African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agric. Technology Vol. 19 No.1


VOL. 19 NO.1 DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Assessment of Farmers Adaptation Strategies to Rainfall Variability on Increasing Crop Yield in Benue State, Nigeria


1Iornongo Terseer; 2T.I Yahaya; 3Isah Jibrin Masha; & 4Isah Muhammad Abdullahi

1&2Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna 3&4Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education, Minna.



This study assessed the adaptation strategies and farmers’ knowledge for increase crop yield of cereal (maize and rice), root and tuber (cassava and yam), and legume (groundnut, soyabeans)in Benue State. Primary data was collected through a multi stage sampling technique. A questionnaire was distributed to 720 farmers from twelve (12) of the twenty- three (23) Local Government Areas in Benue State based on the production of the cereal (maize and rice), root and tuber (cassava and yam), and legume (groundnut, soyabeans). The data was collected with the assistance of extension workers from Benue State Agricultural Development Agency (BNARDA). The data analysis was through simple techniques of random sampling to issue the questionnaire amongst the respondent. Random technique sampling was used to choose the actual sample for the study and this method decreases human interference and bias. The rationale was to choose areas that are inferred to be common with various essential issues and information about socio-economic impact of the study area. The returned questionnaires were 720 and were used to carry out the analysis. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data obtained from questionnaire and survey of farmers. The data was presented using frequency, tables, percentages, charts and figures.  The results showed that most farmers are aware of rainfall variability and they also noted that their crop yields are increasing as a result of using choices for adaptation which includes changes of planting dates as well as improvement of crop varieties as adaptation strategies for increasing crop yield. The research concludes that 73 % of farmers have tried and adapted to rainfall variability

Keywords: Assessment, Farmers Adaptation, Rainfall, Variabilty, Increasing, Crop Yield.




Analysis pf Adoption Level of Fish Farmers on Spawning Technologies and Usage in Delta State, Nigeria.


Okwuokenye, G. F.

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Km 4, Kaduna Zaria Express Way, Kaduna State



The study analyzed adoption level of fish farmers on spawning technologies and usage in Delta State, Nigeria. The purposes of the study were to; examine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, ascertain the level of adoption, examine the effects of adoption of improved spawning technology on farmers’ income and constraints plaguing the adoption of improved spawning technologies. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 112 respondents from four LGAs of the state. Statistical tool used were descriptive and inferential statistics. They were respectively used to analyze the objectives and hypotheses of the study. Inferential statistics include Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient and t-test. Results revealed that the mean age, household size, farm size, years of residence in community and farm experience was 50.27 years, 6 persons, 2777 fishes, 15.88 years and 13.03 years respectively. Most (65.18%) respondents were high adopters of the spawning technologies. Average farm income of the adopters and non-adopters was N347,321.43 and N232,535.71 respectively. The difference was N114,785.72 and t-value (18.341) indicated that it was significant at the 5% level. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient revealed age (r = -0.228), household size (r = 0.541) and farm size (r = 0.473) to be significantly related to adoption of improved fish spawning technologies at the 5% level. Other characteristics still related but at 1% level include educational level (r = 0.372), farm experience (r = 0.251) and farm income (r = 0.386). Constraints of adoption include lack of funds (mean = 3.11), scarcity of trained manpower (mean = 3.02), high labour cost (mean = 3.72), complexity (mean = 2.95) and incompatibility of technology with culture, norms and tradition (mean = 2.83). The study thus concluded that adoption of the improved spawning technologies have positively impacted on the adopter farmers farm income.   

Keywords: fish, spawning, adopters, non-adopters, loans, technologies, adoption




Fostering Financial Innovation to Unleash Sub-Saharan African Resources for Sustainable Green Industrialization


*Duru Lawrita A.; **Nwaneri Chioma J.; & ***Obiah, Mmadubuike Emmanuel

*Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. **Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo. ***Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo.



The study examined the encouragement of financial innovation to unleash sub-Saharan African resources for sustainable green industrialization. The opinion paper adopted descriptive design and content analysis as research methodology. The findings revealed abundant mineral resources that can be exploited innovatively to facilitate sustainable green industrialization in the region. It equally identified inadequate industrial policies and infrastructures as setbacks to the drive for industrialization. The paper suggested provision of massive infrastructures and institutional framework for sustainable green industrialization. Further research on empirical exploration can enhance the data collection and analysis on this topic

Keywords: Innovation, Natural Resources, Industrialization, Sustainable Development.




