HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY (HAJERT)
VOL.13 (5) DECEMBER, 2020 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0428 –3123
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DEVELOPING WORLD AND INTELLECTUAL RESEARCHES FOR ACHIEVING THE NEW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMET: A SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION (STI) PERSPECTIVE
*URANTA CHARLES ATEMIE; **OBOMANU CECILIA ALEX; ***EVEREST OKWUDIRI KEKE; & ****NDIOKWERE GABRIELLA CHIOMA
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Orowurokwu, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. **Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State. ***Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State ****Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-ibom State.
Developing world or third world countries are not necessarily underdeveloped because they lack the necessary ingredients prerequisite for rapid and accelerated growth, “Men, Machines and Materials”. The seeming truncation in achieving and sustaining developmental growth lies in the likely inability of these countries to utilize the available and abundant resources at its disposal through “Science, Technology, Innovation, Research and Development. The research work evaluates the seeming underdevelopment of third world countries, using Nigeria as a case study, from the perspective of the underutilizations of both its scientific and engineering knowledge. It evaluates and highlights the importance of the “Biological” sciences and the “Engineering” profession and makes a comparative analysis of the funding of research and developmental activities between developed and developing society. The research findings shows that insufficient funding plays a critical role in the inability of a developing society in achieving and sustaining an accelerated growth through the usage of scientific knowledge and technological innovations and conclusively verified that the road-map to attaining national greatness for developing nations and the sustenance of any of its developmental strides, lies in the allocation of substantial amount of resources to the research and development sector and the prioritizing of its biological sciences and engineering profession.
Keywords: Biological Sciences, Research and Development, Sustainable growth
PHOTOCATALYTIC PERFORMANCE OF PHYTO-ENHANCED ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLE DOPED WITH GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRITE FOR TETRACYCLINE DEGRADATION
ADOGWA ALEXANDER ABU1; UCHE NNODIM2; & AKPAN U.G3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline using phyto-enhanced zinc oxide doped with graphitic carbon nitrite (ZnO:g-C3N4) was investigated under solar light irradiation. Leaf extract from moringa oleifera was the source of the phytochemical constituents used in the phyto-enhancement of zinc oxide synthesized by precipitation method using zinc nitrate precursor. Doping was achieved by physically mixing phyto-enhanced synthesized zinc oxide with graphitic carbon nitrite, a light yellow powder gotten from the calcination of melamine at 550 oC. The produced photocatalyst was characterized by FTIR, SEM and EDX to determine the functional groups, structural morphology, elemental composition of the prepared photocatalyst. The effective operation parameters employed to enhance the photocatalytic process are solution pH and catalyst dosage. The result shows that 98% degradation of tetracycline concentration of 10 mg/L was obtained with the optimum doping ratio of 5% (w/w), pH 8 and photocatalyst dosage of 0.2 g/L. This may be attributed to narrow band gab and improved electron/hole separation efficiency. Based on this outcome, it can be concluded that, phyto-enhanced zinc oxide doped with graphitic carbon nitrite (ZnO:g-C3N4) photocatalyst can effectively degrade tetracycline in pharmaceutical effluents.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, Nanoparticle, Zinc Oxide, Doping, Carbon Nitrite, Tetracycline, Green synthesis.
THERMOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS ON ROTARY KILN PERFORMANCE
SALAWU, ABDULRAZAQ ALIYU; & DR. AFOLABI, EYITAYO AMOS
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, P.M.B 65, Minna-Nigeria.
Production of cement is arguable the most energy intensive process and it also accounts for considerable amount of pollutant emissions, hence the substantial effort geared towards improving energy performance while reducing harmful emissions. This paper considers alternative fuel as a sustainable solution and investigated the effect of the use of three alternative fuels on energy performance and emission control. Tyre, Bagasse and Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) were alternative fuels mixed in varying ratios with coal and considered in the operation of the kiln. Aspen Plus was used to model a kiln system and validated against data from the Obajana Cement Industry. The effect of the alternative fuels on clinker quality, energy performance and emission control was studied. Little (for MSW) to no influence on clinker quality was observed but up to a 3.3 % reduction in CO2 emissions and 5.2% reduction in thermal energy requirement is achievable using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. Though Bagasse was found to reduce energy requirements more than others while reduction in CO2 emission was highest in MSW, the optimum performance was observed in used Tyres. This finding strengthens existing literature and adds to knowledge on bettering the cement industry’s environmental and energy performances.
