data collection, and it was validated by experts in the field of Environmental Science, while the reliability of the instrument yielded 0.79 using Crobanch alpha test of reliability to measure internal consistency of the items in the questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviations with the aid of SPSS. The results revealed majority of ICT/E-Learning lecturers that teach the subject are not majored in computer related discipline and sourced from other discipline; ICT facilities are not available in the School of Environmental, thereby making the teaching and learning of ICT/E-learning difficult and that there are enough ICT/Computer studies/Education textbooks in the schools’ library, which assist students to study ICT/Computer studies/Education subject on their own. Recommendations such as state government should invest heavily on Schools of Environmental in terms of ICT infrastructure procurement; conducive learning environment and philanthropists in the community should also contribute their own quota to the development of the schools in terms of provision of these electronic gadgets with qualified lecturers in ICT/Computer education field should be employed by the government.
Keywords: Availability, Computer Education, ICT, Infrastructure
ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BIRNIN KEBBI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KEBBI STATE
*MOHAMMED NANOH BELLO; **GABI RASHIDA ABUBAKAR; & ***RILWANU BELLO
*Department of surveying and Geo-informatics, College of Environmental Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi state **Department of Home and Rural Economics, College of Agriculture Zuru, Kebbi State ***Department of Estate Management And Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi
The study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis, this study focused on the identification of spatial concentration and disparity in the distribution of public facilities as well as the identification of gaps or deficiencies in different wards of the city. the procedure involves acquisition and plotting GPS coordinates of each Secondary school in the administrate map of the study area using ArcGIS as tool for analysis, A buffer of 500m radius was created around the schools and it was discovered that the secondary schools are overcrowded within the urban area while a few public secondary schools are found in some rural areas as against the UNESCO standard of 2km walking distance.
Keywords: GIS, Spatial, Analysis, Buffer, Tools
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESERVATION OF MONUMENT AND HISTORIC BUILDING, IN ESIE MUSEUM, KWARA STATE
*ARCH. TOMORI JUMOKE MULIKAT’ **TPL. MOSHOOD SHOLA IBRAHIM’ *ARCH. NMOM CHUKWUMA W.
*Architecture Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin **Transportation Planning & Management Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin
The survival of a nation’s heritage materials depends on large extent of the effectiveness and its preservation programme. An Heritage institutions such as museum, have their core activities on the preservation base on their collections. Efforts to preserve resources on cultural heritage have gained new momentum throughout the world nowadays. Protecting cultural heritage is economical as well as historical and also a cultural process. While cultural heritage preservation has not yet become firmly rooted in the Nigerian consciousness as football and politics . This research work focuses on the preservation of monument and historical building in Nigeria which Esie museum in kwara state is focus on. To accomplish the research, 45 questionnaire were administer to workers in the museum from different departments and some oral interview were conducted bases on observation in the museum. However, the preservation of these heritage buildings in the premises have some certain problems of preservation facing from its inception according to the field studies and the analysis derived from the field study which are: funding, renovation, and poor condition of the environment. The recommendation to the problems is that the government should assist in founding so as to get modern facilities to the premises of the museum, and their should be good strategy in management and maintenance of the buildings
Keywords: Historical Building, Preservation, Cultural Heritage, Monument, museum.
THE PRECESSION OF ECHO SOUNDER IN BATHYMETRIC MAPPING (CASE STUDY OF PART OF RIVER NIGER JAMATA BRIDGE, LOKOJA, KOGI STATE NIGERIA)
ABAH OCHEPO SUNDAY; ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA; SURV. SHUAIBU UMAR (MNIS)
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Bathymetric survey is employed to determine the depth of the sea or river bed. This could be done by using Echo Sounder. Although bathymetric survey using Echo Sounder is more common and easily accessible, but it is done in small area. This research is to compare the precision of the data obtained from the bathymetric survey using Echo Sounder, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) Transducer. The depth was determined using sounding. These data were evaluated and plotted using Excel, Micro software, AUTOCAD and ARCGIS 9.1. Frequency distribution and Standard deviation were computed and evaluated in order to test the precision of the method. The value of the standard deviation of, Echo sounder is 1.2m. The cross section of the Method were also plotted. Map of the area, slope pattern depth and the Digital Depth Model were produced from the method. The study recommends among others, that while using echo sounder, attention should be made regarding the frequency of the instrument.
Keywords: Bathymetric, Sounding, Depth, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)
THE EFFICACY OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN CRIME ANALYSIS; A CASE STUDY OF JALINGO, TARABA STATE
1TANKO, BINIBONORI SALIHU AND 2 GAMBO HYELLAGUNACHA GUNDIRI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State.
Traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing crime scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support. It also results in lower productivity and ineffective utilisation of manpower. The solution to this ever-increasing problem lies in the effective use of Information Technology. Geographic Information System (GIS) uses geography and computer-generated maps as an interface for integrating and accessing massive amounts of location-based information. GIS allows police personnel to plan effectively for emergency response, determine mitigation priorities, analyse historical events, and predict future events. GIS can also be used to get critical information to emergency responders upon dispatch or while en route to an incident to assist in tactical planning and response. GIS helps identify potential suspects to increase investigators suspect base when no leads are evident. GIS plays an important role in crime mapping and analysis. Response capabilities often rely on a variety of data from multiple agencies and sources. The ability to access and process information quickly while displaying it in a spatial and visual medium allows agencies to allocate resources quickly and more effectively. In the ‘mission-critical’ nature of law enforcement, information about the location of a crime, incident, suspect, or victim is often crucial to determine the manner and size of the response. GIS software helps co-ordinate vast amounts of location-based data from multiple sources. It enables the user to layer the data and view the data most critical to the particular issue or mission. It is used world over by police departments, both large and small, to provide mapping solutions for crime analysis, criminal tracking, traffic safety, community policing, Intranet/Internet mapping, and numerous other tasks. GIS helps crime officers determine potential crime sites by examining complex seemingly unrelated criteria and displaying them all in a graphical, layered, spatial interface or map. It also helps them map inmate populations, fixtures, and equipment to provide for the safety of inmates by separating gang members, identifying high-risk or potentially violent inmates, and identifying hazardous locations in an area. It reduces the potential for internal violence by providing better command and control. GIS functions, when combined with capabilities of location identification devices such as GPS facilitate tracking the movement of high-risk inmates or at-risk personnel throughout an area. It is more cost-effective for the crime analyst to come up with the information than for patrol officers to do it themselves. Virtually every operational activity in the police department includes spatial relationships. Traditionally, these activities have been supported by paper maps and pins. Police officers now have the ability to immediately generate maps directly relevant to the situation at hand. Police agencies collect vast amounts of data from many sources including called-for-services, arrests, first information reports and daily report. Data in this form, however, can be difficult to visualise. The same information displayed graphically provides a powerful decision making tool for investigators, supervisors, and administrators. The visual format shows relationships and patterns that are buried in the data. GIS could also be used to explore the relationship between crime and the environment.
Keywords: Blast Furnace Slag, latent Hydraulic properties, thermal cracking, chloride penetration carbonation, alkali-aggregate reaction.
EMBRACING EFFICIENT PROPERTY MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR AFRICAN NEW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1ABUBAKAR, IDRISS MOHAMMED; 2HADIZA, TIJJANI BELLO; 3ESV OLOWOLERU, OLAITAN ADEDEJI; & 4LAWAL SIMIAT BUKOLA
1Department of Estate Management, Mai Idriss Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechinic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 4Department of Estate Management, Institute of Environmental Science, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Sustainable development happens to be the heart of global policy talk. This is because it places emphasizes on environmental, economic and social considerations of developing countries to have a fulfilled wellbeing. The account of Africa in terms of new sustainable development is inundated with good and bad. Bearing it in mind that Africa as a continent happens to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is blessed with a favorable weather and large landmass for agriculture, couple with the needed large resources in terms of human and natural resources. Therefore, it follows that African is seen as land of outstanding. Additionally, the properties are not well managed and as such property decay is already taking its toll, these and many others issues have thus inhibiting African sustainable development. A new system of management and governance of property is urgently needed; the one that is able to respond in a systematic and integrated manner to this key development goal is efficient property management practice. Efficient Property Management practice for sustainable development occupies a substantial position and happens to be an element that increases its complexity. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it requires innovative steps to boost productivity in the management of African resources. Africa resources and opportunities can be best explored through the adoption of efficient property management practice. African must see efficient property management practice as a tool for achieving new sustainable development and conscientiously embrace it. This paper assessed the roles of efficient property management practice in achieving Africa new sustainable development in African nations.
Keywords: African, African Resources, Sustainable development, Efficient Property Management.
SOURCES OF LAND POLLUTION AND RESIDENTS’ WELLBEING IN BIDA, NIGERIA
FUNKE JIYAH1 AND JOSHUA JIYAH2
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida. 2Department of Architecture, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Nigeria
Land is required for various uses in both the urban and rural areas and it requires adequate planning and control to ensure harmonious development and functional efficiency of these uses. However, the rate of natural resource consumption and production of human waste products is now so great that the health and well being of all ecosystems on the planet is affected. This study examined the activities that cause land pollution and assessed the health effects on residents of Bida, Nigeria, with specific reference to those residents in close proximity to contaminated sources. The survey-based research used primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire, direct observations, open-ended conversation and field measurements. A total of 40 households were selected using the multi-stage sampling method. Soil samples were taken from a dung hill in the study area. Parameters that were determined include appearance, odour, and the level of concentration of lead, cadmium and nitrate. The study reveals a very high concentration of lead (360.46mg/kg) and cadmium (3.864mg/kg) in soil samples. The sources of contamination were waste discharges from open landfills, fertilizer, herbicide, household and commercial wastes and cow dung. Residents identified the major health effects of land pollution as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, malaria and yellow fever. The paper recommends effective waste collection and management, and conversion of the waste to organic fertilizer for increased food production and improved public health.
