African Scholar Journal of Science Innovation & Technology Research Vol. 30 No. 9


VOL. 30 NO. 9 SEPT., 2023.



African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


Cybersecurity in Nigeria Military Peacekeeping Operations


*Jibrin, Adamu; **Ahmed, Jaji; & ***Ado Ahmad Ibrahim

*Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Borno State University, Maiduguri, Nigeria. **Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Borno State University, Maiduguri, Nigeria. ***Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Nigerian Army University, Biu, Nigeria.



Cybersecurity has emerged as a critical component of modern military operations, including peacekeeping missions. This study sheds light on the significance of cybersecurity in Nigeria’s military peacekeeping operations, highlighting its evolving role in ensuring mission success, data protection, and national security. Nigeria, as a prominent contributor to global peacekeeping efforts, faces unique cybersecurity challenges in its military operations abroad. These challenges range from protecting sensitive information and communication networks to countering cyber threats from various actors. The research explores the complexities of integrating cybersecurity measures into peacekeeping operations and the strategies employed by the Nigerian military to mitigate risks. Furthermore, it discusses the implications of cybersecurity breaches in peacekeeping missions, emphasizing the potential consequences for mission effectiveness, diplomatic relations, and international security commitments. By analyzing the evolving threat landscape and the Nigerian military’s response, this study provides valuable insights into the ongoing efforts to safeguard peacekeeping operations through robust cybersecurity practices. In conclusion, the research underscores the imperative of cybersecurity readiness in Nigeria’s military peacekeeping endeavors, urging continuous adaptation and innovation to address the evolving cyber threats that shape the landscape of modern conflict resolution.

Keywords: Military Cybersecurity, Peacekeeping Operations, Cyber Threats, National Security, Information Protection, Military Resilience, Cyber Defense Strategies




Effects of Cooperative- Learning and Polya Problem- Solving Strategies on Attitude and Performance in Algebra among Senior Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria


Mari Likita (Ph.D.)

Borno State University, Department of Education.



This study investigated the effects of Cooperative Learning, Polya Problem-Solving instructional strategies on attitude and performance in algebra among Senior Secondary Students in Borno state. A quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test control groups design was adopted for the study. The  population of five thousand nine hundred  students of  SS2 sample consisted of 614 Government Senior Secondary 2 students, which was made of 278 males 216  female  and 120 mixed students,  and the sample was drawn by using  simple  random sampling by balloting in sixty eight (68) senior secondary schools in Borno state. The research instruments used were: Algebra Performance Test (APT) and Algebra Attitude Questionnaires (AAQ). The instruments were administered to students. The two research questions and hypotheses were analyzed and tested using means, standard deviation, t- test of independent means one way ANOVA. All hypotheses were tested at P< 0.005 level of significance. The findings showed that: (i) there was a significant difference among the students when exposed to Cooperative learning and conventional method (ii) there was a significant difference in performance and attitude between cooperative learning and Polya Problem Solving strategies (iii) based on the findings the mean difference of cooperative learning was higher than Polya problem solving (iv), there was no significant difference between Polya Problem solving and Conventional. Therefore, there is the need for teachers to adopt new strategies of teaching. Based on the findings, it is recommended that Cooperative, and Polya Problems solving instructional strategies should be adopted in teaching the Senior Secondary2 students.

Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Polya Problem Solving, Conventional, Attitude, Performance, Algebra




Linear Volterra Integro-Differential Equations Numerical Solution Using Finite Difference Methods


Albert Ayuba Shalangwa1; Ajiya Yahaya2; & Aminu Audu2 and David John3

(1)Mathematics Unit School of Basic and Remedial Studies (SBRS), Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.(2)Department Mathematics, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria. (3)Mathematics Unit School of Basic and Remedial Studies (SBRS), Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.



This research focuses on using finite difference techniques to numerically solve linear Volterra integro differential equations. In order to solve these classes of equations, we contrasted the Simpson’s-Trapezoid approach to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Simpson’s rule and the trapezoidal rule were used in the Simpson’s-Trapezoid method to approximate the integral in the linear Volterra integro-differential equations. Finite differentiation was then used to determine the derivatives, which were then converted into systems of equations. The unknown functions in the matrix are thus determined using the Gaussian elimination approach, leading to a “n by n” matrix equation. Higher order linear Volterra integro-differential equations are reduced to first order or systems of first order linear Volterra integro differential equations in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the unknown functions, such as yi(x), i = 1(1)n, in the system of first order linear integro-differential equations, are obtained. Examples are provided to help illustrate how effective, straightforward, and accurate the methods are. Fourth order Runge-Kutta results are compared to those from the finite difference method.