Keywords: Cement, Kiln modeling, Energy performance, Alternative fuel, Emission.
SUITABILITY ASSESMENT OF AZARA BARITE ORE FOR DRILLING FLUID IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
MUAZU DANASABE YAKUBU; & HABIBU UTHMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
In this research, Froth Flotation and purification have been used to assess the suitability of barite ore mined from Azara, awe local Government of Nasarawa State Nigeria. Chemical analysis on the raw barite ore indicates that it contains 56.224% of Barium component and 15.247% Sulphur oxide with a specific gravity value of 3.787±0.03. After the purification operation, the specific gravity value of the beneficiated barite is 4.166±0.029 while the Barium and Sulphur increased to 82.116% and 9.061% respectively. With froth-flotation, the specific gravity values obtained were 3.95, 4.166 and 4.05 corresponding to pH values of 5, 7 and 9 respectively. Frothed barite with pH of 7 was purified with 0.2M HCl and a mixture of 0.2M HCl and HOCl. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that highly crystalline peaks were obtained after froth flotation while more phases are added with purification. Therefore the barite mined from Azara when given required attention its can replace imported drilling mud in Nigeria.
Keywords: Barite, Froth flotation, Drilling mud, Specific gravity and standard comparison.
PRODUCTION OF BIOCHAR FOR SOIL ENRICHMENT: PARAMETRIC AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON THE YIELD OF SPINACH (MARATUS CALCATUS)
ARE MOHAMMED SEGUN; ALHASSAN MOHAMMED; AMINA MAHMOUD
Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State
This thesis is based on the use of biochar for soil enrichment and its parametric and sensitivity analysis on the yield of spinach. A saw dust based biochar was used to carry out the experiment, the saw dust was dried, sorted by particle size distribution and pyrolysed at different temperatures (3000c, 3500c and 4000c) with different holding time (30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes), this was done in other to the best or optimum temperature at which a biochar with high nitrogen and carbon content could be gotten, the optimum temperature and holding time was discovered to be biochar produced at 350c at a holding time of 90 minutes. The ultimate and proximate analysis of the biochar produced at 3500c was found to have moisture content of 4.32, the ash content was 26.12, the volatile matter was discovered to be 35.32, and the fixed carbon was 34.34. The ultimate analysis result carried out showed that the carbon content was 72.45%, hydrogen was 2.66%, Oxygen present was 13.02%, the nitrogen content was 3.60% which indicated a 100% increment as compared to raw saw dust (1.41%), the biochar had no sulphur content in it(0.00%). The BET analysis indicated the biochar increased in surface area after it was subjected to pyrolysis (surface area = 591.0m2/g, pore volume = 0.1747cc, pore size = 6.077nm). The SEM analysis of the biochar was done and the scanning revealed the porous structure of the biochar and the large surface area which was essential to the retaining of nutrients in the soil. XRD revealed the amorphous nature of the biochar with its elemental composition, the FT-IR revealed the functional groups present in the biochar. A soil analysis was embarked on before the planting and after harvesting the spinach, the soil analysis clearly indicated that there was a sharp increase in the soil organic matter, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate and the soil Ph, the parameters used in determining the yield of the spinach as compared to the control were germination time, harvest time, mass of spinach after harvesting, shoot and length of spinach. The experiment revealed the composition of biochar and organic fertilizers as a treatment prove to be more efficient in enriching the soil for better yield of the spinach.
Keywords: Biochar, Pyrolysis, and Soil Analysis
RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF ‘CAS’ FIELD NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
M.O OGUNWUNMIJU, B.T. OJO (Ph.D.)
Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Petrophysical evaluation carried out on CAS field using log information for four wells, checkshots data and seismic volume. Reservoir evaluation of “CAS” field was carried out to identify lithological units and quantify the hydrocarbon within the reservoir and structural analyses. To achieve these the geometry of the identified reservoir characteristics. It was deduced that the lithological units were intercalation and with a rhythmic structure. The shale to sand ratio increase bearing reservoirs. The study aimed at investigating hydrocarbon viability using seismic attributes for structural and stratigraphic details in combination with log data for reservoir characterization of the study area. Two prominent hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated from well logs correlated across the fields. Petrophysical study demonstrates sands with average porosity of 0.22 and 0.18 for reservoir A and B respectively. The hydrocarbon saturation computated are 0.73and 0.72 for reservoir A and B. The true vertical depth subsea delineated were 3400.78 – 3478.38 for well 1, 3380.51-3449.14 for well 2, 3404.01-3494.18 for well 3 and 3435.99-3400 for well 4.
Keywords: Reservoir, Hydrocarbon, Seismic, Porosity, Hydrocarbon Saturation.
AN OVERVIEW OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN NIGERIA
IA ADAMU*, A. D. SALISU, AUWALU SAIDU & ABDURRAHMAN GARBA
Civil Engineering Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The provision of good public transport enables cities to thrive and fulﬁl their economic, environmental and social aspirations. Good public transport is vital to successful urban areas, enabling people to access jobs and services, employers to access labour markets and businesses to reach the customers for their services. Good public transport is clean, fuel and carbon eﬃcient and enhances the attractiveness of city centers and the health of the citizens. There are different modes of transport (both formal and informal) in Nigeria, but their operations vary from one state to another. Therefore, this paper present an overview of public transport in Nigeria.
Keywords: Overview, Public, Transport, Nigeria, Engineering.
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS AND INTERNET OF THINGS: CONCEPT, DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION IN ADDRESSING GLOBAL PANDEMICS
1USMAN OMEIZA AHMED, 2AMLABU CALEB AKEZI, 3OMOJOLA B.A., AND 4ASHAFA FATIMA
1,2,3,4 Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, P.M.B 01, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
There is an urgent need for greater proactive measure during pandemics. The arguments in favour of such need are the volume of losses eminent with pandemics. The concept of embedded systems and internet of things was discussed as a base for their implementation in mitigating challenges that comes with most pandemics. An embedded system is a computing system that works in a hardware device to perform dedicated function. An internet of things is an upgrade of embedded systems with internet connectivity that enhance one embedded device to communicate with another embedded device. Particularly, embedded systems and IoT provides and facilitates interfaces that make us interact with the physical world, especial where pandemics have made it unlikely for us to do so. Specificity is made to substituting the appropriate sensors and actuators for every particular limited human interaction and operations posed by pandemic. Analysis into the nature of limitations posed by pandemics was look into. This paper, seeks to awaken the world especially, the embedded engineer to be more proactive towards using electrical and computing applications in addressing future pandemics by mitigating its negative impact in every aspects of our endeavour by the practical application of embedding systems and the internet of things.
Keywords: Embedded system, IoT devices, pandemic, interfaces, sensors, actuators.
APPLICATION OF MODIFIED RED MUD IN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN APPLICATIONS
*SIBEUDU CHIWETALU EMENIKE AND **OTUKA CHIMA EDMUND
*Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State
The alumina industry frequently generates a bauxite residue of commercial value namely red mud (RM). On average, between 1 and 1.5 tonne of red mud is generated for every tonne of alumina produced. Since the demand for alumina is increasing worldwide, the generation of red mud is estimated to be 4 billion tonnes by 2015 based on its current production rate . Every tonne of alumina produced roughly generates between 1 and 2 tonne of dry bauxite residues, which varies according to the bauxite source and alumina extraction efficiencies . The nature of red mud depends on the ore source and the technological process parameters used for the production of bauxite. It consists of iron oxides, primarily hematite (Fe2O3), boehmite (AlOOH), and goethite (FeOOH), titanium oxides, calcium oxides, aluminium hydroxides, and sodalite . Chemical analyses has shown that it also contains radionuclides (e.g. 40K, 226Ra, and 230Th), as well as, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V . Due to its alkaline nature (pH 10.0 to 12.5) and the presence of the chemical and mineralogical species, this solid waste causes a signiﬁcant impact on the environment. Storing red mud in large quantities, however, could prove to be hazardous. Studies have revealed that disposing red mud in the sea has a significant impact on the aquatic ecosystem. The issues regarding the massive generation and subsequent disposal of red mud (Fig. S1) leading to negative impacts continue to be of global concern for the alumina industry, as well as, for the regulatory authorities. Therefore, proper disposal or treatment of waste red mud is necessary in the region where the alumina refinery plants are located. Countless attempts have been made to determine an environmentally safe method to dispose or utilize the red mud waste [5, 6]. Various investigators around the world are currently researching new methods for treatment and utilization of red mud. In an attempt to redefine the utilization of red mud, potential applications are being investigated and developed. Current strategies include its use as an adsorbent and coagulant material in water and wastewater treatment [7-11], as a catalyst [12, 13], as a building material, for metal recovery, and for ceramic production. This review focuses on the modifications of the red mud material and its use in wastewater treatment and summarizes the studies made in other areas of interest which utilize red mud as a valuable resource.
