African Scholar Journal of Biotechnology and Agricultural Research Vol. 26 No. 1


VOL. 26 NO. 1 SEPTEMBER, 2022 ISSN: 2177-1998


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Determining the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Two Water Bodies (Bayeiku and Offin Rivers) in Ikorodu Division of Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria


Ogunbanwo Olatayo Michael

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Aquatic Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos State



Contamination of water bodies due to anthropogenic activities of man has been a major concern to mankind particularly in developing nations where regulations by government are either not obeyed or no stringent regulations to monitor and punish the offenders. The biological wealth of a water body is mainly dependent on its physico-chemical parameters’ quality. The physico-chemical qualities of two waterbodies (Bayeiku and Offin Rivers) in Ikorodu division of Lagos State, were sampled and analysed with the intention of determining the extent of pollution and the health of the water bodies. Five sampling stations each were established on both rivers and samples collected monthly for six months (March to May 2021). The physico-chemical parameters were analysed using standard methods by APHA. The obtained result revealed that the average value of the parameters analyzed are; turbidity (29.71±23.03 NTU), conductivity (401.94±576.52 µS/cm), DO (33107.92±59091.09 mg/L), hardness (33107.92±59091.09) and that these values are above the WHO allowed limits except for temperature (29.09±1.65°C), pH (7.59±0.34) and salinity (3.05±3.45). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the 95% confidence level revealed that the value of each parameter was not statistically significantly (p ˃0.05). The variation of each parameter was as a result of pollution from activities that take place along the river bank.

Keywords: Physico-chemical, Coastal water, Salinity, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen.




Hematological Changes of Albino Rats Fed with Smoked clarias garipenius at Different Inclusion Levels of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)


Gana E. S; & Unah A.E

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture. University of Abuja.



This study investigate the effect of graded levels of bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina) based diets on the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Albino rat, Twelve (12)albino rats with an average weight of 160 kg were allotted to four treatments, the treatments evaluated were 0%,10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of the test ingredient in a Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT), The diets and the trial lasted for four (4) weeks, Effect of the diets on hematology, serum biochemical parameters and proximate analysis were determined, the results shows significant difference (P> 0.05) in hematology and serum biochemical parameters between control and study animals, However, significant increases (P< 0.05) were obtained in the hematology and serum biochemical parameters for 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels respectively) with increase in V. amydalina leaves, it is concluded that inclusion of bitter leaves in the diet of albino rats had no deleterious effect on the hematological and serum biochemical parameters evaluated, it is recommended that further study on the feeding potential of V. amygdalina be conducted on other species of animals to ascertain the feeding value of same.

Keywords: Albino rats, bitter leaf and Clarias garipenius.




Analysis of Women Involvement in Orange Production in Gboko Local Government area of Benue State, Nigeria: Household Income and Decision Making Process


1Mohammed, U., 1Umaru, A., 2Ahmad, B.S., 3Nabara I. S.  

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai. 2National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State. 3Niger State College of Education, Minna.



The research was aimed to analysed the economic involvement of women farmers in orange production and their perception of household income and decision-making process in Gboko LGA of Benue State, Nigeria. This article is about determining the women farmers’ contribution to household income and decision making process. It was estimated that the income and decision-making process of women orange farmers at the household level. The study was carried out in   four villages of Gboko LGA of Benue State, Nigeria which were; Igyorov, Mbadam, Mbakper and   Mbaanku as the women participation in orange production is comparatively high. Multistage random sampling was used to choose 150 respondents. Face-to-face interviews with orange farmers generated primary data, which was obtained using structured questionnaires. The socio-economic profile of the sampled respondent was determined using descriptive methods. To estimate the women farmer’s contribution to family income and their perception of household decision-making, the income-expenditure model and 5-point Likert scale were applied. The outcome of the research appeared that most of the respondents were belong to an active working group and the average age of the sample respondents was approximately 40 years while the average family size was 6-8. The findings of the study showed that 66.5% were married and 42.1% had no formal education and almost 40% of sample respondents were engaged in orange production. The sources of annual family income are 43.52% of income come from female members of the households in which 26.64% comes from orange production and the average annual contribution of women orange farmers in household income was 23,373. It has been concluded that in the study area women orange farmers had a significant role in the participation of household income and also the perception of women farmers was largely accepted in the case of household expenditure, buying and selling family wealth, education of children, saving money, and receiving   medical treatment.