Keywords: Integro-differential equation, Volterra integro-differential equation, Finite differentiation, Simpson’s integration rule and Trapezoid integration rule




On the Simulation Modelling of the amount of Synthetic Supplied between Interacting Industrial Assets Data


Godspower C. Abanum; Ozioma Ogoegbulem; and Laura M. Obaremi

Department of Mathematics, Dennis Osadebay University, Nigeria.



In this study, we applied a numerical method called ordinary differential equation of order 45 (ODE45) to predict the effect of decreasing and increasing the parameter value that drives the evolution of Synthetic Industries between time-dependent interacting Synthetic Industries data on biodiversity scenario. The full results that we have obtained which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively.

Keywords: Synthetic Industries, ODE45, Simulation, Biomass, Mathematical Model




Construction of a Microcontroller Based Gate


Fidelis Obi Odigwe

Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.



The “Construction of a Microcontroller-Based Gate” project represents a novel and innovative approach to modernizing traditional gates by integrating microcontroller technology. This research aims to design and implement an intelligent gate system that leverages the capabilities of microcontrollers to enhance security, convenience, and automation. The common gate found almost everywhere has a lot of problem in term of operation, it is energy consuming, stressful and above all costly in term of paying for the man responsible for opening and closing of such gates, this then requires a fast solution. The microcontroller based automatic gate control is a better solution for the elimination of these problems caused by the manually controlled gates. The system monitors the gate as vehicles enter and exit the gate it is being mounted. The microcontroller based automatic gate senses any vehicle approaching as it cut across the path of the Infra red ray. After sensing this, the gate then automatically opens, wait for some time and closes after the time elapsed. The systems also work as an automatic lock, when the lock button is pressed that is when it is ON the gate does not open even if a vehicle cross the Infrared path.  The Construction of a Microcontroller-Based Gate offers a blueprint for a technologically advanced and adaptable gate system that can enhance security and convenience for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. The project’s outcomes demonstrate the potential for integrating microcontroller technology to create intelligent, user-friendly gate systems that meet the demands of the modern world.

Keywords: Microcontroller, Gate Automation, PIC16f84, Infrared Technology




Comparison of Simple Regression Models via Criteria Measures


*Esemokumo Perewarebo Akpos; & **Opara Jude

*Department of Statistics, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic Ekewe, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rivers State P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Rivers Nigeria.



The study is on comparison of simple regression models via criteria measures. The source of data set used for this study was secondary, on weight and pulse rate of 90 patients. The response variable is pulse rate, while the explanatory variable is weight. Ten regression models; Linear, Quadratic, Polynomial, Logarithmic, Hyperbolic, power, Exponential growth, Square root, Sinusoidal and Arctangent were stated and employed for the study. For ease of data analysis, E-views package was implemented. Three model selection criteria measures for comparison known as; Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC) with Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion (HQIC) was employed. The result revealed that the polynomial regression model outperforms the other nine models studied to examine the relationship between weight and pulse rate of patients. Hence; other models that were not employed in this study should be studied by researchers and as well compare results with other goodness of fit measures other than the criteria measures employed in this study.

Keywords: AIC, SIC, HQIC, Simple Linear Regression, Simple Nonlinear Regression, Model Comparison




Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Oil Extracted from Cotton Seed (Gossypium Hibiscus) and Okra Seed (Abelmoschus Esculentus)


Akapo, Solomon Aderemi1*; Otuewu, Opeyemi Olumuyiwa1; Adebayo-Adewunmi, Raimot Adejumoke2; Abdulkareem, Abdulrasak Alao1

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Sciences, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, PMB 1020, Ijebu-igbo, Nigeria. 2Department of Biology Education, School of Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Nigeria.



The nutritive and calorific values of seeds make them good sources of edible oils and fats diet. Many physical and chemical properties of fats and oils have been investigated. The experimental study evaluated the physical and chemical properties were analyzed on oil extracted from the cotton and Okra seeds and compared with those reported by the other researchers. Methodology: Cotton seed and Okra seed were pulverized using and electric blender and thereafter stored in polythen bag in a refrigerator. The oil was extracted from the resulting powder by entailed using soxhlet apparatus to extract with petroleum spirit of boiling point between 40-60oC. 200g of the ground Cotton seed and Okra seeds were packed in muslin cloth and inserted into the soxhlet extractor and petroleum spirit was used as the extracting solvent for a period of eight hours. The extracted oil samples were evaluated for physical and chemical properties. The result were represented as means and standard deviations. Result: The Okra and cotton seeds have percentage oil contents of 20.43±0.90% and 22.37±0.38%, density of  8.6±0.1 and 8.30±0.1, moisture content of   85.6±1.0 and 84.00±1.0   and specific gravity of  0.84±0.05 and 0.96±0.02 g/cm3 respectively. The chemical analysis carried out on the oil of okra and cotton seeds have the following properties: acid value of 0.5±0.1 and 0.45±0.02 mg KOH/g, saponification value of 162.7±0.50 and 185.00±1.0 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 5.94±0.1 and 5.64±0.05, peroxide value of 12.0±1.0 and 2.40±3.12meq KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter 17.20±1.0 and 20.00± 0 respectively.  Conclusion: The low oil content of the seeds obtained in this study strongly indicates its prospects for commercial extraction. Overall results suggest that the oil will be a good candidate for conventional oil and good raw material for soap, paint and food industries