Keywords: Environmentally, Modified, Applications, Mechanical Engineering, Frequently
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOIL TILLING MACHINE FOR LOCAL FARMERS IN OTEFE COMMUNITY
E.O. POPOOLA, C. AKENI
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.
This paper aims at the design of a suitable implement for local farmers to take care of the stress and constraints and limited cultivated land space, associated with human labour. The machine comprises of a 6.5 HP petrol engine, a cutter blade made of mild steel, a frame and a pulley, wheels, and a handle. The machine was tested after construction by using it on different soil types i.e sand, loam sandy – loam and clay. Results obtained showed that the machine performs better on sandy, loamy, sandy – loam than clay soil. The efficiency of the machine was found to be 74%, 62.5% and 53% for sandy loam, loamy and clay soil respectively. The field capacity was also found to be 67%, 42.5% and 36.7% for the afor- mentioned soil types respectively. The fuel consumption rate increases with increase in soil hardness.
Keywords: Tilling, Mechanization, drudgery, agriculture, Productivity
THE PROSPECTS OF ELECTROHYDRODYNAMICS POWER PLANT FOR STREET LIGHTING APPLICATIONS IN NIGERIA
1MOHAMMED MOHAMMED AND 2ADAMU MOHAMMED ORAH
1&2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, Zamfara State
Street lighting is indispensable in any country because in addition to proper night illumination for automobile drivers and other road users, it also beautifies most cities at night. Street lights have been installed in many cities across Nigeria. However, not all installed capacities are operative. The earlier models were connected directly to the national grid and their failures were characterized by poor maintenance schedules. The latest models are powered using solar PV modules and make up majority of the non-operative street lights in Nigeria today. This is solely due to the presence of impostors in the solar industry who do not properly install these solar street lights or install them with bad designs. Today, the world is looking towards renewable energy and other alternative sources for generating cheap electric power. Electrohydrodynamic technology is one of the alternative sources of generating cheap electricity by the use of electrohydrodynamic generators which utilizes two gases involving a first neutral gas flowing in a channel into which is injected a second supersaturated gas. This paper discusses the prospects of the electrohydrodynamic technology for power generation for street lighting applications in Nigeria with a view to providing sufficient night illumination all year round.
Keywords: Electrohydrodynamics, PV modules, Street light, Power generation
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT STABILIZED SOIL BLOCKS (CSSB) SUBJECTED DIFFERENT CURING CONDITIONS
NURA HASSAN; JIBRIN UMAR; & MOHAMMED YAU
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, The federal Polytechnic, Damaturu
The effect of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength of cement stabilized soil blocks (CSSB) was investigated. Cement stabilization of 8% by weight was chosen best on the literature. The study is aimed at determining the optimum curing condition for CSSB. Basic properties of the soil used were determined to find its suitability in making CSSB. The two curing conditions used for the research are tagged ‘A’ and ‘B’. Curing condition ‘A’ involves complete wrapping of CSSB blocks with tarpaulin and sprinkling with water twice a day to provide moist condition. While condition ‘B’ involves complete wrapping and spraying with water for each conventional curing ages and removing the blocks there after for open space curing without spraying water. The soil used in the study showed satisfactory performance for the production of the CSSB. Based on the test results, curing condition ‘B’ is recommended for use in the production of cement stabilized soil blocks, as it showed a better compressive strength after 21 days curing. However the compressive for both curing conditions increase with curing age up to 21 days curing.
