HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (HAJAAT)
VOL.12 (1) JUNE, 2020 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0196 – 3488
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DETERMINANTS OF CROP OUTPUTS AMONG WOMEN FARMERS’ PARTICIPANT IN DEVELOPMENT EXCHANGE CENTRE (DEC) MICROCREDIT OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
This study was conducted to determine the crop outputs among women farmers in Development Exchange Centre Microcredit of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study utilized primary data collected through a questionnaire administered to 420 respondents (210 DEC participants and 210 non-participants) were selected using purposive and random sampling procedures. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics, Z-test and Logit regression model. The result of the Logit regression showed that age, education, farm size, labour, farm inputs and extension contact were significantly related to the crop outputs of the women farmers. This implies that a unit increase in these variables will likely increase the crop outputs of the respondents.The calculated Z-statistic was 14.7 but at 0.01 level of significance, the critical table value of Z is ±1.96. Since the calculated Z-value (14.7) is greater than the Z-critical or Z- tabulated value, it implied that there was significant difference in the mean crops output of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The estimated mean crops output of beneficiaries was much higher than that of non-beneficiaries, (437,807.1Kg) as against (145,571.43Kg). The estimated mean income of beneficiaries (₦701,379.70) was discovered to be greater than the estimated mean income of non- beneficiaries (₦224,131.02). It is therefore recommended that DEC programme be extended to other farming communities in Kaduna State, so as to accelerate agricultural production and alleviate poverty among women farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Keywords: Determinants, Development, Participant, Exchange, Microcredit
CONSTRAINTS TO ADOPTION OF RECOMMENDED CASSAVA PRODUCTION PRACTICES BY FARMERS IN BWARI AND KUJE AREA COUNCIL ABUJA, NIGERIA
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture,National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) 91, Cadastral Zone, University Village, Nnamdi Azikiwe Express Way, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria.
Farming practices have been poor in Nigeria compares to countries like Brazil,Thailand and Indonesia. Stakeholders in agriculture have made all effort in promoting the adoption of recommended cassava production practices(RCPPs).In spite of this; adoption of RCPPs remain low and resulting to poor farm productivity. Consequently; this study examine the effects of adoption of the recommended cassava production practices (RCPPs) on the yield and income benefit among farmers; as well as the constraints faced by farmers in adoption of the recommended practices. The study used a multi-stage sampling procedure to select 120 registered cassava farmers. Frequencies, percentages, means, and z – test were employed for data analyses. Result of the Z-test revealed that the mean yield of cassava before and after adoption were 3,832 t/ha and 6,387 t/ha respectively; with a differential of 67%. The mean income of farmers before and after the adoption was ₦464, 642.00 and ₦714, 833. 00 respectively; and the differential mean was 54%. The major constraints for low and non-adoption of some of the recommended cassava production practices were limited scale and uneven distribution of farmland, insufficient funds and complex nature of technologies disseminated to farmers. It was recommended that technology developers should develop technologies that are simple, cost effective and easily adoptable by farmers. On the other hand, promoters of technology adoption should intensify efforts targeted at improving service delivery and the promotion of the adoption of recommended cassava production practices by the farmers especially those technologies that recorded low levels of adoption. But more than this, it is recommended that the applicable technologies should be appropriate, adaptive, adoptive and sustainable.
Keywords: Constraints; technologies; adoption; recommended cassava production practices;
UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AMONG AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
1OTHMAN, H.G 2ALAM, M.K 3MELAIYE O.E, 4SHELLEH A. AND 5RIKWENTISHE F.
1Department of Agricultural Extension and Economics, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State. 2&4Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State. 3Faculy of Education, Science Education Department Taraba State University, Jalingo. 5Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State.
The study assessed the utilization of information and communication technology tools among agricultural extension workers in Taraba State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are: to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify the various types of information and communication technologies commonly used by the respondents, identify the types of agricultural information that is disseminated by the respondents through the use of information and communication technologies, and identify the constraints experienced by the respondents in the use of information and communication technologies in the study area. Primary data were obtained from 120 extension workers using simple random sampling technique, and were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logit regression analysis. Result shows that a majority (87%) of the extension workers were young and in their productive years with mean age of 40.5 years. 84% of them were males, who were married (79.2%) and with a household size of 4-10 people (75%) with the mean of 14.0 people. Also, all the extension workers acquired formal education ranging from secondary to tertiary levels, and most (90%) of them were members of cooperative societies and majority of them (37.5%) earned a monthly income of N1,000 – N6,000 with the mean monthly income of 80,500. The types of information and communication technologies used by extension workers were identified as radio, television, telephone, cassette player, DVD/VCD, video-cassette among others. The logit result shows that age, working experience, monthly income and membership of cooperatives were directly related to the use of information and communication technologies. The study concluded that extension workers utilized some information and communication technologies such as: Radio, Television, Cell Phones among others for effective extension service delivery. Recommendations were made that: Constant on-job training of extension workers on information and communication technology skills, to enable them operate the information and communication technologies especially computer-based information and communication technologies thereby enhancing effective dissemination of agricultural information, network subscribers should ensure network facilities for hitch free dissemination of agricultural information.
Keywords: Utilization, Extension Workers, Information and Communication Technology, Taraba, Agricultural Development Programme.