Keywords: Analysis, Women, Involvement, Orange, Decision, Income.




Cassava Production, Processing and Utilization in Nigeria:  A Review


Prof. Musa, S.M.1, Samuel, E. B.2, Sani, M.3, Mari, E.2

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resource Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually meant for human beings, animals and plants and should contain the essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins or minerals. Food substances are digested by an organism and assimilated by the organism’s cells to provide energy. However, preservation of food remains a big problem affecting many crops including cassava. This study is aimed at reviewing the level of cassava production, processing and utilization in Nigeria.Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) is a starchy tuberous root crop belonging to the family of Euphurbiaceac. After rice, sugarcane, and maize, it is the fourth source of dietary energy in the tropical region and the ninth globally. Nigeria is currently the largest producer of cassava in the world with an annual output of over 34 million tons of tuberous roots.Indeed, it is grown by almost every household in Nigeria. Some of the principal recommended cultivated varieties in Nigeria include; TME419, TMS90257, TMS 91934, TMS81/00110, TMS82/0066. Machines for cassava processing are made to replace the hand-operated method (manual) and to increase output to attain the required demand for food, fiber, and materials. Suitable mechanization and automation are vitally needed to achieve the desired end product which include among others the following: garri, flour, apku, (fufu), dan wake, chips, starch, bread. Cassava performs five main roles: Famine reserve, Rural staple food, Cash crop for urban consumption, Industrial raw materials and Foreign exchange. Constraints in cassava production include a wide range of technical, institutional and socioeconomic factors. These include pests and diseases, agronomic problems, land degradation, shortage of planting materials, food policy changes, access to markets, limited processing options and inefficient/ ineffective extension delivery systems. Cassava is a major source of carbohydrates in human diet. It is widely cultivated and serves as a major source of income in countries like Nigeria, Brazil, India and most West African countries. The tubers of cassava cannot be stored longer after harvest before decaying. Due to this short storage period of the tubers, cassava tubers are further processed into other forms to enhance its storage and to serve other purposes.

KEYWORDS: Cassava, Garri, Production, Processing, Utilization




Histopathological Changes Induced by Meloidogyne Incognita on Root Tissues of Yam (Dioscorea Spp)


1Gabriel O, Olaifa* and 2Ojo K, Adekunle

1Bioresource Development Centre, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State, Nigeria.



Root-Knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is an important nematode of yams (Dioscorea spp.) causing serious damage and yield loss in yam. This study was carried out with the aim of understanding the histopathological changes caused by M. incognita on Dioscorea spp. Yam mini set of about 20-25g each was sown into 80 plastic pots arranged in 10 by 8 rows in the Screenhouse. Two weeks after sprouting, 1000 eggs of M. incognita in water suspension were inoculated near the roots of each of 40 yam seedlings, the remaining 40 uninoculated seedlings served as control. Seven days after inoculation, 10 inoculated and 10 uninoculated seedlings were uprooted and rinsed with running tap water to remove adhering soil. The roots were air – dried on cardboard paper for 5 minutes. The harvested nematodes infested roots were then preserved in 50 % ethanol and 50 % water prior to processing.  The procedures were repeated at 14, 21 and 28 days. The preserved roots were dehydrated in graded alcohol series. Roots were infiltrated with graded xylene and embedded in molten paraplast. Root sections of 14 µm were cut with rotator microtome and photomicrographs were taken. The sections were examined under a compound microscope for giant cell. The results of histopathology on D. rotundata and D.alata show that the M. incognita did not penetrate the root of yam plants, failed to induce the formation of giant cells and no disorganization of the cellular structure of the root tissue of Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata.