Keywords: Cement Stabilized soil block; Alternative curing; Compressive strength; stabilization
EFFECT OF FIRING TEMPERATURE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY BRICKS AT RAFIN MAKARANTA, BAUCHI
BUKATA YAKUBU; BABA BABANGIDA; SAGIR YUSUF ABDULLAHI; & MUHAMMED SULAIMAN
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytecnic, PMB 0094, Wuntin Dada, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Clay is a naturally occurring building raw material with a considerable varying physical properties, colour, hardness, water absorption etc and mineralogical content which is used in producing clay bricks. This study is aimed at examining the clay properties found at Rafin Makaranta, Bauchi state which include linear shrinkage, plasticity index, liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction and compressive strength. The laboratory tests result shows that the compressive strength of the clay increases with increase in relation to varying temperatures until a temperature peak of 12000c which gives a maximum compressive strength of 10.2 N/mm2. The compressive strength gradually decreases when the firing temperature goes between 14000c and 16000c with strengths of 9.6 N/mm2 & 8.7 N/mm2. Based on the above findings, it then shows that for a quality bricks to be produced the chemical and physical properties are highly considered and the rate of firing temperature also have a great effect on the compressive strength of clay bricks as illustrated above which can be referenced to.
Keywords: clay, bricks, linear shrinkage, plasticity index, liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction and compressive strength
VIRTUAL MANUCATURING: AN OVERVIEW, TRENDS AND BENEFITS
WOLI, T. O.; IBRAHIM, L. A.; OLATINWO, T. F.; & SANNI, M. K.
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B 420, Kwara State
Virtual manufacturing (VM) is an emerging design tool that enhances real manufacturing operations by modelling, simulating and artificial intelligence. VM technologies enable many aspects of the activities to be integrated and realised in a single system. VM is an evolving research area that targets at incorporating diverse manufacturing related technologies under a common umbrella by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. VM can as well be used for concurrently simulating all the activities and functions involved throughout the life cycle of a product. The paper dwells on economic and technological aspects in the growth of VM systems. Applications of VM in industries and benefits are presented.
Keywords: Virtual manufacturing, economic, technological, simulation, modelling
A SHORT OVERVIEW OF PIPELINE MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR VANDALISM PREVENTION WITH A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR A GSM BASED SYSTEM
1OLAIYA OLAYINKA OLUWASEUN; 2DR. ODUNTAN ODUNAYO ESTHER; 3*FREDERICK OJIEMHENDE EHIAGWINA
1Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria 3Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
Crude oil is a crucial commodity in Nigeria owing to its huge contribution to foreign exchange earning. These crude are usually transported using the pipeline infrastructure across the country. Over the years there have been reported cases of pipeline vandalisation with negative consequences for man, properties and the environment. We proposed that automated pipeline monitoring technology be deployed across the nation to prevent pipeline vandalism and oil stealing. Several of the existing monitoring technologies were reviewed and a Global System of Mobile Communication based framework for a simple monitoring scheme was suggested.