COMPARATIVE NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSED SORGHUM FOOD PRODUCT (Gruel)
SUMAYYA AHMED AYUBA1, ZAINAB MUHAMMAD KILGORI1, FARIDA BASHAR3, AMINU UMAR IMAM1, ZAINAB HASSAN BELLO1 AND HAUWA HUSSAINI2
1Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Microbiology, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria 3Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor) is a crop that is widely grown all over the world for food and feed. The proximate, antinutrient and mineral composition of both dehulled and soaked sorghum food product (gruel) was determined using standard methods. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in fiber and ash content but there was no significant increase (P>0.05) in crude protein, carbohydrate, lipid and moisture content when the dehulled sample was compared to the soaked sample. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in phytate and tannin content but the amount of nitrate and cyanide did not change significantly (P>0.05) when the dehulled sample was compared to the soaked sample. Sodium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in the dehulled sample, while the level of zinc and selenium did not change significantly. Dehulling is a more efficient processing method for preparation of sorghum food product (gruel).
Keywords: Sorghum, Gruel, Nutritional composition, Dehulling, Soaking.
THE EFFECT OF KIDNAPPING OF FARMERS ON FARM PRODUCTIVITY IN ARDO-KOLA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE, NIGERIA.
(1)MELAIYE, O.R, (PhD), (2)ALAM, M.K, (3)GALADIMA, A (4)HASSANA, D. K (PhD), (5)RIKWENTISHE, F, and (6)KAZON, ISHAKU
(1)Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo. (2)Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture, Jalingo. (3)Taraba State Teaching Service Board, Jalingo (4)Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola (5)Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture Jalingo, (6)Taraba State Teaching Service Board, Jalingo
The study examined the effect of kidnapping of farmers on farm productivity in Ardo-kola LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria. It specially identified factors influencing kidnapping activities in the study area, examined the effects of kidnapping farmers on farm productivity and identified measures of curtailing kidnapping activities in the study area. Data were collected from 400 farmers using purposive and random sampling techniques. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that, factors influencing kidnapping activities in the study area are; the influence of peer group (mean=4.0), religion intolerant (mean=3.0) among others. The effects of kidnapping farmers on farm productivity indicated the following; late planting of crops (mean=3.0, reduction of yields or output (mean=2.9), scarcity of farm labour (mean=4.0), increased unemployment (mean=3.0) and relocation of farm families (mean=3.8) among others. The measures for curtailing kidnapping farmers in the study area were revealed as; provision of skills acquisition centers, (mean=3.9), community policing (mean=4.0), training of strong anti-kidnapping squad (4.0) and death penalty for offenders (3.9) among others. The study concluded that kidnapping of farmers have negative consequences on the farmers’ productivity in the study area. Recommendations are made that; youth should be empowered through acquiring entrepreneurship skills that will enhance self-reliance of the youths in the study area. Also Government should ensure provision of job opportunities in both rural and urban area in order to present rural and urban migration of youths which promote social vices.
Keywords: Kidnapping, Farmers, Farm, Productivity, Taraba State, Ardo-kola
AN ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY AND IRRIGATION FARMING PRACTICES IN GADA-BIYU, KWALI AREA COUNCIL, FCT ABUJA, NIGERIA
MAGAJI J.Y. AND KATO C. S.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja
This Paper assessed the Water Quality used for Irrigation farming in Gada-biyu, Kwali Area Council. It also examined the famers’ perception of the soil fertility of the irrigation farming, and their associated problems. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. The Primary data include water samples collected and the questionnaire administered, while the secondary data are the documented materials obtained from journals and FAO. Water samples were collected using thoroughly washed and rinsed plastics containers with the water to be sampled from. Three well water samples in the farms and three surface water samples at their pumping source in the river were collected, a total of six water samples were collected and analyzed at AEPB laboratory for pH, EC, Na, Ca, NO3, SO4, K, CO3 and HCO3. The farmers who are practicing the irrigation farming were about 46 persons on the average and all of them were considered and been served with the questionnaire. The statistical methods used was descriptive analysis (tables, charts) and inferential statistics such as Analysis of Variance and Student t-test were used with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results show that there is low variation in the occurrences of all parameters except EC and NO3 that are moderate and high respectively. Results show that all except TDS are higher in ground water. All the parameters fall below the FAO permissible limit. Majority of the farmers constitutes an active age, out of which 51.5% have no formal education, while 20% attended primary school and 9% have Junior School certificate. Tomatoes and Maize are the major crops produced in the area and 50% of them earned above N40, 000. About 50% indicated that there is decrease on their yield and 30.1% attributed it to low soil fertility, followed by pest and diseases and poor seeds. Statistics shows that there is no significant variation in the distribution of the analysed parameters, but there is significant difference between the surface and ground water, and the FAO standard. The soil generally is of low soil fertility with very low values of N and P, and in some cases K. However continuous use of the water especially the sub-surface, in dry season may lead to sodicification of the soil. It is therefore recommended that use of inorganic and organic fertilizers might help to increase its productivity. Above all, extension workers are needed to in order to educate the farmers on the modern irrigation practices.
Keywords: Water quality, Irrigation, Perception, Soil fertility and Gada-biyu
EFFECT OF PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON RURAL LIVELIHOOD ENHANCEMENT IN NORTH WEST, NIGERIA
SIDI S.H, A. HASHIM*, B.Z ABUBAKAR, O.J LADEBO, A.A UTHMAN, F.J YELWA
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria.
