African Scholar Journal of Science Innovation & Tech. Research Vol. 25 No. 9


VOL. 25 NO. 9 JUNE, 2022 ISSN: 2878-1894



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Secure Message Transmission Using Caesar Cipher and Residue Number System


Damilola David Popoola; & Prof Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Kwara State University, Malete



Secure communication across a digital medium is ensured by data security. The data should be guided against availability by unrecognised users and communicated to the right recipient in a secure and confidential manner. Although the cipher text can make data difficult for a third party to interpret, the irregular representation given to it acts as a means of drawing an attacker’s attention to such data. As a result, through the design of a character swap table to swap characters to numbers and the use of RNS to convert the numbers to residues, this research proposes a scheme that integrates additional phases to the standard Caesar cipher. The proposed system was able to generate the cipher text as residues, ensuring that the message remains undetectable and difficult to crack. 

Keywords: Residue, Number System, Caesar Cipher, Cipher-Text, Communication




Comparative Study of Water Quality Parameters of Two Fish Farm Estate in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria


Olatayo Michael Ogunbanwo

Department of Fisheries Technology, Aquatic Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria



The water quality of two fish farms were assessed through physico-chemical parameters, trace metals and bacteriological analysis of the waste water. Samples were collected from the two fish farms (Fish Farm Estate, Odongunyan and Erikorodo Fish Farm Estate) both in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria. These two farms were carefully selected for the study as fish farming has been practiced extensively within the areas for many years. Two waste water samples from the fish farms were collected and taken to Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) for the laboratory analysis of the water samples using standard procedures and the result obtained was compared with the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) permissible standards to know the condition of the waste water from the farms discharged into the environment. Physical Parameters analyzed in both samples (A & B) include Turbidity, Appearance, Colour, Conductivity, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids and Total Solids. Chemical Parameters analyzed include Total Acidity, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, Phenol, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand. Trace metal Parameters analyzed in samples A and B include Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Iron, Chromium, Sodium, Cobalt, Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Potassium, Nickel, Silver and Mercury. Bacteriological analyses carried out on the samples include Total Plate Count, Presence of Coliform (MCA) and Confirmatory Feacal Coliform Test. Results obtained showed that both samples A and B have different levels of contaminant when compared with the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) permissible standards for aquacultural waste water quality. Sample A however contains high microbial loads and presence of coliform when compared with LASEPA standards while sample B has contaminants of suspended particles as well as coliforms although not as much as sample A Based on the analyzed results, it was however recommended that waste waters from aquacultural farms be treated properly before being discharged into the environment.

Keywords: Bacteriological, Water Quality, Trace Metals, Physico-Chemical





In modeling the impact of volatile organic compound emitted from oil spillage in the atmosphere, the method of ODE45 numerical simulation was used to obtain the precise value of the intra-competition coefficient of volatile organic compound emitted from oil spillage in Port-Harcourt metropolis using the P-vector norm parameter estimation. The effect of the P-vector on the intra-competition on several values of the carrying capacity hereby called the saturated values was recorded as there was a sudden change from a monotone decreasing sequence to an increasing monotonic sequence of the p-norms values behavior as the value observed were this sudden change occur has a unique value in which all the p-vector norms are least in values. The precise value of the intra-competition parameter value obtained from this study is given as β= 0.00000665862. The full novel results that we have obtained have not been seen elsewhere: these have been presented and discussed in this study.

Keywords: Dynamical System, Parameter Estimation, P-vector norm, Environmental Variables, Volatile Organic Compound.




Radiation Photons’ Parameters Interaction with Tin, Lead and Copper at Different Photon Energy.


Aremu S.O1; Suraj Aliyu2; & Aminu Kalip2

1Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



The various attenuation coefficients and cross section [mass attenuation coefficient), linear attenuation coefficient (atomic cross section (] for lead copper and tin was evaluated for incident X-ray photons with energies ranging from 8MeV to 100MeV. Likewise, the energy transfer coefficient) and energy absorption coefficient was also evaluated. The average energy transfer in the volume of interest in the medium was evaluated.  Average radiative fraction ḡ, average energy absorbed in the absorber Eab and mass energy absorption coefficient  were also calculated for copper and lead.