Keywords: Land, Pollution, Health effects, Bida.
IMPROVING THE ECONOMY OF THE RURAL AND SEMI URBAN COMMUNITIES OF RIVER NIGER AREA USING HARD AND SOFT ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
EJIGA, ABUBAKAR ISA
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Year in and out, valuable agricultural land, crops, livestock, and dwelling houses are lost to flooding and other causalities arising from the River Niger. This poses health challenges and economic retardation to the people along the course of the Nigeria River. This research identifies the challenges facing the River Niger as it is left to natural phenomena and the negative impacts of these phenomena on the river and inhabitants along its course. The paper proposes the implementation of Hard and soft engineering techniques to mitigate the negative impacts of these natural phenomena and the positive effects of these proposals when implemented.
Keywords: Flooding, Health Challenges, Economic Retardation, Hard and Soft Engineering, Natural Phenomena, Negative impacts
AN OVERVIEW OF FAMILY LAND UNDER THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMARY LAW AND PRACTICE
*SHEKARA PEACE JOHN; & **UMAR IBRAHIM WUNTI
*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management. **The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of General Studies, Department of General Studies
The concept of customary family land ownership has been an interesting subject of consideration in both academic and the judicial circles in Nigeria. This study was undertaken with a view to finding a way out of the protracted challenge. The study established that family land ownership under the customary law is as old as the history of land itself, and is acceptable as a means of land ownership with many judicial decisions to that effect. One major cause of conflict in this practice is the customary practice that prohibits senior female members from becoming head and subsequent prevention from inheriting such properties. Therefore, it is recommended that a more liberal approach to the application of customary law and practice should be given to enable the equal rights of all family members over family land. Additionally, it was suggested that female family members should be allowed to inherit family and decision making over family land should be democratic.
Keywords: Practice, Overview, Family, Customary, Land.
DETERMINATION OF URBAN LAND ACQUISITION IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
IBRAHIM UMAR GOKARU1, MUHAMMAD UMAR BELLO2
1Works Department Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, ATBU, Bauchi.
The study determined the process of land acquisition in Bauchi metropolis. The shortage in supply of residential accommodation in the city has given rise to the increased demand for residential land by private developers to enable them construct more residential houses to meet up the demand. Despite the tremendous increase in the demand for residential accommodation in the metropolis area, it is surprising to find a good number of residential accommodations abandoned or uncompleted. This obviously is not in the interest of the property owners or developers. The sources of capital other than the consociate capital depend upon the amount required and the period the capital is needed. In general the developer prefers to be inclined to pay a slightly higher overall rate of interest; if he can be assured that the rate will remain fixed for the period of the loan. Quantitative method of research was adopted. Being the most proficient and accurate methods and acceptable globally. The sampling technique adopted was systematic random sampling. The study was revealed that no official guidelines as regard how long land acquisition for residential purposes should take; it is expected that a minimum delay is associated with land transaction, especially for residential needs. The study was also find out The duration that is considered by many respondents as reasonable is the period between one to three months and as it can be seen from the table, this is represented by a small percentage. The concluded study that Loan and income have been identified as the main source of financing development in the study area. Indeed, it has been revealed that status/ income play a vital role in land acquisition and development. A problem is created in land development in terms of outright sale of plots by the respondents or revocation of government leases granted to respondents who cannot effect development within the stipulated period of the years.
Keywords: Land acquisition, property, developer, statutory regulation
MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO HEALTH, SAFETY AND SECURITY ISSUES IN BAUCHI TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
OLUWASEUN OLAYEMI1; YERIMA MOHAMMED2; IDRIS IBRAHIM3; & OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED4
1Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 3Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The issues of Health, Safety and Security practices Bauchi is very wide, deep and multi-faceted, concerned with protecting all the Health, Safety and Security of people (old, adult, youth and children) involved directly or indirectly towards sustainability. The approach used in this work is to move from general to specific, by zooming down to the issues and challenges of Health, Safety and Security practices at Bauchi. Health, Safety and Security are disciplines which aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of people, especially in Bauchi. It involves the protection in their various forms of risks resulting factors, which are adverse to their Health, Safety and Security conditions. If there are Health, Safety and Security issues which will lead to various problems and put the worker, their families, other people in Bauchi, and the physical environment around the work place at risk. Research reveals that Health, Safety and Security matters in Bauchi is very broad and critical concept that should be taken into consideration. Therefore, in order to address the above gaps, this work aims at identifying the Health, Safety and Security practices and the preventive measures that can be adopted to minimize the hazards in Bauchi. The reliability of the instrument yielded 0.72 using Cronbanch alpha test of reliability so as to measure internal consistency of the items in the questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation with the aid of Statistical Product and Services Solutions (SPSS). The findings revealed that respondents agreed that Health, Safety and Security practices are highly related to Bauchi. It was recommended that Government and stakeholders need to increase the level of Health, Safety and Security practices in Bauchi towards sustainability.