The study was conducted to assess the effect of Participation in Community and Social Development on rural Livelihood enhancement in North West, Nigeria. Multistage sampling techniques were used to select CSDP beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries for the study. Data were collected from a total of 360 respondents using structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the age of the majority of respondents fell between 29-38 years for the beneficiaries and 39-48 years for the non-beneficiaries. Majority of the respondents were married (80.28%) from the pooled data and were male (81.11%). Approximately, 56.67% had one form of education or the other with beneficiaries more distributed in formal education. The major occupation for both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries was farming (69.17%). With regards to CSDP participation, majority (85.6%) of the beneficiaries participated in project planning stage, 65% in project preparation stage, 71.6% participated in project implementation stage while only 61.7% participated in project monitoring and evaluation stage. Participation level was rated high as majority (47.78%) of the beneficiaries participated in at least ten out of sixteen project cycles. Probit analysis showed that sex, marital status, education, monthly income and work experience were statistically related to the decision to participate in CSDP by the respondents. The double difference values was observed to be ₦92, 981.7 implying that productive assets increased more across the beneficiaries in comparison to the non-beneficiaries in the course of time. Crop farming (36.7%), cattle trading (28.3%) and livestock farming (26.9%) where the major livelihood activities of the respondents as indicated from the pooled data. Improvement in living standard, community cohesion, increased school enrolment, reduction in water borne diseases and reduction in the distance covered to school and health centers were some of the benefits beneficiaries derived from CSDP as a result of their participation. Among the major challenges facing the beneficiaries while participating in CSDP includes high cost of materials, complex protocol, payment of counterpart funds and abandoned projects. Others were lack of professional medical personnel, poor maintenance culture and possibility of elite culture. The study concludes that CSDP is promising and therefore needs to be sustained. It is therefore recommended among others that CSDP and other non-governmental organizations should encourage non-benefiting communities to participate in the project through adequate sensitization and outreaches.
IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA FRUIT (UDA)
UCHENDU, A.C1. EBI, I.I2. EBI, P.U3.
1Zitelle Oil Nigeria Limited, Amansea, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Von Foods Nigeria Limited, Osisioma, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria 3Zitelle Oil Nigeria Limited, Amansea, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria
Several methods were employed in this study in extracting and testing the antimicrobial activities of the three extracts of Xylopia aethiopia (Hot water, cold water and ethanolic extracts) against Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli,Pseudomonas aeroginosa,Klebsiella Prieumoniae, and Candida albicans.Staphylococcus aureus showed the greatest susceptibility to the extracts whereas Echerichia coli showed the least susceptibility(MIC-E.coli=50mg/ml, S.aureus=10mg/ml and 20mg/ml). Staphylococcus aureus was also found tobe more sensitive to the hot water extract than the cold water and ethanolic extract (MIC, 10Mg/ml).The results also showed that the ethanolic extract was the most effective of the extracts (MIC: 20, 50, 30, 20, 20). It can also be deduced from the result that Staphylococcus .aureus showed the greatest susceptibility to the extract, while E.coli showed the least susceptibility, followed by Candida. albicans and as such suggest that Xylopia aethiopica will be very effective for the treatment of Staphylococcus.aureus infection. Therefore, there was significant difference in the antimicrobial activities of the three extracts of Xylopia aethiopica based on One Way ANOVA analysis carried out. Traditional medicine should be encouraged and modernized so as to increase the utility of new plant based antimicrobials like Xylopia aethiopica.
Keywords Invitro, Antimicrobial, Potential, Fruit and Xylopia aethiopica.
ADAPTATION OF IAR MAIZE DEHUSKER SHELLER FOR THRESHING OF SOME OTHER SELECTED CROPS
1MUHAMMAD R. S., U. B. AHMAD2 AND H. M. GARBA3
1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria, 2Department of Soil Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Agricultural Produce of Technology, Kano.
An existing IAR maize Dehusker Sheller developed by the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria was evaluated in the year 2010 for adoption to thresh some selected crops (sorghum, cowpea and groundnut). Performance test carried out on sorghum at the combination of speed of 950rpm, feed rate of 0.4kg/sec and at moisture content of 18.16% wet basis gave a threshing efficiency output, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency and scatter loss of 44.71kg/hr, 94.4%, 91.6% and 14.72% respectively with no visible grain damage. Performance of the machine on cowpea at the combination of 75rpm, federate 0.4kg/sec and at moisture content of 18.16% wet basis gave a threshing efficiency output, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency and scatter loss of 44.4%, 91.6% and 14.72% respectively with no visible grain damage. Performance of machine on cowpea at the combination of speed of 750rpm, feed rate of 0.4kg/sec and at moisture content of 18.16% wet basis gave an output, threshing efficiency , cleaning efficiency and scatter loss of 27.27kg/hr, 75.56%, 43% and 14.94% respectively with no visible grain damage. The performance of the machine on groundnut at a combination of a speed of 750rpm, feed rate of 1.7kg/sec and moisture content of 11.7% wet basis gave an output, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, scatter loss and grain damage of 230kg/hr, 25.49%, 46.75%, 22.24% and 2.8% respectively. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to adopt the existing JAR maize dehusker sheller for threshing of the above listed crops, but modifications on the machine is required for it to thresh the selected crops for high performance especially cowpea and groundnut.
Keywords: Output, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, scatter loss, grain damage.
QUANTIFICATION OF FLESH AND WASTE YIELDS OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS, LINNAEUS, 1758) FROM LAKE ALAU, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
1MSHELIA, M. B.,2USANG, B. J., 3OFORISHE, P. O., 4WANAS, N. L.,5YAHAYA, A. M. AND 6MONGUNO, M. G.