Keywords: crude oil, GSM based system, optical fibre, pipeline, and wireless sensor network.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCES OF SILICON MONOCRYSTALLINE AND POLYCRYSTALLINE PV SOLAR PANELS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
MOHAMMED MANNIR ALIYU1, PAUL BARTHOLOMEW2 AND HAMISU USMAN1
1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells are the most commonly used Photovoltaic (PV) Solar technology that are deployed in both commercial and domestic applications in Nigeria. These devices are rapidly gaining acceptance. However, due to some few differences, which includes pricing and performance, there are certain uncertainties over the most appropriate choice of the two technologies. In order to throw more light and create better understanding of these devices, this study investigated the performances of the two technologies in Kaduna Metropolis. Two panels, rated 80W each of the monocrystalline and polycrystalline technologies were exposed to similar environmental conditions while the panels’ output variables were measured together with the environmental indices. The data were analyzed and the results obtained indicated that while the solar irradiance varies irregularly across the days of the month and over months of the year, the ambient temperature was more uniform. These are the most dependent variables on the performance of PV solar cells. From the measured outputs it was found that the open circuit voltage of the monocrystalline was generally higher than that of polycrystalline, throughout the year. However, the short circuit currents of the two panels were nearly equal for the first seven months of the year, but the was slight increment for the monocrystalline during the last five months. These led to higher power and energy yield by the monocrystalline over the polycrystalline panels. This led to estimated energy generation of the total energy generation by PV1 and PV2 as 68.95 and 84.34 kWh respectively. At a cost respective cost of N16,500.00 and N18,500.00, it gives us a measure for the comparison of the two panels. The cost per unit energy generated was calculated at N199.42/kWh and N182/kWh respectively. Thus, while the monocrystalline solar panels costs are slightly higher, but their energy generation is better and thus compensate, on the long run, giving better value of investment.
Keywords: Monocrystalline, Comparative, Solar Panels, Performances, Polycrystalline.
UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION IN NIGERIA
Department Of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.
This paper focuses on the maximization of the sun’s energy supply for the pressing energy demands of agricultural production in Nigeria. It presented the viabilities for power generation by the utilization of the sun’s energy through solar-thermal or photovoltaic technologies, such as solar stills, remote electricity supply, space and water heating, and water pumping. Some of the applications of solar energy for Agricultural production in Nigeria were highlighted which include; crop and grain drying, manure drying, refrigerated food, vaccine and drugs storage. It was observe that the utilization of solar energy in Nigeria is not without its challenges some of which are financial constraints, technological incapability, and absence of a comprehensive national energy policy and low level of public awareness. Hence the need for more research into the techno-economies involving the initial and subsequent costs of solar plants and their power efficiencies should be encouraged, Government should subsidize the cost of importation of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) most especially solar PV to bring down the high cost in Nigeria, Private individuals and organizations should be encouraged by appropriate authorities to invest in solar technologies in the country. Government should create more awareness on the advantages derivable from Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) such as solar technologies and Government can also consider placing restrictions on the importation of diesel and petrol engine generators because of its adverse effects on the environment even as the global community gear towards clean (green) energies.
Keywords: solar energy, utilization, agricultural application, solar thermal, water heating.
DETERMINATION OF FLOW PROPERTIES OF AFRICAN ELEMI (Canarium schweinfurthii)
ABODENYI, V. A. AND SALAWUDEEN, S.
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
The flow properties of African Elemi (Canarium schweinfurthii) was determined based on three dominant sizes which are small, medium and large size. This research was carried out to provide data that would be used in designing equipment for processing and handling this fruit. The properties determined were angle of repose and coefficient of friction. Angle of repose box was used for the three sizes and three different surfaces which were plywood, plastic and galvanized metal sheet were used in the tilting box for coefficient of friction. These surface were used because they are mostly used in food processing industries for design of equipment. The result showed that, the coefficient of friction was found to increase on all the surfaces with increase in size, for plywood it was found to be 132.62, 132.33 and141.33 for small, medium and large size respectively, while for plastic it was found to be 135.33, 144.67 and 145.33; and 135.33, 135.33 and 142.33 for galvanized metal sheet. The angle of repose was found to reduce with increase in size with values of 8.23, 6.57 and 7.53 for the small, medium and large size respectively. The analysis of variance ANOVA, was found to be significant for coefficient of friction on all the surfaces and for angle repose at 5% level of significance.
Keywords: African Elemi, angle of repose, coefficient of friction, plywood, galvanized metal sheet.
COMBUSTION OF FLAME AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FROM BLENDED KEROSENE AND BIO-DIESEL FOR HEATING PROCESS
1UNWAHA, J. I, 2MOMOH, S.B. AND 3ISSA, A.K
1&3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Welding and Fabrication Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.