Quality Assessment of the ‘Kunun-zaki’ Soft Drink Based on Bacteria and Fungi content


A. Elihu1, Buba, ZM1, P. Naphthali1,

Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria



The purpose of the study was to made quality assessment of the ‘Kunun-zaki’, popular Nigerian soft drink based on bacteria and fungi content. Isolation of coliform of bacteria and fungi in Kunun-zaki was conducted in the month of May, 2019.Ten Kunun-zaki samples were obtained as freshly formulated beverages from 5 different sells point in Adamawa State University, Mubi metropolis, Adamawa State Nigeria and screened for microbial and fungi contamination. The media used for inoculation was Peptone water, Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB), Nutrient agar, Lauryl sulphate tryptonse broth (LST), Brilliant-green bile lactose broth (BGBLB).Microorganisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphyloccus aureus,  Streptococuus  pyogenes, Penicillium digitatum, Monilia sitophila, Rhizopus  nigricans, Aspergillus fumigatus. The pH samples ranged between 2.34-4.99 and the estimated number of total coliform bacterial count ranged between 2.0×103-2.9×104 cells/ml. The presences of high microbial loads were indication of poor hygiene and /or poor quality cereals and water used in the preparations. The types and density of microorganisms isolated from the samples examined need urgent measured. Producers should be given awareness to be taken in the processing and handling of the product before being sold to the unsuspecting general public in the school management. Kunu drink should be consumed within 24 hours of preparation or preserved using chemical preservatives rather than refrigeration. The present study concluded that the Kunun-Zaki sold in Adamawa State University was of low quality. Hence it was recommended that quality assurance programme should be started to ensure that good quality of Kunun-Zaki and Kunun-Zaki products are produced and consumed in the Campus.

Keywords: beverage, isolation, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, quality assessment




Vocational Agricultural Education and Industrial Development in Nigeria: The Problems and Way Forward


*Adeosun, Taofeek Adesoji; *Abu, Mohammed (PhD); & **Ahmed, Mukaila Adewole

*Agricultural Education Department, F.C.E. (T.) Bichi, Kano State **Agricultural Education Department, F. C. E. (Tech.), Asaba, Delta State



Vocational Agricultural Education (VAE) is an integral section of Vocational and Technical Education (VTE). It deals with imparting skills needed in promoting agriculture in modern ways on to learners which finally translates into more raw materials for our industries, more jobs for people and alleviate poverty and hunger among the populace. It is in respect of this that this paper discusses how VAE influences industrial development in Nigeria. The paper starts by giving full explanation of the meaning of VAE and discusses the concept of industrial development in detail. It goes further to elucidate critically how the profession is interconnected with industrial development. Also, how some of the main problems facing the programme as pointed out by some authors like: inadequate qualified manpower, low funding, societal attitude towards the profession, poor job satisfaction on the part of the teachers and too much emphasis on certificate affect industrial development in Nigeria are also not left out. Among other recommendations is that recruitment of VAE teachers into our schools should always be based on merit.

Keywords: Vocational Agricultural Education, Vocational and Technical Education, Industrial Development, Problems, Way Forward.




Relationship between Study Habit Patterns and Academic Performance of HND II Students in Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria


Mustapha Ahmadu; And Mallam Bulama Kobre

Department of Remedial Science, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State



This study determined the relationship between study habit patterns and academic performance of HND II students in Mohamet Lawan Collage of Agriculture, Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria. Study habit patterns are examination taking techniques, note taking planning and organization of time for studies learning and remembering of strategies and group discussions. The objectives of the study were to determine; study habit patterns of the students and academic performance of the students, relationship between study habit and academic performance. The study answered two research questions and tested one hypothesis. The study adopted a correlation research design. Target population of this study was Higher National Diploma II students of Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri, Borno State. consisting of one hundred and fifty-two (152) students out of a total population of two hundred and fifty (250) students of Higher National Diploma II students of 2018/2019 academic session. Stratified random sampling techniques was used to select the sample for the study. The research instruments used for data collections were Study Habit Patterns and Examination taking techniques inventory developed by Carew and Haman-Tukur (1996) and Proforma developed by the researcher. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics frequencies percent (%) bar chart and chi-square was used to test the hypothesis. The result revealed that, the students have average study habit patterns that means there is improvement in the studies of academic performance of Higher National Diploma II students of Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria. the majority of the distribution ranges from 8% with upper credit, 19% lower credit, 41% pass while 32% failed. there was no significant relationship between study habit and academic performance. To improve the study habit patterns teachers should know the different study habit pattern and how to integrate them in their teaching so that the diverse study skills in the class will be taken proper care of and students given opportunity to perform maximally.