Keywords: Radiation, Photon’s parameters, Photon energy.




Mathematical Analysis of the Effect of Economic Perturbation on Two Interacting Electricity Model


Obinichi C Mandah & Mbah David



The main activities of an energy company is to produce, trade and distribute energy and these activities all have operating cash flows that are highly dependent on the price of energy commodities. (Weron 2006 and Borovkova This makes the study of energy models more attractive for further mathematical analysis, so the importance of the choice of model for the study of the price dynamics in a particular energy commodity cannot be neglected. In this case we study the dynamics of the electricity spot and contract prices. Among all energy-related products, electricity is the most principal and most significant one since it is directly related to any other product and can be viewed as an outcome of a mixture of them (Weron 2006 and Fred etal). As stated in Kaminski [2005] and (Erni (2012)), the most features of electricity spot price are: Mean reversion, Seasonality, Spikes and Volatility. In this work we have considered reality of a real life economic perturbation and its effect in the model development. We have also discovered that at a higher level of market competition, the both market spot prices tend to stabilize due to variety of choices 

Keywords: Electricity Market, Mean reversion, Spot price, random noise.




Internet of Thing (IoT) Garbage Monitoring System


*Idris Ya’u Idris; *Suberu Yusuf; *Salisu Abdullahi; *Sunusi Abdulhamid Dantata; *Ishaq Muhammed; **Yusuf Pyelshak; *Yamusa Idris Adamu; *Lawan Garba; & *Okonkwo, Ogochukwo John;

*Computer Science Department, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Health Information Management, Plateau State College of Health Technology Zawan.



Recent studies have shown that the total volume of waste generated globally is expected to increase by nearly 50% over the next decade; the adoption of innovative technologies will result in more integrated waste management solutions that move beyond the traditional use of labor, and waste disposal trucks (R. Akhil Nair, Valarmathie .P, 2019, pp 76-80). This paper, Internet of Thing (IoT) Garbage Monitoring system creates a very innovative system which will help to keep cities clean. The system monitors the garbage bins and informs about the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a web page. For this, the system uses ultrasonic sensors placed over the bins to detect the garbage level and compare it with the garbage bins depth.

Keywords: IoT, Garbage, Internet, Website, Sensor, LED.




Review on Isolation and Identification of Clostridia in Niger State.


Alhassan, A. A.; Abdullahi, A.M.; Abubakar, S. F.; Dangana, A.; & Abdulraheem, G. T.

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria.



The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. They are distinguished from the Bacilli by lacking aerobic respiration. They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. The genus Clostridium belongs to the family Clostridiaceae and it currently contains 203 species and 5 subspecies, with only a few species being pathogenic to humans. Of these species, 21 have been reclassified to other genera, 5 have been reclassified within the genus and 1 has been de-accessioned Clostridium are phylogenetically heterogeneous and are Gram positive but can decolorized easily and appear Gram negative or Gram variable, spore formers and non-spore formers, rods and cocci and anaerobic and non-anaerobic bacteria. Clinically significant Clostridium species produce a variety of toxins. It is the production of these toxins which leads to the distinctive clinical features of the diseases they cause, eg tetanus and botulism result from the production of neurotoxins that are amongst the most lethal substances known to man. Although evidence has suggested toxin A as the major toxin, toxin B producing C. difficile strains causes the same spectrum of diseases as strains which produce both toxins. The spores of clostridia are produced during times of stress, and can persist in toxic environments where the anaerobic bacteria cannot. In Niger State, the incidence and the mortality rate of Clostridia have considerably increased substantially in both hospital and community settings due to the spread of hyper virulent strains and improper administration of antibiotics.

Keywords: Isolation, Identification, Clostridia, Review, Niger state.




An EOQ Model for Two-Item Inventory System with Stochastic Demand: A Dynamic Programming Approach


Hassan, S. A; Usman. A. M.; and Yahaya A. A.