Keywords: Giant cell, inoculation, M. incognita eggs




Yield and Yield Components of Lowland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Varieties as Influenced by Planting Method and Fertilizer Management in Nigeria Sudan Savanna


Babaji M.1* Musa A. B.2, Hassan H. A.3

1 & 2 Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State. 3College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando-Kaduna



Field trial was conducted at the Gadau Village, Itas-Gadau Local Government Area of Bauchi State (110 50’, 4.79” N,) (100 10’ 1.20” E), in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria, during the 2022 dry season, to determine, yield and yield components of lowland rice (oryza sativa l.) varieties as influenced by planting method and fertilizer management in Nigeria sudan savanna. The treatments consisted of two lowland varieties (FARO 44, and FARO 52), five rates of combined NPK and poultry manure fertilizers (0tha-1 of poultry manure plus 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1, 60:30:30 kg NPKha-1plus poultry manure 5tha-1, No NPK plus 10tha-1 , 30:15:15 kg NPKha-1 plus poultry manure 10tha-1 and 0 kg NPKha-1 plus poultry manure 0tha-1), and three planting method (dibbling, drilling and broadcasting). The treatments was factorially combined and laid out in a split plot design with fertilizer rate and planting methods as main plot and lowland rice varieties as sub plot. Gross plot size will be 3.0m x 4.0m (12m2) and net plot size of 2m x3m (6m2) respectively. The result revealed that FARO 52 performed better on days to 50% flowering. Drilling planting method performed better on days to 50% flowering, day to physiological maturity, length of panicle, weight of grain per panicle, grain yield, straw yield and NPK and Poultry Manure Mixture on days to 50% flowering, days to physiological maturity, potassium percentage, number of productive tillers, grain yield and straw yield. Based on the research finding it was concluded that FARO 52 variety, drilling planting method and 120:60:60 NPK and  30:15:15 NPK + 10tha-1 PM performed better in almost all the yield and yield components of lowland rice at Gadau.

Keywords: Dibbling, Drilling, Broadcasting, poultry manure




Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Water Productivity of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicon) in Fadama Plain of Bunga, Bauchi, Nigeria


Sadiq Yakubu1*, Idris Sani2, Prof. Henry Igbadun3, Mu’azu Dantala Zakari4, Raji Shaibu Ganiyu5, Maimuna Sani1

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 2Department of Soil Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.3Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Bayero University, Kano. 5Maintenance and Services Department, Bayero University, Kano.



This research presents the findings of the effects of deficit irrigation on yield and water productivity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in Fadama plain of Bunga in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The field experiment was conducted during the 2016/2017 dry season farming. Eighteen treatment combinations which comprised of two tomato varieties (Roma VF and UC-82B); three (3) levels of water application depth (100, 80 and 60% ETo) and three (3) irrigation intervals (3, 5 and 7days) were replicated three (3) times, and imposed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) were studied. Crop water requirement for each treatment was computed by relating the reference Crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and Crop coefficient (Kc) for all the four crop growth stages: initial, development, midseason and late stages. Water applied to each basin was measured using moisture meter. Soil moisture depletion was monitored using Portable Soil Moisture probe (PSM). Harvested yield was weighed per unit basin area (kgm-2). Yield obtained ranged from 18.49 to 34.67 t/ha for tomato Roma-VF and 18.15 to 27.94 t/ha for tomato UC-82B varieties respectively. From the results, least total yield of 23.46 t/ha was obtained from treatment with 60% ETo and 7days irrigation interval. Contrarily, highest total yield of 26.01 t/ha was recorded by 80% ETo and 5day irrigation interval. Seasonal water applied varied from 393.89 to 689.47mm. Seasonal crop water used was 205.98mm at 60% and 487.14mm at 100% water application depths. Highest water productivity (WP) was achieved with D80I5 treatment. Relatively, greatest net income of ₦1484124.80/ton was realized at D80I5 treatment based on economic analysis outcome. Hence, adopting tomato Roma VF variety with water application depth of 80% ETO when kept at 5days irrigation interval, would realize more profitable tomato production in and around Bunga Valley. Main effect results inferred that 80% irrigation application depth and 3days irrigation interval are the best, thus recommended. So, deficit irrigation using good soil sensor technology in irrigation scheduling improves not only the fruit yield, but conserve water and energy, and reduce nutrient leaching.

Keywords: Deficit irrigation, Tomato variety, Water productivity, Crop evapotranspiration, Fadama




The effects of ethanolic & aqueous extracts of guava leaves on Salmonella typhimurium Isolated from poultry Droppings


Sikiru Gbenga.K., Olorundare Olufunke.O., Olori Oke Olusolape., Ayorinde James and Oladejo Afolabi.O., Obasiorji Chioma V.

Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry,Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria



Plant based products have been effectively proven for their utilization as source for antimicrobial compounds.  Psidium guajava (Guava) is known for its medicinal and nutritional values. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of ethanolic & aqueous of guava leaves on Salmonella typhimurium. 50 grams of the pulverized leaves of Psidium guajava was dissolved in two different solvents of increasing polarities (ethanol and water) respectively. 1gram of the crude extracts of the various solvents was dissolved in 10% DMSO and was serially diluted into five concentrations of 250mg/ml, 125mg/ml, 62.5mg/ml, 31.25mg/ml and 15.63mg/ml. The efficacy of these crude extracts was tested against the bacteria using agar well diffusion method employing different concentrations of the reconstituted leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava leaves showed inhibitory activity against the bacteria. The aqueous extract had more inhibitory activity than the ethanolic extract against Salmonella. The minimum inhibitory concentration for all of the different extracts and concentrations was between 62.5mg/ml and 125mg/ml. While the minimum bactericidal concentration was 250mg/ml and 125mg/ml. The findings in this study revealed that guava extracts as natural ingredients could be used to improve the safety and quality of several consumable products. Guava leaf extracts at 5% concentration level has a significant inhibitory effect on Salmonella indicating that guava extracts could be used as natural ingredient to control the growth of these pathogens.

Keywords: Psidium guajava L. (guava), Salmonella typhimurium, Ethanolic exreact, Aqueous extract, Poultry Droppings




Growth and Yield Analysis of Sweet Potato (Ipoemea Batatas L.) as Influenced by Varieties and NPK Fertilizer Rates in North Central Region of Nigeria


1Mudi Anayib., 2B.B. Jakusko 2J.B. Abakura

1Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State. 2Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Moddibo Adama University Yola, Adamawa State



Field trials were conducted during the 2019 and 2020 rainy seasons at the research and demonstration farm of Federal College of Forestry Jos, to determine the effect of varieties and NPK Fertilizer rates on the growth and yield of sweet potato. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design (SPD) with three varieties, TIS8164, TIS2532. OP.1.13 and TIS87/0087 as main plot and four rates of NPK fertilizer as the sub plot treatments. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters and were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) procedure. Due to the findings, it is suggested that variety TIS87/0087 and NPK fertilizer rates 100:100:100 kgha-1should be adopted.

Keywords: Varieties, Fertilizer, Anova.




Assessment of pH, Proximate Composition and In-Vitro Gas Production on Sweet Potato Vine Silage Treated with Additives


Kuttu Julius Musa; Abdulwahab Ismail Harbau; Hussaini Usman; Rahila Isyaku; Nimat Adisa; & Lookman Maigari

Department of Agricultural Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational), Federal College of Education (Tech) Bichi, Kano State



This study looks at the assessment of pH, proximate composition and in-vitro gas production on sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) treated with additives at three weeks. Two varieties of sweet potato vines silage (SPVS) were made with no additive as control T1, with molasses T2, with urea T3 and with yeast T4. The data collected was analyzed using chat in Microsoft Excel office Software for pH. ANOVA was used to analyze proximate composition and in vitro gas production using SPSS version 20, where significant differences occurred, the means was separated using general linear model. The results showed that though both King J and Dan china varieties had acidic pH values, King J had a better silage compared to Dan china variety of SPVS on control, molasses, urea and yeast with the following pH values; 5.3, 4.8, 6.1 and 5.6 on control, molasses, urea and yeast for King J variety, while Dan china Variety had 5.6, 4.9, 6.4 and 6.4 on control, molasses, urea and yeast. On additives, molasses produced the best silage for both varieties with pH values 4.8 and 4.9 for King J and Dan china varieties respectively. On proximate composition, results showed that Ash, OM, CF, EE, NFE, ADF, DMI, DDM and RFV (%) were significantly different (P˂0.05) on the King J and Dan china varieties of SPVS on all additives. The results for in vitro gas production showed that King J and Dan china varieties were significantly different (P˂0.05) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21 and 24hrs except 15hrs on all the additives. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the addition of molasses, urea, and yeast improved silage quality of two varieties of sweet potato vines silage including the control, with molasses as superior additive for both varieties in terms of silage, proximate composition and in vitro gas production. Molasses, urea and yeast are said to be recommended as additives in silage making using sweet potato vines.