1,2&4Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State 3,5&6Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, Baga, Maiduguri, Borno State.
Quantification of flesh and waste yields of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Alau, Borno State was carried out. The aim was to quantify the fish flesh and waste yields of Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Alau. Ninety (90) Oreochromis niloticus were obtained alive from Lake Alau, Borno State and were transported to the Hydrobiology and Limnology Laboratory, Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri for processing. The specimen obtained from the fishers at the landing site were of various sizes with weight ranging from 90 – 610g, total length ranging from 152 – 408mm and standard length ranging from 145 – 376 mm. They were killed using using standard method for easy handling and accurate measurements. Descaling of fish, removal of the heads, removal of the fins, cutting of the fish to remove the intestinal organs, separation of fleshes, removal of the bones and weighing of fish waste yields and the fish flesh were carried out carefully. The data obtained were analyzed using standard method (SPSS version 23.0 software) at 95% level of significance. The results obtained shows that the mean weight of the fish was 213g, the mean total weight of the flesh was 108.63g, which was 50.99% of the whole fish. The total mean weight of waste yields was 104.33 amounting to 48.97%. This indicated that the waste yields discarded, is slightly the same in quantity as the flesh consumed and as a result, it does not give an optimum economic utilization or consumption of the fish. It was then concluded that the fish waste yields can also be beneficial to the consumers and farmers both economically and nutritionally since it can be used for the production of several value added products such as animal feeds, biogas, and natural pigments. Further research on the nutritional value, health benefit and economic importance of fish waste yields was recommended.
Keywords: Quantification, Flesh, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758), Lake Alau, Borno State, Nigeria.
GROWBAG MEDIA STANDARDIZATION WITH NUTRISEED PACK FERTILIZATION FOR TOMATO CROP UNDER MATRIC SUCTION IRRIGATION
SIKIRU GBENGA K., OBIDOLA SHAKIRDEEN M., OLORI OKE OLUSOLAPE., AND OLADEJO AFOLABI O.
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Tomato is an annual horticultural crop with a worldwide distribution and high economic value. Growing of crops in soil in open field agriculture is now-a-days difficult. Because it involves large space, lot of labour and large volume of water. A pot experiment was carried out with different growbag media with varying proportions of agricultural/ industrial residues such as Cocopeat, Vermicompost, Vermiculite, Fly ash, Pressmud, Rice husk and Groundnut shell, for selecting suitable materials for matric suction irrigation for enhancing the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The results revealed that the plant height, number of main branches per plant, number of lateral branches per main branch and number of leaves per lateral branch were highest in media containing Cocopeat: Vermicompost: Pressmud in 1:1:1 ratio with Nutriseed Pack. The significantly highest fruit yield of tomato (1513 g/pot) was achieved in growbag media containing equal proportion of Cocopeat: Vermicompost: Pressmud in 1:1:1 ratio with NSP. Followed by, the higher yield of tomato (1379 g/pot) was recorded in case of Cocopeat: Vermicompost: Vermiculite (1:1:1) with Nutriseed Pack, which was at par with Cocopeat: Vermicompost: Vermiculite + Neem Seed Crush with Nutriseed Pack (1320 g/pot). The conventional pot mixture of Soil: Sand: FYM (1:1:1) with Nutriseed Pack gave moderate yield of tomato (622 g/pot). Besides, the promising effect of matric suction irrigation has been brought out in the present study as an alternative means for surface irrigation.
Keywords: Growing Media; Matric Suction Irrigation; Nutriseed Pack; Tomato Yield
EXAMINING FARMERS AWARENESS ON THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER IN SOBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE
AKUT YAKUBU BOBAI AND IDRIS, RAKIYA KABIR
Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria
Farmer’s awareness on the effect of fertilizer was carried out in the study area (Soba local government). High concentration of fertilizer can have adverse effect on the environment; excessive use of fertilizer can cause serious ailments as well as inhibit crop growth and potentially affect the dynamics of several vector-borne diseases. The study reveals that farmers can share their perception and gain new insight into the development and subsequent use of chemical fertilizer. The source of the data for this work was the primary and secondary sources. The basic instrument used was the questionnaire, since some of the farmers were not literate enough to complete the questionnaire, attempt were made to translate the questionnaire to them in Hausa language. The study of fertilizer innovation in Soba local government fertilizer area shows that almost all the interviewed farmers favored the use of fertilizer without proper management. It is therefore relevant for government, NGOs and extension workers to enlighten the farmers on the safe management of chemical fertilizers.
Keywords: Awareness, Farmers, effect, chemical, fertilizer.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEAF EXTRACTS ON THE YIELD OF GARDEN EGG (Solanum aethiopicum) IN NEKEDE, OWERRI
C.O. ANAH, P.C, ABANA, E.U. EZE,
Agricultural Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri
A field trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Agricultural Technology Department, Federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri to investigate the effect of different leaf extracts on the yield of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) in Nekede Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated four times. The treatments consist of 41.66g/l Ocimum gratissimum extracts, 41.66g/l of Azadirachta indica extracts, 20.83g/0.5l of Ocimum gratissinum + 20.83g/0.5l of Azadirachta indica and a zero application as control. Data were collected on the following parameters; plant height, number of leaves, days to 50% flowering, number of fruits, number of damaged fruits and fruit weight. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, neem leaf extract was found to have profound effect on the growth and yield of Solanum under the study area. This is hugely attributed to the insecticidal effect of its active ingredient Azadirachtin. It is therefore recommended that farmers of garden egg in this agroecological zone should adopt the use of neem leaf extract as an effective means to increase the productivity of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum).