The combustion of kerosene in cooking stoves increases the risk of certain life-threatening health conditions such as cancer; respiratory infections such as asthma, tuberculosis (TB) and sight defects like cataract when used indoors. The smoke emitted from the kerosene cooking stoves contains harmful gases such as and NOx which when allowed reacting with rain may form acidic rain which may be harmful to the environment. The Jatropha biodiesel was blended with kerosene in the following ratios; viz 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 and 20:80. The vessel pressures used in this research were 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 N/m² with different blends of the fuels. Experiment was conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the Jatropha biodiesel – kerosene blends. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of pressure and biodiesel variation in the vessel on the flame structure. Emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) affects human systems; it is harmful to the environment and also contributes to global warming. Hence, the adoption of biodiesel will reduce a nation’s dependence on petro-diesel oil, which invariably reduced green-house gas emissions.
Keywords: Combustion, Jatropha Fruits, Kerosene Blends, Bio-diesel and Clean Energy
GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF GRAVEL DEPOSITS AROUND AMOYO AREA, KWARA STATE
*OBARO R.I; **OBARO N.T
*Department of Minerals and Petroleum Resources Engineering Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. **Department of Social Sciences, University of Ilorin.
Evaluation of petrological characteristics and engineering analyses of gravel deposits were carried out around Amoyo area Kwara state to assess its suitability as construction materials. The petrological characteristics were done out through visual inspection and measurement of the particles axes. Representative samples were subjected engineering analyses such as Specific Gravity, Water Absorption Value, Aggregate Abrasion Value, Aggregate crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value. Petrology characteristics of the aggregates (particle shape and size) revealed that the gravel deposit consists of particles ranging from clay to boulders which are essentially poorly sorted with variable mixtures of pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The engineering analyses carried out suggests that Specific Gravity of gravel aggregates ranges from 2.58 to 2.63 with an average of 2.60, Water Absorption Value ranges from 1.66% to 1.98% with an average of 1.80%. Aggregate Abrasion Value ranges from 27.20% to 38.91% with an average of 31.74%. Aggregate Crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value ranges from 26.30% to 30.10% with an average of 28.70% and aggregate impact value falls within 26.65% and 28.70% with an average of 27.55% The results of petrological study and engineering analysis revealed that all the rocks favourable conform with standards used for construction purpose but can also be suitable with good workability for road, concrete and filter aggregates.
Keywords: Geological, Engineering, Gravel, Aggregates, Construction
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A PASSIVE EVAPORATIVE COOLING WALL FOR HOT AND DRY AREAS IN NIGERIA
ORILONISE, A; MUHAMMED. K. O.; DIKE P. C.; & SHUAIB, A. A.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Offa P.M.B. 420 Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.
The concept of passive cooling is a common practice used to achieve thermal comfort with no energy consumption. A passive evaporative cooling wall (PECW) constructed of a porous ceramic with the ability to soak up water by capillary force, which means that the vertical surface is wet up when the lower end is inserted in water is considered in this paper. The water soaked PECW allows the penetration of wind thereby causing water evaporation. This paper analyses the performance of the PECW under the weather of Maiduguri, Borno State with air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity in consideration. ANSYS-Computation Fluid Dynamics software was used to simulate the performance and to identify its feasibility when installed. The following findings were noted from the simulation result; surface temperature of the wet ceramic wall is 4-8ºC lesser than the considered 40ºC ambient air and there was significant reduction in air velocity passing through the pipes. Wet surface condition of the porous ceramic pipes can be maintained throughout the day if there is always water supply in the base tank. The study shows that the installation of PECW is feasible under Northern Nigeria high temperature and low relative humidity for both rural and urban areas since electricity is not needed.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Passive Cooling Wall, Evaporative Cooling, Surface Temperature, Relative Humidity.
SIMULATION AND FAULT ANALYSIS IN HVAC TRANSMISSION LINE
UMAR MOHAMMED; AISHATU GARGA ALI; & ABUBAKAR HAMISU
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.