Mathematics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State.



This work considers an economic order quantity (EOQ) model that minimizes inventory costs of two items under a periodic review inventory system with stochastic demand. We adopt the Markov decision process (MDP) approach, as such the states of demand for the items represent the states of a Markov chain. Using dynamic programming approach, the decision to order additional units of item or not to order is made. The approach shows the existence of an optimal state dependent EOQ and optimal ordering policies with the corresponding total inventory costs of the items. We demonstrate the working of the model with a numerical example.

Keywords: Markov decision process, Economic order quantity, Dynamic programming, Markov chain.




Analysis on the Price of Petroleum and How it Affects Price of Food Items in Nigerian Economy


Aliyu Gambo, Suleiman Sabo & Ibrahim Yusuf Inuwa

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This study has been carried out to access the statistical analysis on the price of petroleum on how it affects food items in Nigerian economy. This study found on average per capital increment on the various type of food items as the prices of petroleum increases. Data collected on the various types of food item shows 30% and 10% increment on Maize per 5% increase in the price of petroleum in 2001 and 2012 respectively, while there is a little increment on the price of millet compared to that of rice and maize. This research work was carried out with the use of a secondary data to get the information needed for the purpose of the study. Method of data analysis used is multiple regression with the aid of SPSS. The recommendation is that the government should create enabling policies to see to the fact that the price of petroleum does not always affect the prices of food items in the country. To this end government should seek the partnership and expertise of relevant petroleum institutes in the country and make sure that the various refineries in the country are been put in good order so as to allow for adequate production of crude oil.

Keywords; Petroleum, Millet, Rice, Maize and Multiple Regression.  




Efficacy of Four Indigenous Plant Powder against Rhyzopertha Dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in Stored Cowpea


*1Bukar, A., 1Ali, E. A., 1Kumshe, I. B., 1Dawud, A. M. & 1Alkali, A. K.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State. 2Department of Post-Harvest Engineering, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, P. M. B. 1489 Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.



Laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of four plant powder namely: neem seed powder, ginger rhizome powder, garlic bulb powder and red pepper fruit powder against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in stored cowpea. The experiment was laid out in complete randomize design (CRD) with five treatments, replicated three times, the treatments were 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000mg/kg. The botanical powders were mixed with 50 g cowpea grain to assess adult mortality and reduction of Fl progeny. The results revealed that all treatment concentration caused 100% mortality of R. dominica after 21 days of exposure. Also all botanical powders tested caused complete suppression of Fl progeny of R. dominica at highest dosages rate. It is therefore, recommended that treatment of cowpea grains with 1000mg/kg of botanicals tested can increase storability of cowpea grain for longer period of time.

Keywords: Rhyzopertha dominica .Botanicals .Mortality .Progeny Emergence




A Soft-Computing Approach to Quality of Experience (QOE) for Evaluation in Wireless Communication Networks


Nwabueze Emmanuel Chinazor1, Temitope Betty Williams2, Mustapha Kassim3

1 2 3 Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State



This study employed soft-computing models namely, support vector regression, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and classification and regression tree in the evaluation of quality of experience in wireless communication networks. Dataset comprising of 450 data points, 7features and 1 label was simulated and partitioned into train set and test set for use in training and testing the four (4) machine learning models. The performance of these models were evaluated using means square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2). The results showed that support vector regression out performs other models in evaluating the quality of experience in wireless communication network with coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.972866508, followed by K-nearest neighbor with R2 of 0.903615309, random forest with 0.854493413, and classification and regression tree with R2 of 0.674026865. Model ranking was carried out and Support Vector Regression was selected as the best model for effective evaluation of quality of experience in wireless communication networks.

Keywords: Quality Of Experience, Quality Of Service, Machine Learning, Random Forest, Availability, Reliability




Delving Into Issues Arising From Isolation and Identification of Staphylococcus Aureus in Beef and Resources for Sub Sahara African Growth in the Millenium Era


Alhassan, A. A., Abubakar, S. F., Adamu, A.D.

Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria.



Twenty five samples of fresh meat (beef) were randomly sampled from Kontagora, Mashegu and Rafi Local government areas of Niger State, Nigeria and analyzed microbiologically for the bacterial load and Staphylococcus (Staph.) count. Total viable count ranged from 5.31 x 104  to 4.36 x 105cfu/g. A total of 38 Staph. isolates belonging to 13 species of Staphylococcus genus were grouped as follows:1) coagulase-positive species, was Staphylococcus aureus, 2) coagulase-negative species isolates were Staph .epidermidis, Staph caseolyticus, Staph. lugdunensis, Staph. chromogenes, Staph. capitis, Staph. warneri, Staph. haemolyticus, Staph. capitis., 3) coagulase-negative species (Novobiocin-resistant): four isolates, Staph. saprophyticus, , Staph. lentus, Staph. cohni, , Staph. gallinarum.  The frequency of isolation of staphylococci in Mashegu LGA was higher 15(39.7 %) followed by Kontagora   LGA 13 (31%) and Rafi LGA 10(29.3%). Among these isolates of staphylococci, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. aureus, Staph. haemolyticusand Staph. saprophyticus were the most abundant isolates. Statistical analysis of the microbial load and total staphylococci count showed no significant difference between the LGAs (P>0.05)

Keywords: Isolation, Identification, Staphylococcus aureus, Resources, Beef.




Determination of Nutritional Status of Children by their Body Mass Index Using Percentile Tables


Adeyemo, S.O1, 2; Ofomata, A.I.O. (Mrs)1 Okereke, I.C. (Mrs)1

Maths and Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.



This is a descriptive study carried out to determine the nutritional status of children within the ages of four(4) to ten (10) years using their body mass index(BMI). Body Mass Index (BMI) is a statistical parameter used to determine the nutritional status/body weight efficiency of individuals, and it has been used in many countries for assessment of underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obesity in children and adults. The prevalence of obesity in children is increasing and is recognized as a risk indicator of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The weights and heights of 600 (300 males and 300 females) sampled children were measured and their BMI was calculated as weight(kg)/height2( m2). under weight, healthy weight, over weight and obese children were identified using charts from pooled internationally accepted data age and sex specific cut -off points for BMI. The BMI ranges from 09.25kg / m2.to28.20Kg/m2 with a mean BMI of 15.02 kg/m2. The mean BMI for males was 15.33kg/m2 and that for females 14.71kg/m2. The prevalence of Underweight, Healthy weight, overweight and obesity were 16.33, 64.34%, 12% and 7.33% respectively. More males were significantly malnourished than females. Most children had BMI within the normal range. The prevalence of malnourishment among children though predominantly low should be taken seriously, especially as it appears to be associated with improving   socioeconomic status. School health education (physical activity and nutritional education) is recommended as preventive measures.

Keywords: Nutritional status; Body Mass Index, Weight, Height, Obesity




Time Series Modeling of Nigeria’s External Reserves


Bushirat T. Bolarinwa; and Ismaila A. Bolarinwa

Department of Statistics, the Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Nigeria



Nigeria’s external reserves in Millions of US Dollars were modeled using the Box and Jenkins ARIMA approach. ARIMA (1, 1, 1) was fitted, found adequate and was utilized to generate forecasts for January 2020 to December 2023, suggesting an increasing trend. The forecasts are not close to highest reserves recorded in the past. The article observed that for the reserves to attain high levels of the past there must be improved governance, security and infrastructure. The need to extend study to other models was recommended.

Keywords: ARIMA, External reserves, Time series, Forecasting, Nigeria




Review: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Characterization of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFS)


1Bala, S., 2H, P, Wante, and 3Adamu, A.