Keywords: pH, Proximate Composition, In Vitro, Silage and Additive.




Bacteriological Properties of Tiger Nut Drink (Kunu Aya) Sold in Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria



Mbochi C. A2, Labbo, Z1., Olukotun, G.B1*., Shanu M. A2, Bamai, E. A., Adeoye, B.A.1, Egbulefu, C. S.1, Makanjuola, D.O.5, Zamani, P. A.4, Adegbite, I.A.1, Oluyomi, C. D. And Ahmadu J. H.1

1National Biotechnology Development Agency, Musa Yaradua Express Way, Lugbe, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Nutrition and Dietetics dept., School of health, Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 3 Ministry of Agriculture, Divisional Veterinary Clinic, Keffi, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. 4Environmental Health Science Department, School of Environmental Health Sciences, SICHST, Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 5Department of Environmental Science, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria



Kunu Aya (tiger nut drink) is regarded as one of the popular indigenous drinks produced mostly in the North. The research aim to determine the bacteriological properties of Kunu Aya sold in Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Makarfi Kaduna State. Objectives included to determine the microbial properties, the bacteriological load of the drink, and the health implications associated with its consumption and to carry out intervention in educating the local beverage producers on hygiene practices. Study design was experimental. Four samples bought, coded (A,B,C, and D) are taken for bacteriological analysis. The result revealed the presence of staphylococci species, Eschericheria coli and Coliform in all the samples. Bacteriological load varies in ranges of 4.5 x 103, 5.0 x 103, 6.0 x 103and 7.0 x 103for Staphylococcus aureus in sample C,A,B, and D respectively. Coliform species was in the range of 1.3 x 104, 1.4 x 104, 1.0 x 104 and 1.8 x 104. Sample D had the highest coliform species while the least was in sample C with 1.0 x 104. Health issues associated with the consumption of these drinks include diarrhea, fever, stomach cramp which if not handled properly can be fatal. Hence, the need for producers and vendors of Kunu Aya to take hygienic measures in preparation, storage of the product to avoid food infection and intoxication associated with the micro-organism.

Keywords:  Tiger Nut Drink (Kunu Aya), Bacteriological Properties, Stomarch Cramp, Consumption, Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Makarfi




Determination of Some Selected Engineering Properties of Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) Seed


Sanusi, B.A1., Salaudeen, S2., Olanite, W.A3., Ariwoola, L.A1. And Azeez, M.O2.

1Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic Saki2Department of Civil Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic Saki. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic Saki,



An experiment was conducted to investigate some selected engineering properties of tamarind seed such as length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric diameters, surface area, true and true densities, sphericity, angle of repose and coefficient of static friction.  An average values of 9.23 mm, 6.56 mm and 3.29 mm with coefficient of variation of 10.29, 7.24 and 5.87% were determined for length, width and thickness of tamarind seeds. The arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter and sphericity values of 6.14, 5.46 and 92.05% with CV values of 7.89, 8.10 and7.6% were recorded at 12.90% moisture content. The mean surface area, and volume of 84.25 mm2 and 59.36 mm3were obtained for tamarind seed. Porosity and angle of repose had the values of 36.90 and 310, respectively. Stainless steel had the lowest coefficient of static friction with an average value of 0.35, followed by galvanized with average value of 0.39 while the highest value of 0.42 was observed on plywood surface for tamarind seed.

Keywords:  Tamarind, engineering properties, moisture content, angle of repose, sphericity Coefficient of Static friction




Analysis of Effect of Poultry Manure on Growth Parameters in Maize (Zea Maize)


Alim Semiyu Abdulrazaq; Muhammad Haneef Sunusi; & Isah Abubakar

Department of Agricultural Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna



The study analyse the effect of poultry manure on the growth parameters in maize. The field experiment was conducted at Kaduna Polytechnic Tudun Wada, Kaduna state in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to observe and analyse the effect of poultry manure on the growth of maize. The experiment was carried out in sacks with three replications. Four rate of poultry manure applied at 0.0kg, 0.5kg, 1.0kg and 1.5kg per sack. Data collected from 2nd to 8th week after sowing were plant height, number of leaves and leaf area. The result obtain indicates that plants that receive 15% of poultry manure were superior at 8th week with mean height of 108.5cm, mean number of leaves of 15 and mean leaf area of 639.5cm2 based on the findings of the study, 1.5kg poultry manure was best to be used for the growth of maize.