Keywords: Leaf extracts, Garden egg, Yield
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF FISH CURED WITH TWO ENERGY SOURCES.
EBOCHUO, V.C*1; EMUKA, E.C1; ONYEME, O1; EZENNADI, P.O1 and AHAOTU, E.O2
1Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria.
The proximate composition and organoleptic properties of silver catfish (Bagrus filamentosus) cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood and Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) were determined. Fourteen pieces of Bagrus filamentosus weighing between 500g and 600g were purchased, killed, deguted and washed to remove blood and slime. The fish were divided into two groups. Each group were immersed in ten liters of water that was mixed with 300g of salt to get 3% brine solution and allowed to stand for an hour respectively. The first group was cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood while the second group was cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) for four hours respectively. Cured samples were allowed to cool at ambient temperature for 12 hours and were packed in a sterile black polythene bag before being sent for proximate and organoleptic analysis. The result of the proximate analysis showed that fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) higher dry matter than the same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (92.40b+/-0.10 and 90.00a+/-0.10). Fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) lesser moisture content than same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (8.90b +/-0.02 and 14.40a+/- 0.01). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had insignificantly higher (P>0.05) protein content than Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) cured fish (59.98 +/- 0.09 and 61.11b +/- 0.10). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had significantly (P<0.05) higher lipid content than fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (18.71a+/-0.08 and 10.10b +/-0.10). The result of the organoleptic analysis showed that the parameters taste and appearance for Bagrus filamentosus cured with wood and gas were significantly (P<0.05) different scores. However, aroma, mouth feel and general acceptability so treated fish were not significantly different (P>0.05). The two sources of energy could be used to cure fish since the parameters examined fall within the recommended ranges.
Keywords: Proximate composition, Organoleptic properties, Alchornea cordifolia wood, Bagrus filamentosus, Kainji Gas Klin (KGK), cured fish.
ANTIOXIDATIVE EFFECT OF WATERMELON (Citrullus lanatttus) JUICE ON SPERMATOZOA QUALITY (MOTILITY, MORPHOLOGY AND LIVEABILITY) OF EXTENDED BOAR SEMEN
Department of Animal Production and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Boar semen preservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species which leads to reduction of sperm quality and decrease in fertilizing ability. The aim of this study was to replace conventional semen extender with watermelon juice (WMJ) and to determine the most effective dilution rate that will maintain the viability of the spermatozoa over a 48-hours extension period. Semen was collected from a boar at the piggery unit of the teaching and research farm University of Ibadan, Ibadan using the glove hand method. The experiment was divided into five treatments with Beltsville Thawing Solution being replaced by WMJ at the following rate; 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Diluted semen samples were stored at 170C and were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 hours for, progressive motility, morphology, liveability (for spermatozoa quality) The experimental design was a completely randomised Design; data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. The results showed that 50 % of BTS can be replaced by watermelon juice. However the effect of watermelon juice is inconclusive up to 48 hours of storage. This evaluation shows that extender developed with WMJ could be an extender of choice for a reliable short term preservation in swine artificial insemination programme.
Keywords: Boar, Watermelon Juice extension, Semen quality, Spermatozoa.
INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING RESOURCES ON STORAGE STABILITY OF LOCALLY ADMINISTERED TOMATO PASTE
DALATU, I. S1., USMAN, M. I1., ABBA. B. S1. AND ABDULLAHI A. M1.
Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri
The research was piloted at the Postharvest Technology laboratory of Department of Agricultural Engineering Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri. The study targeted the influential effect of packaging materials on storage stability of locally administered tomato paste. The packaging materials were bottle with preservative, bottle without preservative, plastic with preservative, plastic without preservative, tin with preservative and tin without preservative. Ripe and wholesome tomatoes were procured, sorted and prepared into paste. The quantities of evaporated tomato paste filled into bottle, plastic and tin containers was 371.3 g, and 5 ml of vegetable oil was added as preservative and sealed hermetically. Each packaging materials comprised of six oil treated and six untreated samples totally eighteen samples per replicate and replicated three times and arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with total number of fifty-four treatments. Physiochemical analysis was carried out at the end of every month to determine percentage level of dry matter, moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, fat, ash and carbohydrate content of the treatments for three months. ANOVA was used to determine the variations in nutrient composition in the treatments (packaging materials). The results indicated that nutrients in plastic container without oil preservative were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to the other packaging materials used and therefore it is recommended for preservation of locally processed tomato paste.
Keywords: Packaging materials, Storage and Tomato paste
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF WOODY SPECIES IN SUMU WILDLIFE PARK
*G. ADAMU, **S. ADAMU ***A.I. ABUBAKAR, AND ***Y. HARUNA
*Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Animal Health and Production technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Department of Agricultural technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Three phytosociological parameters of species Frequency, Species Density and Species Coverage were studied and the data analyzed using simple percentage and descriptive statistics. Four sites were randomly selected within the wildlife park and transect laid. The plotless sampling technique of point centered Quarter method (PCQ) was used. The research covered only the trees and shrubs in the study area. The research findings revealed that there were 14 different species belonging to 9 different families: Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae, Naucleaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae. Anogeissus leiocarpus has the highest frequency, density and Coverage of 80%, 0.07 and 11.85 while Acacia hebacloides and Combretum molle have the least frequency,density and Coverage. The vegetation was named as Anogeissus-Acacia-Termarindus community base on the IVI values compared to other species.. No evidences of anhropogenic activity was noticed. However, the growing population of game animal and pressure on some palatable species like Acacia(debarking and stunted growth) were noticed. The need for expansion of the park to accommodate the growing population is emphasized. It is also recommended that the park need to be protected and conserved for posterity.