1,2Science Laboratory Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Chemistry Department, Taraba State University, Jalingo. Taraba State, Nigeria



Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a type of porous material that exhibits an emergent crystalline group. Through covalent bonds, it assembles organic fundamental components in an orderly framework with atomic clarity. To form strong bonds, COFs are primarily composed of light elements such as H, B, C, N, O, and Si. Examples include well-known and functional materials such as diamond, graphite, and boron nitride. The variety of defined features in COFs has exploded in recent years. This review critically highlights recent advancements in COF design principles. Porosity, structural regularity, and functionality are all incorporated into the design. Additionally, the review discusses synthetic procedures, the characterization of COFs products as well as challenges associated with COFs materials, are discussed.

Keywords: Covalent Organic Frameworks, Synthesis, Building units, Solvothermal and Crystalline.




Phytochemical and Anti-Microbial Assay of Bitter Cola (Garcinia Kola)


Bulus, Caleb Laraps

The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Department of Science Laboratory Technology (SLT).



Phytochemical and anti-microbial assay of bitter cola (garcinia kola) was carried out using the crude extract obtained via hot extraction using soxhlet apparatus and cold extraction using glass ware and sensitivity tests conducted on the extract where the zone of inhibition diameters were  measured. Result of phytochemical screening  of hot and cold ethanolic extracts show that crude extracts contained alkaloids, flavonoids, fatty acid, free phenols and cardio-active, glycosides, steroids, saponins and tannins whereas the basic metabolite contained tannins, saponins and glycosides. The acidic metabolite gives results to tannin, flavonoids, phenols and carboxylic acid. The extracts show varying degree of anti-microbial activity, but crude extract exhibited its greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli with IZD of 32mm while the lowest activity was against Candida albicans with IZD of 21mm for their hot extract while for cold extract, its greatest activity was against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli with IZD of 36mm and 38mm respectively. This result show that active ingredients can be isolated from  bitter kola and standard drugs be compounded.




Challenges Facing the End-User Stakeholders amidst the Emergence of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in Nigeria


Toriola-Coker, L. O1*, Omokungbe O1, Yekini A1, Alaka H2 and Ayodele-Oja S3

1School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 2University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. 3School of Environmental, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.



In all emerging countries, the originality of Public Private Partnership (PPP) raises new enquiries in governance in allocation of economic, social, and political responsibility among various segments of society in the development of the country; and the adoption of new institutional forms to enhance the efficiency of government action. One of the major factors militating against the successful growth of PPP projects in Nigeria and some part of the world is poor end-user stakeholder management. This paper addresses the challenges by tracing historical and contemporary developments on the need for PPPs; current public protests against PPP initiatives which are perceived as impositions to what the greater public want. There is a paucity of research on end-user stakeholder management in PPP projects within Nigerian context despite significant efforts on research which informs this study. Furthermore, the paper also addresses the challenges facing end-users’ stakeholders by reviewing existing theory and practice positions on project stakeholder management approaches.

Keywords: Public Private Partnership, End-User, Stakeholders, Challenges, Projects and Nigeria




Arduino Controlled Smart Door Locking System Using Fingerprint Interface


1Aliyu Buba Dahiru, 2Mohammed Sanda Maribe

1Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.



This research work comprises a fingerprint-enabled smart and inexpensive door lock. The Atmel Atmega328p, a fingerprint sensor, a GSM module, a motor driver, and other hardware devices will be used to complete this study. The fingerprint sensor will be incorporated into the door panel, facing the outside of the door, to prevent outsiders from accessing the controlling system. The latches will be installed inside the door panel, where the thickness of the door will aid in latch strength. If you try to force your way in, we’ll deploy a few latches within the panel to distribute the force. The fingerprint sensor will take the user’s fingerprint and send it to the microcontroller for matching. If the print matches one of the microcontroller’s memory fingerprints, the latch will be locked or unlocked depending on the microcontroller’s present state. The buzzer will sound if the fingerprint is unfamiliar to the microcontroller, and the user will have to try again. If the system detects incorrect fingerprints five times at large, it will notify the owner, alerting him or her to a break-in. The system will also enter a secure mode, continuing to sound the buzzer to inform the neighbors that something is wrong. Once a known print is entered, the system will be reset.