Keywords: Poultry, Manure, Growth parameters, Maize




Economic Analysis of Fresh Tomato Marketing in Nassarawa Local Government Area of Kano State


Abdurrahman, M.U., Abba-Aji A.A., Baraza S.A., Gambo N., Mukhtar, D., Dauda, M. Salisu., Nura Salisu Muhammad.

Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



This study analyzed the marketing system of fresh tomato in Nassarawa local government of Kano State. A multi-stage sampling method was employed to select eighty (80) tomato marketers. The main objective is to analyze tomato marketing in the Yankaba market, while the specific objectives are to describe the socio-economic characteristics of tomato marketers in the study area, to identify and describe the marketing channel of fresh tomato, to determine the efficiency of fresh tomato marketing, to determine the profitability of fresh tomato marketing, and also to describe constrains associated with tomato marketing in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Marketing Efficiency and Marketing Margin. Findings revealed that 26% of fresh tomato retailer’s marketers fell within the age bracket of 25-34 and 35-44 years of age, while 40% of fresh tomato wholesaler’s marketers fell within the category of 45-54 which were the majority in study area, only 2% and 3.3% of retailers and wholesalers respectively were within the category of 75-84 years in the study area. The gender representation is 100% dominated by male gender of both retailers and wholesalers respectively in the study area. The result revealed that the majority 94% of retailers and 96.7% of wholesalers of tomato marketers were married, and only 6% of retailers and 3.3% of wholesalers of tomato marketers were single in the study area. Fresh tomato marketers in the area had one form of education. Majority of retailers have Qur’anic education, while Majority of wholesalers have primary education. The result also revealed that Net Marketing Margin of 7.29 N/kg and 4.09N/kg for 1kg for retailers and wholesalers respectively. The analysis also revealed that tomato marketing is a profitable enterprise with BCR of greater than one (with 1.2044 for retailers and 1.1390 for wholesalers). The marketing efficiency of fresh tomato was found to be 273.34% and 168.24% on retailers and wholesalers respectively. The major challenges to fresh tomato marketing were seasonality nature of tomato, perishability nature of tomato, absence of processing industries, and supply problem during wet season.  It was therefore recommended that tomato processing industries should be establish by private entrepreneurs was recommended to make resolving perishabilty of tomato produced.

Keywords: Marketing channel, efficiency, profitability




Economic Analysis of Non-Timber Forest Products to Rural Poverty Alleviation in Oriire Local Government Area of Oyo State


Momohjimoh, Yusuf.1 Alao, Adeoye Oyebisi.2 Bolarinwa Sunday Oyewale3.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic, PMB 1101 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso Oyo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Economics, Al-Hikmah University, PMB 1601 Ilorin, Nigeria.



This study analyzed the economic importance of Non-timber forest product to rural poverty alleviation in Oriire Local Government Area of Oyo state in 2014. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect data from 120 respondents in the study area. The data collected was subjected to both descriptive and inferential analysis. Descriptive statistics include the use of percentages, tables and mean to present the socio-economic characteristics. This study estimates the important contribution of NTFP to income and livelihood as well as the role and benefits of NTFP. Furthermore, a Tobit model is estimated as determining the factors influencing share of NTFP in income. Also, Logistic regression was used to present the determinants of share from NTFP. Majority (67.5%) of the farmers in this study area were male with a mean age of 42.93 and standard deviation of 10.02, greater percentage (79.17%) of the farmers were native of the area. More than half (56.7%) of the farmers (respondents) had access to land through inheritance, 36.67% of the respondents were within the age range of 41 – 50 years which formed the majority and active force of the respondents. Six independent variables that significantly contributed to the dependent variable (Income from NTFP) in the Tobit regression model were; number of hours of collecting NTFP, transportation cost, male age greater than 10years, income from livestock production, income from off-farm activities and income from crop production. Education level and size of land was found to be positive contributor to the dependent variable (Poverty status) in the Logistic regression. It is recommended that policies and strategies that aim at improving the welfare of rural people and natural resource conservation should give attention to the contribution of NTFP to the local people. Moreover, Government and NGOs should support and encourage NTFP and NTFP based activities as part of the diversified livelihood strategies in order to alleviate poverty in the rural areas. There should also be proper monitoring and prevention of unnecessary deforestation by government agencies from government reserved area so as to avert the going into extinction of some species / varieties of trees or NTFP.