Keywords: Critical, environment, maintenance, measures, sustainability.
FACTORS AFFECTING RELOCATION IN BAUCHI METROPOLIST
MR DADI HARUNA; SURV. SUNDAY O. ABAH; & SURV. KASHIMGA JOHNSON
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
This study centers on relocation also known as housing mobility in a developing economy Yelwa of Bauchi state. Nigeria was used as a representative of a developing economy. The study review literature on the concepts of housing mobility and developing economy. Response from 100 respondents on factors affecting housing mobility in the study area was analyzed by using relative importance index. The paper found that security accounted for the highest reason why people moved to the study area, this is due to the activities of Boko Haram in the North East zone of Nigeria.
Keywords: Relocation, developing economy, market, movers and non-movers
EXAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN NIGERIA
1IFREKE NTIEDO EMA; 2UDUAK OKON JEREMIAH; 3ANTHONY NYONG JACKSON; & 4UDO OGECHI SYLVIA,
1&3Department of Building Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua 2Department of Estate Management, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua 4Department of Agribusiness and Management,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike
This research explores the effects of environmental imbalance, environmental problems and climate change. Given the tremendous attention given to the preservation and restoration of the atmosphere, the impacts of climate change have reappeared. The aims of this paper are to assess the possible effect on climate change of environmental imbalances and environmental challenges. The research also explores the relationship between environmental imbalances and climate change threats in the ecosystem and in lower atmospheric physics. The approach adopted was purely related to content analysis of secondary data and field survey data observed. The research reveals the causes of global imbalances, climate change and environmental problems. However the gradual process and degradation of the environment is the responsibility of atmospheric variables. The research aims to demonstrate to the public that the immediate and remote causes of climate change are environmental imbalances and challenges. The result indicates that among other ecosystem interventions, human factors such as toxins, pesticides, pollution, fertilizers and deforestation are major determinants of environmental imbalances, environmental threats and climate change. Minimum reductions Chloroflurocarbon (CFCs) and Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the way forward to mitigate the impacts of environmental imbalances, environmental threats and climate change. There should be an improvement in the budgetary allocation of ecological funds to governments. This will help to face the threats and influences of environmental degradation. Countries should promote low-carbon energy use, collaborate to tackle climate change, join the Climate Change Club, and implement the operationalization of climate change missions and summits.
Keywords: Vulnerability, Environmental Imbalance, Challenges, Ecological and Climate Change
ADOPTING PROPERTY TAX ADMINISTRATION FOR ACHIEVING AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1SANI GAMBO SANI; 2ESV ADELEKE, MOSES ADEGBILE; & 3ALTINE MAXWELL KYON
1Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Sustainable development is the hub of global economic policy. It focuses on inclusive or broad-based growth sustained over time. It also places emphasizes on environmental, economic and social considerations of developing countries to have a fulfilled wellbeing. The account of Africa in terms of new sustainable development is inundated with good and bad. Bearing it in mind that Africa as a continent happens to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is blessed with a favorable weather and large landmass for agriculture, couple with the needed large resources in terms of human and natural resources. Therefore, it follows that African is seen as land of outstanding. With or without economic crunch, property remains an investment of choice. It is a place where we strategise for industrial activities. It is a place of rest, social and economic activities. It adds to the status of the occupier and is the most expensive consumer goods of man, generally. Property serves as store of value. Additionally, Proceeds from real estate potentials are not well managed and as such real estate decay is already taking its toll, these and many others issues have thus inhibiting African new sustainable development. Adopting effective tax administration is a veritable tool for sustainable development of developing nations like Nigeria. Nigeria is in economic tumult due to inefficiency on the side of government to efficiently and judiciously utilize proceeds from taxation. Income from taxation has the potential of releasing the much needed fund for sustainable development. An approach is urgently needed; the one that is able to respond in a systematic and integrated manner to this key development goal is adoption of effective tax administration. Effective tax administration therefore happened to be the solace to achieving Africa new sustainable development.
Keywords: Africa, Africa Resources, Sustainable development, Taxation, Nigeria.