Keywords: PCQ, Sumu, woody species
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THREE DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BAMBARA NUT vigna subterranean SOLD IN DAMATURU
1MUSA IBRAHIM KATUZU AND 2LAWAN BELLO,
1&2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.
Bambara nut [vigna subterranean] is an indigenous Nigerian crop that is grown across the country and by extension cultivated by subsistence farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Research findings indicate that the crop has nutritional and agronomic potential, but it remains scientifically neglected. The aim of this research is to evaluate the proximate composition of three different varieties of Bambara nut [white, black and red]. Soxlet extraction method was used to determine the fat contents and the following results were obtained; white has [7.02%], black [5.79%],and red [3.22%]fats respectively. Kjeldahl method were also used to determine the protein content and the following results were obtained; white [19.05%], black [18.32%], and red [3.20%] respectively. It is recommended that, based on this analysis the white variety should be planted because it has more nutritive value than the other varieties of Bambara nut. It is also recommended that further studies should be carried out on the effect of fermentation, which reduces anti-nutrient in legumes.
Keywords: Nutrient, Proximate, Malnutrition, Weaning, Legume Cereal,
EFFECT OF CHANGE IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS CHICKS (Gallus gallus) REARED IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
KPEREGBEYI J. I1 AND MEYE, J. A2
1Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agriculture, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro. 2Department of Fisheries Technology, School of Agriculture, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro.
The study was conducted at the Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro Research Poultry Centre (RPC), to determine the effect of change in ambient temperature and relative humidity on the performance of indigenous chicks. Three strains of indigenous chicks; normal feathered birds frizzle feathered birds and naked necks were used for this experiment. Parameters considered were quantitative traits (feed intake, body weight changes and body linear measurements) and day weather index (ambient temperature and relative humidity) for the three different strains. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) day – old indigenous chicks made up of 50 each strain were used in the study. The experimental design used was Complete Randomized Design (CRD). Daily ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mortality were recorded. Determination of feed and body weight changes were calculated. Water and feed were given ad-libitum. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The results revealed the following prevailing atmospheric conditions – the mean daily ambient temperature and relative humidity values of 34.28 0C and 96 % respectively were obtained throughout the period of the study. The results also indicated that significant differences (P<0.05) existed among the three genotypes in all parameters studied. Mortality was highest (7.05 %) in normal feathered birds, (6.13 %) for frizzle feathered birds and 5.50 % least for naked neck. Body weight values ranged from 28.09 g to 158.13 g for normal feathered, 24.27 g to 152.50 g for frizzle feathered and 30.31 g to 203.95 g for naked neck birds were obtained at 6 weeks of age. R2 values indicate that the analysis of variance accounted for 0.2, 1, 1.3, 2.2, 3.5 and 1.4 per cent of the variance in comb, neck, wing, keel length, thigh length and mortality respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the performance of indigenous chickens under these environmental factors was low. It is recommended that the indigenous chicken producers in Delta State should install fitted sensors of probes to improve on the ventilation of the poultry houses and also to enhance control of the ambient temperature and relative humidity in poultry house environment.
Keywords: Relative humidity, ambient temperature, indigenous chicken, feed intake, body weight, performance.
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SPACING ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHITE MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN MUBI, NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNAH
1AKWAYAMAI PHILIP JOHN, 2 RIKWENTISHE. F, 3BILKISU ABUBAKAR 4MAGDALENE GUMFE,
1,3,4Peacock College Education Jalingo, P.M.B. 2, Along FMC Way, Jalingo. Taraba State, Nigeria 2, Department of Forestry College of Agriculture Jalingo Taraba State.
The study examined the effect of spacing on the performance and yield of white maize variety M-R (Manoma Seed) in Mubi Adamawa State with the objective of finding the most appropriate spacing for optimum yield. The effect of four spacing viz: 75cm x 25, 75cm x 30cm, 75cm x 35cm and 75 x 40cm respectively were evaluated. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Data were taken on nine parameters, plant height, plant leaves, stem girth, dry matter weight, length of cob, 100 seed weight, days to 50% tasseling, and yield per plot. Results were obtained after subjecting the data to analysis of varience (ANOVA). Results shows that spacing of maize S1 (75cm x 35cm) significantly gave higher yield per hectare of (2.455t/ha). It also produced bigger cobs, 100 seed weight of 31.69kg and kernel depth of (0.87cm) whereas spacing 75 x 30cm produced significantly the tallest plant of 144.42cm, stem girth of 3.33cm and also have the higher number of leaves (14cm) respectively. The researchers therefore advices that 75 x 35cm spacing should be adopted in the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria.
Keywords: Spacing, growth, white, Effects and yield
SESAME ROOTS AND RHIZOPHERE’S NEMATODES SURVEY IN JOS NORTH AND JOS EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF PLATEAU STATE.