Keywords: Relationship, Study Habits, Pattern, Academic, Performance.




Assessment of the Socio – Economic Factors Affecting the Adoption of Dairy Cattle Production Technologies Among Cattle Rearers in Sardauna LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria.


1Simon, B.P. 2Alam M.K, 3Hamidu, D. 4Shelleh, A.

1 & 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Taraba State College of agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria 3Department of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education Yola, Adamawa State. 4Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State



The study assed the socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of diary cattle production technologies among cattle rearers in Sardauna Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from seventy (70) respondents using purposive and random sampling techniques and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that majority (71.43%) of the respondents were male and 78.57% of the respondents are in there productive years. Also, 85.72% of the respondents had no access to extension services, the major diary cattle production technologies were identified as: cross breeding, artificial insemination and improved breeds. The multiple regression results show that: sex, age, marital status, education and farming experience were the major determinants of adoption of diary cattle production technologies in the study area. The major constraints to the adoption of diary cattle production technologies were identified as: inadequate and high cost of the technologies, inadequate infrastructural facilities, inadequate extension agents among others. Recommendations were made that cattle rearers should form cooperatives in order to access credit facilities from financial institutions. Also awareness should be created in the study area on the availability of the diary cattle production and utilization.  

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, Cattle Rearers, Cattle, Economic, Adoption, Production, Technology




Gender and Educational Level as Determinants of Application of Mathematics and Mathematical Models in Agriculture in Kaduna, Nigeria


Olumuyiwa, S.A

Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, P.M.B 2273, Afaka Kaduna



This paper recognizes the fact that agriculture has been the mainstay of the nation’s economy as it provides food for the teeming population and raw materials for the industries. The obvious remains that mathematics application for the development of agriculture becomes imperative and worthwhile. This paper therefore focuses on the application of mathematics and mathematical models in agricultural development. The study employed purposive and cluster sampling techniques.  Data were collected from 450 respondents in two local government areas in Kaduna state using a well-structured questionnaire with reliability coefficients of 0.82. The results shows that  273 (61%) and 177 (39%) of the 450 respondents were males and females respectively;  30 males and 33 females (63, 14%) had below primary school education while 83 males and 34 females (117, 25%) had secondary education, lastly 85 males and 82 females (167, 37%) schooled beyond secondary level. In addition the result shows that out of the research population, 50%(225) of which 145 are males and 80 are females, 90%(405) of which 225 males and 150 females, 65%(294) of which 214 are males and 80 are females, 50%(225) with 125 males and 100 females strongly agreed with the statements; I love working with figures; mathematics is very useful in agriculture, to individual and the nation at large; almost every field of human endeavors including agriculture has elements of mathematics; inventory in agriculture is mathematically inclined respectively. Furthermore the result shows that 50%(225) with 125 males and 100 females, 60%(270) with 150 males and 120 females, 90%(405) with 265 males and 140 females and 75%(338) with 178 males and 160 females of the respondents strongly agreed that mathematical models are relevant in agriculture; demand and supply are example of mathematical models in agriculture; every sector in agriculture rely on mathematical models in their operations; mathematical models enhanced resource  use efficiency in agricultural practices respectively respectively. We therefore recommend that more attention should be given to the teaching of mathematics at all level of the Nigeria educational system to enhance more success and bountiful output in our agricultural sector.

Keywords: Educational Level, Determinant, Mathematics, Mathematical Models, Gender




The Challenges Of Eradicating Invasive Arthropods, A Set Back For Food Security In Africa: A Review.


Ananias Amen; &  James Solomon Efkah

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali



Arthropods have always competed with humans for food and space, causing health related problems to humans and domestic animals, destabilizing the ecosystem through invasion affecting food security. To achieve food security, arthropods invasion must be tackled and eradication is key. The review presents the challenges of eradicating invasive arthropods in Africa to include resistance to pesticides, inadequate knowledge on integrated pest management (IPM) and poor storage methods. Methods of mitigating the crop losses to arthropods are early detection and rapid response, integrated pest management, quarantine laws and regulations, traditional crop rotation and intercropping and effective surveillance.