Keywords: Fingerprint sensor; GSM Module; Motor Driver; AT 328 mega Microcontroller; Door panel; Latches; Buzzer.




Utilization of Cinnamon as a Preservative of Tiger Nut Milk


Ebu Bridget, Ogbeba Jeremiah, Iruolaje Francis, Isa Shehu Amina and James Viminta Mercy

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State.



Tiger nut milk is a popular non-alcoholic drink processed from tiger nut. Tiger nut milk is traditionally prepared by most women under unhygienic condition and packaged in inadequately sterilized containers which predispose it to contamination. During processing sweeteners, adjuncts and thickeners are added in some cases which further contaminate the product as such it shelf-life is not stable. This study is aim at utilizing cinnamon as a spice and preservative in tiger nut milk to improve it shelf-life. Samples (Tiger nut, coconut, date, ginger and Cinnamon) were purchased from yelwa tudu market. Isolation of the organisms was carried out using serial dilution. While identification was based on morphology, microscopy and biochemical test. Shelf-life of the tiger nut milk was determined by sensory evaluation using a 20 members panel. Proximate analysis carried out on the substrate shows 48.48% carbohydrate, 0.79% crude protein and 0.59% crude fat. Sensory evaluation in tiger nut milk without preservative (cinnamon) shows appearance in a ranges of 9.0-2.0, test 9.0-0.8, flavor 8.0-1.1, texture 9.0-1.7, and general acceptability 9.0-1.6. While sensory evaluation in tiger nut milk with preservative (cinnamon) shows appearance, ranges from 9.0 -6.3, test 9.0-5.8, flavor 9.0-6.1, texture 9.0-5.2, and general acceptability 9.0-5.2. From the result, test and general acceptability values showed a reduction in spoilage activities in the tiger nut milk with preservative (cinnamon). Thus, it is concluded that cinnamon extend the life shelf of tiger nut milk. As such it could be used as a preservative in the preparation of tiger milk.

Keywords: Tiger nut milk, Shelf-life, Preservative, Cinnamon




Skill Improvement Needs of Technical Teacher’s in Teaching Drill Press, and Milling Machines Operations in Technical Colleges in Kaduna State


Dr. Ali, Awalu Maliki; Byahnet Tene Maidawa; Chimen Sabo Jamous; & Gaiya Mattew

Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan



The major purpose of the study was to determine skill improvement needs of technical teachers in teaching Drill press and milling machines operations in technical colleges in Kaduna State.  two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.  The population for the study consisted of 103 experienced and less experienced technical teachers, drawn from technical colleges in Kaduna State.  The entire population was studied; hence no sample was taken.  Survey research design was used for the study.  Structured questionnaire on (SINTTMSOTC) was used to generate data for the study.  This instrument was face validated by three experts from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 20 experienced and less experienced technical teachers’ in technical college, Kano State.  Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84.  Data analyzed using mean statistics for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses.  It was recommended that experienced and less experienced technical teachers in technical colleges should build capacity on skill improvement needs, needed by students for effective functioning in the lathe and drill press machines operations.  This could be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars, and also to undergone re-training in their areas of specializations.

Keywords: teaching, technical teachers, machines, skills, improvement needs.




Effects of Simulation and Experiential Techniques on Students Academic Achievement in Physics, Kogi State, Nigeria


Yakubu Peter Abuh (PhD)

Department of Physics, Kogi State College of Education, Ankpa.



The study investigated the effects of simulation and experiential techniques on students’ academic achievement in Physics in Kogi State. The study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. The study adopted Quasi-experimental design, specifically, non-equivalent pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design. A sample of 294 senior secondary two students out of the total population of 7920, were selected randomly using multistage sampling, technique. Physics Achievement Test-(PAT) was used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The findings revealed that simulation and experiential teaching techniques had significant effect on students’ academic achievement in physics. It was therefore recommended that physics teachers should be retrained to adopt the use of simulation and experiential teaching techniques to enhance students’ achievement in physics among others.

Keywords: Simulation, experiential, techniques, Achievement and physics.



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