POPOOLA, A. S., OLORI-OKE, E., YAKUBU, C. K., OLADIPO, S. A., AND O. ADEDIRE
Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Survey of Nematodes associated with Roots and Rhizophere of Sesame from Three Farms in Two Local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out. The survey was conducted to identify the nematodes that was associated soil and roots of seasame in three Farms. Twenty soil samples were collected from each farm. A modified Baermann’s funnel technique was used to extract nematodes from both the soil and root samples and umbers of nematodes per root and soil samples from all the three sites were determined, recorded and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 20.0. From the findings, Hirschmanniella, Pratylenchus, Helichotylenchus, Scutellonema, Meloidogyne, Criconematid, Discosyicomella, Rotylenchus, Anguina, Tylenchus, Longidorus, Heterodera and Rodophorus were identified on the field, mean count of 42 was recorded on seasame roots in Lamingo farm, 41 in Filinsukwa and 12 in Naraguta and Soil Nematodes mean count on farms are 22 in Naraguta, 19 in Filinsukwa and Lamingo had 4. Mean nematodes counts on soil showed a significant difference while that of roots showed no significant effects (at 5% probability level) in the three locations/farms. This survey provides baseline data for the distribution of seasame plant-parasitic nematodes associated with Seasame in the study area. Further research is also necessary to determine the interactions of common plant-parasitic nematodes with other soil pathogens.
Keywords: Seasame, Nematodes, survey, Roots and Rhizophere.
PRODUCTION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM THE BLENDS OF COCOYAM AND MALTED SOY BEAN FLOUR
AZEEZ L.A*, ADEDOKUN S.O AND BABALOLA J.O
Department of Food Science and Technology. The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic Saki, Oyo State Nigeria
Composite cookies were produced from the ratio of 100: 0 %, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 for cocoyam and malted soy bean respectively. The samples were compare with 100 % wheat flour (Control) Cookies produced were evaluated for Proximate, functional, mineral and sensory evaluations. The results obtained from functional analysis of the composite flour were oil absorption capacity (0.90 – 1.13), water absorption capacity (1.00 – 2.13) swelling capacity (2.25 – 4.42), bulk density (0.36 – 0.48). The proximate composition of the samples ranged from (3.06 – 5.00%), (13.01 – 16.99%), (5.36 – 17.42%), (1.62 – 2.04%), (1.84 – 4.89%), and (55.84 – 73.17%) for moisture, crude protein, fat, crude fibre, ash content and carbohydrate, respectively. Mineral content obtained were calcium (0.01 – 0.08 mg/100g) and phosphorous (0.10 – 0.16mg/100g), iron (0.02 – 0.93 mg/100g) and zinc (0.02 – 0.02 mg/100g). Sensory evaluation of the bread samples showed that (100% wheat flour) sample was the most acceptable followed by the cookies produced from 100 % “cocoyam”. While cookies made from 70 % cocoyam and 30 % malted soy bean was the least acceptable to the panelist. Cookies produced from substitutions with malted soy bean flour enhanced the protein content of the cookies and would reduced the malnutrition problem in the developing country.
Keywords: cookies, cocoyam, malted soya bean, quality evaluation, malnutrition
APPLICATION OF WATERMELON SEED CAKE FOR TURBIDITY REMOVAL AND TREATMENT OF MICROOGANISM FROM WASTE WATER
FRANCIS SAMUEL, SARAH OLOBOH, S.O OMALE,
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.
This paper is aimed at the removal of turbidity from raw water and treatment of microorganism from the water using watermelon seed cake. The high turbid raw water was obtained from river Kaduna and Jar test experiment to determine the effect of dosage, stirring time and mixing speed on coagulation was conducted. The results showed that at dosage of 0.2 g/l stirring time of 5 min and mixing speed of 100 rpm, optimal removal of turbidity was achieved. The turbidity removal obtained was below the world health organizations (WHO) recommended value of 5NTU. The microbial investigation on the raw water found the presence of E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacteria and Pseudomonas Species, using Membrane Lauryl Sulphate Broth and Modified Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar respectively. After the treatment it was found that the colonies of the microorganism were greatly reduced. The results obtained show that watermelon seed can be used as a natural coagulant also for the microbial treatment of water.
Keywords: Watermelon seed, Water treatment, Coagulation, Turbidity removal, Microorganism reduction,
MICRO AND MACRO ELEMENTS CONTENTS OF CARROT, CABBAGE, CUCUMBER GROWN ALONG SOME TRIBUTORIES IN DASS
AMBI AHMAD ADAMU*1, MUSA BASHIR2, MUSA NURA UMAR 1, HASSAN ABUBAKAR 1 AND SAEED ABDULMALIK1.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Centre for Dry Agriculture Bayero University Kano
This study was carried out to assess the micro and macro nutrients compositions of vegetables which are used as food and cultivated along waterways in Dass local government area, Bauchi Nigeria. Carrot (Daucus carota), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and cucumber (Cucumis sativum) were collected from the sites and processed using standard analytical protocols. The micro and macro elements were analyzed using Atomic Emission Spectrometric method. The results depicts the presence and quantities of the following micro nutrients; Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Calcium in these ranges 0.00-0.32 ppm, 0.01-173.78 ppm, 0.09-2.22 ppm, 0.00-8.40 ppm and 17.36-354.23 ppm respectively. While the macronutrients results revealed Phosphorus (0.28-74.65 ppm); Potassium (11.88-56.20 ppm); Magnesium (2.31-23.05 ppm) and Sodium (10.56-14.10ppm). The findings suggest that these vegetables have the potential to provide some of these essential nutrients to the human when consumed. The relative abundance of elements in the samples followed the sequence calcium (354.23ppm) > iron (173.78ppm) > phosphorus (153.81ppm) > potassium (56.20ppm) > Magnesium (23.05ppm) > manganese (8.40ppm) > zinc (2.22ppm) > copper (0.32ppm), the results for sodium were >14.5ppm which is beyond the detection limits of the AES equipment.