Keywords:  Challenges, Eradicating, Invasive Arthropods, Food Security, Africa.




Downstream Variation in Grain Size, Channel Geometry, and Hydraulic Parameters in the Lower River Zabarmari. An Ephemeral Stream in Semi-Arid, Maiduguri, Borno State. Nigeria


Mustapha Mala1, Alhaji Shettima2 and Alhaji Usman Maina3

1Department of Remedial Arts, Geography Unit, Ramat Polytechnic P.M.B. 1070, Maiduguri 2Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri 3Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Agriculture Gujba, Yobe State.



The study assess downstream changes in grain sizes and hydraulic characteristics and morphological variables in order to identify major geomorphic process operating in the stream. The flow and hydraulic parameters for this study at bankfull flow condition were measured from cross-sectional data with the aid of Total Station and grain size data was obtained through laboratory analysis. The results showed that bottom sediment largely consists of sediment less than 2 mm in diameter (i.e., sand, silt, and clay). The results also show that the upper reach had higher mean values of silt contents 58.2%, while middle and lower reaches contains mean silt of 19.5% and 35.9% respectively. If distance is the only factor that affect downstream fining, this study found Stenberg’s law” is relevant for River Zabarmari channel. The coefficient of determination indicates that downstream distance explains about 62.1 % of the variation in grain sizes downstream. The equation that relates D50 and downstream distance for the study reaches is in the form of Equation 24, which can be interpreted as grain size decreases downstream of the study river with a finning coefficient of (-0.082 at 95% level of confidence level, R2 = 0.621%). Most of the samples within middle reach are sand sized; 19.5% have a D50 that is silt sized and 18.2% are clay sized. Within the lower reach where the channel begins to bifurcate as it enters the terminal delta of Jere Bowl, 53.8% of the samples have a D50 that is sand sized, 35.9% silt materials and 10.4% clayey. The study revealed channel that is relatively wider and shallower in its upper reach, but deeper and narrower in its middle and lower reaches with average width to depth ratio of 38.9, 23.3 and 21.6 in the upper, middle and lower reaches respectively. Other variables that affect downstream trends of grain size include channel width, discharge and channel bed slope, of which channel bed slope dominantly affects the variation in grain size downstream. The downstream trend of discharge is very similar to the downstream trend of width in the three reaches respectively. However, land use types also affect the location at which discharge of river could reach at maximum, which in turn affect the time of flow concentration and associated geomorphic processes and grain fining in the downstream. Multiple regression equation developed to see the effect of slope, width and discharge on the distribution of grain sizes downstream of the study river. The result revealed that variation in grain size downstream of the study river is largely attributed to velocity and channel bed slope.

Keywords: Grain size, hydraulic parameters, and channel geometry




Evaluation of Processing Methods on Engineering Properties of Carrot


Abodenyi, V.A

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The study was undertaken to analyze and give rise to methods and techniques to which carrot can be processed, ready for use at periods when they are scarce, be in safe and useful condition while stored. Two different size of carrot were used 5 x6x7cm3 and 10x11x12cm3 both blanched and unblanched to investigate the effect of drying mediums as a processing method on the physical properties of carrot. Three different drying medium were used which include electric cabinet dryer, solar cabinet dryer and direct sun drying. Some of the engineering properties evaluated were size, color, bulk density, texture. The dried carrot were refreshed to compare the moisture absorption with the fresh carrot and also color variation of both blanched and unblanched carrot sliced in the different drying medium. The result showed that the drying medium had significant effect on the color of carrot after drying, size A  which is5 x6x7 cm3 (small) was found to retain the color much better and dried faster and better than size B which is10 x11x12cm3 (big), also the time taken for drying was shorter for electric method 3 – 4 hours at 500C.

Keyword: carrot, blanched, color, physical properties, drying medium




Farmers’ Perception on the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production in Bauchi Local Government Area, Bauchi State. Nigeria.