Keywords: Abelmoschus Esculentus, Peroxide Value, Specific Gravity, Soxhlet Extraction, Oil




Statistical Analysis of the Rate of Typhoid Fever


Oyenuga A. Y.; & Olanrewaju G. O.

Department of Statistics, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu Igbo.



This study delves into the statistical analysis of the rate of typhoid fever in Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun state, employing various methodologies to better understand the trends and patterns of this infectious disease. The research explores the linearity of the data through the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), and Mean Standard Deviation (MSD) measurements for linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Subsequently, the study focuses on data transformation by taking the logarithm of the mean and standard deviation, aiming to enhance the accuracy of modeling. The chosen transformation method is guided by Bartlet’s transformation table, leading to the utilization of natural logarithms for data transformation. The transformed data is then analyzed using the Buys-Ballot procedure to establish a trendline that depicts the underlying patterns more accurately. The trend model is derived and applied to estimate the future trend of typhoid fever occurrences. The calculations indicate varying degrees of occurrences across quarters, with the third quarter demonstrating higher incidences than the other quarters. To forecast future occurrences of typhoid fever in the years 2021 and 2022, irregular components are extracted from the trendline, and a randomness test is conducted at a 95% confidence interval. The analysis provides insights into the temporal distribution of typhoid fever cases, offering valuable information for healthcare professionals and policymakers to allocate resources effectively and implement preventive measures. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of disease patterns and provides a robust methodology for forecasting health-related events.

Keywords: Data Transformation, Disease Forecasting, Time Series, Typhoid Fever Analysis, Trend Modeling




Evaluation of Contaminated Ground Water from Panteka Auto-Mechanic Spare Parts Market Kaduna, North West Nigeria


Adeleye, A. D., Abduljameel, S. M. and Shitu, S.

Department of Applied Biology, School of Applied Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.



Contamination of groundwater with heavy metals from auto-mechanic sales and repair activities is a serious ecological problem, which has potential short and long term chronic adverse health risks. The objective of the study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in water samples from five wells within the Panteka auto-mechanic spare-parts market, Kaduna, Nigeria, compare the results with guidelines from various standard maximum limits, draw conclusions and make recommendations. Water samples were obtained from wells and analyzed for selected heavy metals using standard methods. A structured questionnaire was administered to traders and residents of the market so as to ascertain the usage of wells. The analysis of the heavy metals revealed high concentrations above that of the distilled water (DW) used as control, suggesting heavy metal contamination of ground water. The highest mean concentration of the heavy metals analyzed were 0.79±0.18, 0.13±0.09, 1.36±0.99, 2.45±1.09 and 0.82±0.23 for Fe, Cu, Hg, Cd, and Pb respectively. When all the highest mean concentrations were compared for all the metals in the five wells, they decreased in the following order Cd ˃ Hg ˃ Pb ˃ Fe ˃ Cu. The concentrations of Hg, Pb, Fe and Cd in the five wells exceeded the maximum limit recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and World Health Organization (WHO) for safety of groundwater while copper was within the permissible limits. These results suggest that exposure to the contaminated groundwater in the market may predispose exposed populations to adverse health effects with prolonged usage of the well-water.

Keywords: Groundwater, Auto-Mechanic Market, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Iron, Heavy Metal




Mixed Integer Linear Programming Software Development Using Visual Basic Programming Language


Amgbari C.O.; Kabiamowei A.; & Suoware T.O.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe.



This paper focused on developing software for the mixed integer linear programming problem which will enhance effective policy formulation. Visual basic programming language was used for the implementation of the mixed integer linear programming model because of the nature of the problems it solves and time saves benefits. The application was tested and debugged. The authentication was ensured by using benchmark examples of mixed integer linear programming problems found on standard books, the model professionally simulated with the result printed out successfully.

Keywords: Mixed integer linear programming, linear programming, Object-oriented programming, visual basic, Computer aided design CAD.



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