Keywords: Arrot, Tributories, Micro Element, Macro Element, Contents, Cucumber.
THE ROLE OF YOUTH IN MITIGATING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN BAUCHI STATE
Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This is to study the role of youth in mitigating the effects of climate change in bauchi state. The climate change is one of the worst environmental hazards our ecosystem is being faced and the condition being aggravated through anthropogenic activities of human (fuel wood collection, hunting using fire as a tool fire as a tool for extracting animals from their habitat, overgrazing, indiscriminate cutting for lumbering, bush burning and emission from the burn of fossil fuels), all humanly possible efforts should be done to mitigate its menace and most especially active participation of youths in environmental protection and rejuvenation.
Keywords: Effect, Role, Climate, Change, Effect.
IMPLICATIOIN OF KOPPEN’S CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION ON AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA
PIUS WILLIAMS WUAM; NAFIU UBAYO AND **IBRAHIM DAUDA
*Department of Geography, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State **Department of Educational Foundations, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe, Gombe State
Koppen’s climate classification which is today the most widely used in the world based his classification on three elements of climate namely; temperature, vegetation and precipitation. However, there is no single classification of climate anywhere in the world that can serve more than a limited number of purposes satisfactorily even though many different classifications such as the Greek classification and Aristotle’s schemes have been developed over the years. It is in the light of this that, this paper focuses on Koppen’s climate classification system and its implication on agricultural production in Nigeria. Information in producing meaningful system of climatic classification, the origin of Koppen’s climatic classification, application of the system, strengths and weaknesses of the scheme and its modification and the implications to agricultural production in Nigeria was looked at. It was concluded that, despite numerous weaknesses observed with the system it still remains the most widely used classification in the world today. Amongst others it was recommended that issues of climate be given priority attention by government as it serve as a veritable tool for agricultural production and results of weather forecast should be made available to farmers to enable them take informed decisions on types of crops to plant at any point in time.
Keywords: Implication, Koppen, Climate classification, Agriculture and Nigeria.
ASSESSING THE MICROBIAL POPULATIONS ON CATTLE HIDE AND BEEF CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED AT KPANGAYE ABATTOIR IN BIDA NIGER STATE.
DANFULANI S.1, GBADAMOSI F.O2, OBI P.U1, NMA E.M1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida Niger State. 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Bida Niger State.
Microbial Contamination is unavoidable during beef carcass dressing due to the nature of the hide removal process. This study attempts to assess the microbial population on the hide and beef carcasses of cattle slaughtered at Kpangaya abattoir in Bida. Three different categories of cattle were used based on their level of cleanliness, A (Clean), B (Dirty) and C (Very dirty). Samples were collected from the hock, briskel, cranial and bung of all the categories, the bung had the highest bacterial load of 5.3 x 106 while the highest fungal load was observed in category C 5.2 x 103 cfu/ml. Salmonella Spp, Escherichia Coli Spp, Pseudomonas Spp and protein Spp were isolated while fungi seen included Aspergillus niger, Penicillium Spps and Aspergillus Spp. Conclusively, micro-organisms were isolated from beef carcasses and there is a direct correlation between cattle cleanliness and resultant carcass contamination.
Keywords: Microbial contamination, beef carcasses, Abattoir.
EFFECT OF FEEDING GRADED LEVELS OF WASTE TELFARIA OCCIDENTALIS (FLUTED PUMPKIN) LEAVES IN THE DIET OF HETEROCLARIAS FINGERLING USING THE INDOOR PLASTIC AQUARIA
GANA, E.S1*, YISA, A.T2 AND EGBUDU D.A3
1&3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja. Nigeria 2Department of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Tchnology, Minna. Niger State
The efficacy of the effect of wasted Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin leaves, WFPL) as an ingredient in the diet of African catfish hybrid,( Heteroclarias) fingerlings, of mean initial weight 0.23±0.17g were evaluated over a 60 day growth period, Five experimental diets were formulated at 0% (control), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% graded levels of wasted fluted pumpkin leaves meal. A control diet without wasted fluted pumpkin leaves was formulated, the 60-day feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor plastic aquaria, each treatment had three replicates, Fish fed 15% Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal recorded the best growth performance in body weight gain of 0.64% and Mean Growth Rate (MGR) value of 8.61, Though other values of Mean Growth Rate were 5.59, 6.86, 7.06 and 5.38% respectively and those values were significantly different from each other. 10% diet of Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal recorded the best Survival Rate (SR) value of 76.68%, the 5% inclusion recorded the best Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 5.20, while that of Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of 1.76 was best recorded in 0% (control) diet of wasted fluted pumpkin leaves. Although, the best Economic Weight Gain (EWG) of 13500g was recorded for fish fed on the 15% diet of Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal. There were no significant difference between the fish fed with control diet and the other experimental diet (P>0.05), the study demonstrated the Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal can be best included in the diets of Heteroclarias fingerlings at the inclusion level of 15% for African catfish (Heteroclarias hybrid) fingerlings.
Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis, African catfish hybrid and unconventional feeds