A.I. Abubakar*   Y. Haruna*   Garba, A** Babuga, U. S* and Barnabas, B*

*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This study examines “farmers’ perception of the effects of climate change on crop production in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state Nigeria”. A random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents involved in crop production from four agricultural areas in Bauchi local government (Miri, Bishi, Inkil and Bayara). Data were collected with aid of structured and pretested questionnaire administered by the researchers to the respondents. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, and percentage) and inferential (Regression analysis). The result revealed that majority (72.5%) of the respondents fall within the age range of 21 – 40 years, with mean ages as 34 and household size ranging between 6 – 10 members. The result further indicated that 41.7% of the respondents had no formal education.  Majority of the respondent were aware of decrease in rainfall duration and intensity, increase in temperature and humidity but generally did not relate them with climate change. Similarly 94.7% of the respondents perceive inadequate rainfall as having the most serious impact on crop production in the study area.  Poverty (4.216) and inadequate knowledge of climate change (4.000)   were perceived as the most severe constraints to adaptation and mitigation practices of climate change.   The respondents need capital, improved technologies and adequate extension service to create awareness on climate change and its adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Keywords: Climate change; Farmers’ perception; Crop production, Bauchi.




Evaluation of Sediment Pollution and its Effect on Aquatic Life in Bali, River Taraba


Nasiru Yahaya Ahmed

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, PMB 05 Bali, Taraba State



This study was carried out to analyze water and sediment contamination by heavy metals at the upstream and downstream of river Taraba at Bali. To estimate the heavy metal concentration of the water and sediment, five heavy metals, namely Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, and Pb were examined from the freshly deposited river bed sediment. Water and sediment samples were collected analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The average concentration of heavy metal in the sediment for Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb are 0.059 mg/kg, 17.52 mg/kg, 1.753 mg/kg, and 0.025 mg/kg respectively. While in Cr is below detection limit. The result revealed that heavy metals concentration in the sediment is within Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/WHO limit. The potential sources of water contamination are geological conditions, industrial and agricultural activities, and water treatment plants. Poor water quality affects not only aquatic life but the surrounding ecosystem as well. The mean value of the water quality parameters examine at the study area for temperature, pH, conductivity, DO and TDS were 28.16 °C, 8.18, 38.55, 7.11 and 3.05 respectively. Thus the result show that the values of water quality parameters collected from different point of the river were found to be within the recommended limits of WHO and NDWQS. The concentrations of the heavy metals were also measured and found to be well below the standard maximum concentrations.

Keywords: Sediment pollution, Water Quality, Heavy Metals, Aquatic Life.




Macro and Micro Nutrients Contamination in Some Common Imported Rice (Oriza Sativa) Around Popular Market in Saki, Saki West Local Government


*Imran, Musah Olalekan, *Lawal, Ismail Ajerogba, *Azeez, Gafar Olatunji and **Olagoke, Halimah Bukola

*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. Oyo State **Lautech Open and Distance Learning Centre, Lautech, Ogbomoso, Oyo state.



Rice provides 21% of global human per capital energy and 15% of per protein. Rice is grown under different condition and production can be grown in different environment. Rice is central to the live ofbillion of people around the world. Rice belongs to the genus oryza and has two cultivated and 22 wild species.  It’s grown all over the world. Rice is the only cereal crops that can grown for long period of time in standing water.    The heavy metal contamination of rice during planting, processing, and transportation is not known to people. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to determine the heavy metal contamination in different type of rice form different country (Thailand and India rice brands). The thirteen (13) samples of imported rice were obtained from the Saki west local government market within and around the town of Saki.In the digestion method, 1 gram of each sample was weighed in a 50 millimeter graduated Pyrex digestion tube. Added to the tube was 25 milliliter of deionized water, 4 millimeters of 1:1 concentrated Nitric-Perchloric acids (HNO3 -HClO4) and 5 millimeters of concentrated Hydrochloric acid (HCl).The analysis revealed the presence of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, nickel and iron ranges from 0.10-0.84mg/kg and the absence of chromium and cadmium in the samples. The heavy metals as at this present research are within the permicible limit recommended by international standard.   

Keywords:  oryza sativa, heavy metals, contamination, perchloric acid, environment




The Impact of Road Transportation on the Health and Welfare of Livestock (Sheep and Goat): A Comparative Study of United Kingdom and Nigeria.