Transmission line Protection is an important issue in power system engineering because 85-87% of power system fault are occurring in transmission lines. No power system can be designed in such a way that it would never fail. Therefore and automatic protective device is needed to isolate the faulty element as quick as possible to keep the healthy section of the system in normal operation. Fault current is the flow of abnormal current through an improper path due to electric fault which cause enormous damage. In HVAC transmission line fault current due to electric fault is too large which affect the overall power system including transmission line. Analysis of fault current can be done using soft ware PSCAD by creating three phase transmission model 400kv, 50 Hz, 100km transmission line. Simulation and results of different types of faults can be analyzed, line to ground fault, Double line to ground fault, line to line fault and three phase fault.
Keywords: HVAC, PSCAD, Transmission line
SERVICEABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHORT COLUMN USING MODIFIED TYRE RUBBER CHIPS AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE.
ABDULRAHMAN GARBA; ABDULLAHI SALISU DALHAT; IBRAHIM ALIYU ADAMU; & OKUNOLA ABRAHAM JUWON
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The purpose of this research work is to investigate the serviceability (cracks and deformation) behaviour of reinforced concrete short column, when coarse aggregate is partially replaced with modified and unmodified tyre rubber chips. The modified and unmodified waste rubber tyre aggregates were used at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% by volume of coarse aggregate in concrete and produced reinforced concrete short columns of 230mm x 230mm x 1000mm using d/h = 0.90. The specimens were cured for 28 days upon completion of the curing regime, the specimens were tested using a universal beam testing machine having a capacity of 400bars. Axial load (pressure) was applied and the corresponding deflection and crack pattern were observed and recorded. The columns shows a typical flexural mode of failure at the point of application of load, the appearance of the crack moves from the point of application of load down to the edges of the column which tend to be a splitting type of crack. Also, the deflection of the column tends to increase with increase in rubber chips content. The maximum deflection was observed on the unmodified series (15%) with a deflection of 4.45mm as compared to the minimum on the control (0%) 2.32mm. The rubberized column acts like an elastic material which deflects or buckles when load is applied, but stretches a little bit back when the load is removed. It was concluded that the serviceability (cracking pattern and deflection) increases with increase in percentage of rubber replacement.
Keywords: Cracks, deflection, Short Column, Tyre, Rubber chips.
ANALYSIS OF LIFT AND DRAG CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROFOIL MADE FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
ABUBAKAR, M. A1.; SOLOMON., W. C2.; BISU, D. Y1.; AND ORISANAIYE, B. A.1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, 0231, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, 2109, Nigeria
This study determined the lift and drag characteristics of some selected aerofoils favoured by many wind turbine manufacturers at low Reynolds number. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Aerofoil. NACA 4415, 2412 and 0015 aerofoil were cast using thermo-set materials (fibre glass and polyester resin), Aluminium and Plastic. Wind tunnel experiments were performed to obtain the lift and drag forces. The size of the cast aerofoil is such that it can be mounted in the test section of the wind tunnel. Using the wind speeds of 3.0 m/s to 7.0 m/s at intervals of 1 m/s, the lift and drag forces were measured at different angles of attack. The Reynolds number, Coefficients of Lift, and Coefficients of drag and the ratio of lift-to- drag corresponding to each wind speed were obtained using the wind tunnel data management system and presented on tables 2, 3, 4 and figures 4, 5, 6. The three aerofoils test data exhibit the same trend; however, NACA 4415 aerofoil test data claims better performance with the wind tunnel test data due to its good shape, maximum camber use of composites materials based on its good mechanical property, light weight, ability to mounded into various shapes, and which produces the highest lift value of (14.4240) at 16.2000 degree angle of attack, and produces the second highest amount of lift- to- drag ratio of (11.6960) at 19.1 degree angle of attack and also produces the lowest drag value of (0.0480) at 6.9000 degree angle of attack. The obtained data can be applied to the design of rotor blades, operation of aircraft at low speed and the design of micro air vehicles, compressor blades, wind turbine blades, and inboard sections of helicopter rotors. It will also assist in the research into wakes of low flying crafts and wind turbines operating in low wind speed regimes prevalent in most parts of the world.
Keywords: Aerofoil, Lift coefficients, Drag coefficients, Lift- to- Drag ratio, Low Reynolds Number, Wind Tunnel Test.