Moses Gani Umaru

Department of Animal Health and Production, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State- Nigeria



Livestock transport is a complex process that is globally practiced. Each livestock travels at least once in it life time in search of food/water, better market, animals show and to the abattoir for slaughter. The entire process such as loading, unloading and some cases beating with cane, tethering with ropes, mixing with unfamiliar animals, noise/vibration are stress inducing. These stressors caused injuries, changes in blood and hormones, poor meat quality and death. This Paper compares the transport system and the Legislation on animal welfare in the United Kingdom and Nigeria. It reveals how stressful livestock transport is and its impact on health and welfare of the species especially in Nigeria compared to UK which has more advanced transport system and elaborate legislation on animal welfare. The paper is a review hence it does not involve the use of life animals.  However, it employed secondary sources of data like journals from web of science, science direct and other internet materials. The review found some science based evidences that explained the impact of stressors on livestock. The paper concludes that there is need for attitudinal change towards livestock and this is achievable through humane education in schools and informal Education to adults in rural areas and a comprehensive legislation on animal transportation and welfare especially in Nigeria. Finally, since good livestock transport management result in healthy animal and good quality meat which is of great societal benefit, livestock transporters must ensure that proper animal welfare standards are maintained whilst transporting animals.

Keywords: Animal-welfare, Humane-education, Legislation, Sheep/goat, stressor, Transport,




Chromatographic and Ft-Ir Analysis of Acetone Leave Extracts of Euphorbia Hirta


1Yakubu S.; 3Friday O. E.; & 4Justine M.

1.3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Poly, Mubi, Adamawa state.  4Department of Chemistry, College of Education Hong, Adamawa State,



Euphorbia hirta is one of the commonly used herbs in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as cough, asthma, genitor-urinary infection etc. The research work was undertaken to isolate the phytochemical components of the leaves of the plant and determine their functional groups. Approximately 269 g of plant materials were extracted in 750 mL of 100% methanol and concentrated using rotary evaporator. Column chromatography (CC) was performed on the extract using toluene, acetone and formic acid as the mobile phase and silca gel 160/200 mesh as the stationery phase. Thin Layer Chromatography was adopted to monitor the fractions collected while Fouria Transform Infra-red Radiation was used for the determination of functional groups. The extraction yielded 19 mg and CC gave thirty fractions which were collected and pooled to ten fractions. Fraction eight (8) was picked and further subjected to micro-column chromatography for the isolation of the two identified spots. Tin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the isolates indicated one spot on each chromatogram, depicting purity of the isolates. The  Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) analysis of the two isolates E1 and E2 revealed the presence of some important functional group, which include: O-H, C-H, C = O,  C-O,  = C-H, CH2 and C-H, C= O, C-H, C-O, C=C  C-Br respectively. This therefore suggest that the activity of the plant is attributed to the presence of these functional groups, which determines the activity of the phytochemicals. 

Keywords: Euphorbia hirta, Colum chromatography, Tin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Fourier Transform Infra-red Radiation (FT-IR,)  




Stability of Bacterioicn Produced by Lactobacillus Plantarum NRIC 0383 at Different Temperatures


1Ihum, Temitope A.  and   2Efunwole Omonike O.

1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic Iree.



The use of bacteriocin in the food industry has to a large extent replaced the use of chemical preservatives in enhancing the shelf-life and safety of foods. Consumer demand for higher quality and naturalness of foods, has increased in recent times. Thermal processing is used extensively within the food manufacturing process and can have adverse effects on the bio-active capability of a bacteriocin potentially rendering it less effective.  Stability of bacterioicn of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 at temperatures of 30, 50, 70,90 and 121oC was determined. Antimicrobial activity of bacterioicn of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 against six bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pec 1, Enterobacter cloacae AS10, Klebsiella aerogenes OFM28, Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 and Proteus mirabilis UPMSD3)  from selected  vegetable samples  remained stable at temperatures of 30, 50,70 and 90°C save at 1210C when over 50% of its activity against the test bacteria was lost at exposure time of 15 minutes. This research has therefore established the ability of bacteriocin of L. plantarum NRIC 0383 at inhibiting food-borne pathogens while remaining stable and active at high temperatures thereby providing a safer and reliable alternative to the use of harmful chemical food preservation.

Keywords:  Stability, Bacterioicn, Produced, Lactobacillus, Plantarum.




Agricultural Resource Management: A Tool For Revenue Generation And Empowerment At Local Government Level


Muhammad Wakil; & Hauwa Wakil Abbas

Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.



This paper carried a brief analysis of agricultural resource management at the local government area, in the quest of generating revenue and provide empowerment. The paper pointed out that rural  farmers are responsible for the larger quantity of food produced in the country and also indicated that local government are more closer to these farmers in many respects. This creates an opportunity for the local government to work with the farmers through empowerment of the people, by making resources available for ensure effective management. With the effective management of agricultural resources, local government generates revenue. Local governments, which constitute the areas mostly endowed with natural resources, can be allowed to woo foreign investors for the development of their abundant resources. This will improve their revenue generation base and create job opportunities for the people. The paper further highlighted how empowerment can be achieved through people’s access to resources through local government which is believed that it reduce incidence of poverty, increase employment opportunities and household income leading to sustainable economic development. The need to consider women in decision-making process and in the empowerment process because of their position and role-play in agricultural development at the rural area was also emphasized.

Keywords: Local Government Area, Empowerment, Revenue Generation, Tool




Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration on Food Security Status of Farming Households in Kaduna State, Nigeria


AS Sambo1, A. Mustapha2 And A. Suleiman2

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, School of Agricultural Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University, Kano



The study analyzed the effects of rural-urban migration on food security status of rural farming households in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for selecting samples for this study. In the first stage, four Local Government Areas were selected based on their proximity to Kaduna and Zaria which are urban centers, from which two rural communities were each selected. The last stage involved random selection of 20% of the farming households from each rural community selected in stage two to give a total of 120 households for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using food security index, migration effect estimation model and binary logistic regression model. Results of food security status of households revealed that 67% of the households were food secured and 33% were food insecured. The Mean Per Capita Food Expenditure (MPCFE) and food security line were ₦3,549.61 and ₦2,366.41 respectively. Result of labour loss revealed that majority (61.6%) of the households lost man-days of labour ranging from 101-150 man-days, with mean labour loss of 76man-days. Average remittance received by households in the study area was ₦95,467.00. Findings further showed that 51% of the households had positive migration effects, while 49% had negative migration effects. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that the coefficients of migration effect and remittances received by households were positive and significant at 1% and 10% levels of probability respectively; while that of labour loss to migration was negative and not significant on food security status of the farming households. The result further shows that the most common food insecurity coping strategy was borrowing money to buy food items, which ranked 1st. The study concluded that rural-urban migration had a significant positive influence on food security status of rural farming households in the study area. The study finally recommended that extension agents should be responsible for creating awareness among rural populace on the need to remain and be productive in the rural area.

Keywords: Rural-urban migration, Food security, Farming households.




Improving the Physical Properties of Sweet Potato Vines Treated With Molases, Urea and Yeast: A Sub-Sahara African Resource for Sustanable Development


Kuttu Julius Musa1; Cornelius Anthony Edet (Phd)2; Rahila Isyaku3; Rita John Ehiosu4; & Yusuf Umar Dalawa5

1,3,4&5Department of Agricultural Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational) Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State Nigeria.  2Department of Educationalpsycology, Guidiance and Counselling. School of General Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State Nigeria.



This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of physical characteristics of two varieties of sweet potato vines ensiled with additives as a Sub-sahara African resource. Two varieties of sweet potato vines silage (SPVS) were made with no additive as control T1, with urea T2, with molases T3 and with yeast T4. The ensiling physical characteristics (pH, colour and odour) were determined by ensiling two varieties of sweet potato vines silage in airtight bama bottles for 3, 5 and 7weeks. The effect of sweet potato silage treated with these additives was determined using bar charts in Microsoft Excel office Software. The results showed that the pH values of the treated silage of variety two (Dan chaina) rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value of 4.23 on molases treatment within 7 weeks of the start of fermentation including the control, while for variety one (King –J), there was a steady decrease on the pH values on control, molases and yeast treatments, except for urea treatment which have an increase pH value above other treatments. For odour, 67 samples had a sweet characteristics, 4 were rancid and 1 putrid, while for characteristics colour, 53 samples were green and 19 were yellow green. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the addition of molasses, urea and yeast improved silage quality of two varieties of sweet potato vines including the control. SPVS has been considered as a Sub-sahara African resource which can be used during the dry season to supplement protein deficiency in livestock nutrition.

Keywords: Ensiling, Sweet Potato Vines, Molases, Urea and Yeast.




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