Keywords: Non-timber forest products (NTFP), Poverty alleviation, Logic regression, Descriptive statistics.




Advance the Necessity to Integrate Indigenous and Modern Scientific Knowledge in Predicting and Planning Rainfed Farming



Shehu, M.B.; Maina, K.K.; Shettima, Z.

UIICEST Bama, Borno State.



The research assessed the advance the necessity to integrate the indigenous knowledge and modern scientific used in predicting and planning rainfed farming. Focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted on rainfed farmers aged 40 years and above of both male and female in two communities in each of four agro-ecological zones. Also in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in all selected communities on both genders aged 60 years and above and NiMet staffs were interviewed. The information sources were analysed using qualitative method and words map produced using Nvivo software. The ArcGIS was used to produce Agroecological map. Findings of the research revealed that there is no synergy between the two knowledge systems. The research proposed the integration of indigenous and modern scientific knowledge as a way of improving quality of rainfed prediction and planning.

Keywords: Indigenous Knowledge (IK), Rainfed, Nvivo software.




Bioremediation Techniques, a Solutions to the Desert Encroachment in the Savannah Regions of Nigeria for Adequate Food Security


Bala Ibrahim

Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse



The impact of desert encroachment is significant in developing countries such as Nigeria. Some northern Savannah states are affected by desert encroachment and the economy of the states is predominantly agriculture and fundamentally depends on the vagaries of weather, however, it has been difficult for Nigeria to take advantage of this environmental menace because of the lack of adequate technology to convert negative aspects of their environment to best uses, It affects people directly and indirectly via its devastating effects on the farmland which in turn causes a lot of socio-economic problems. The methodology that was used in this research work is divided into stages which include existing data and case studies. On bioremediation technique, four case studies were selected in Nigeria, for comparison and analysis, the first one was Zauro, Kebbi state, the state was now the largest state that produced rice in the country according to Federal Government report 2016, and some systems of increasing the soil fertility were through bioremediation technique using organic manure and fishing wastewater, the second case study was Kura local government of Kano state, the system of bioremediation used in the production of rice and maize in the area was, the farmers allowed the waste of the harvested crops to decay in the farm in both rain season farming and the irrigation farming, some of the farmers set fire on the waste to become ash which restores minerals to the farm, the third case study was in Birniwa and Maigatari where the people in the area uses ashes from their houses, human defecation and generated carbon, the soil in these areas restore minerals that allow good growth of plants. All methods for soil regeneration related to the case studies were adopted by incorporating bioregional planning for the study area through the central collection of major town’s defecation, central town collection of ashes, evacuation of existing septic tanks and pit latrines for bioremediation, planting of economic trees, economic crops and planting of grasses along the cattle routes, the introduction of integrated farms, creation of oasis, green school initiative and massive irrigation system to enhance biodiversity for the people of the study area, this will lead to the conducive environment because the economy of the area will rapidly grow.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Biodiversity, Desert encroachment, Landscape   planning




Analyses of Risk Coping Strategies among Small Scale Soybean Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Alim Semiyu Abdulrazaq; Kursum Ohunene Muhammad; & Zainab Oyiza Audu

Department of Agricultural Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



This research examined the risk management strategies among small scale soybean farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria, with the aim of generating reliable information on the sources of risk and risk management strategies among small scale soybean farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were employed in selection of 210 soybean farmers in the study Area. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse socio economic characteristics, the sources and risk management strategies of soybean farmers in the study area. Some of the important findings from research are: The result revealed that average age household heads was 42 years which means that the majority of the soybean farmers in the study area were relatively young. Soybean farmers were faced with a number of risks that militated against their production in the study area. The results revealed that the majority (43.3%) of soybean farmers in Kaduna State had their soybean affected by erratic rainfall. Social risk (economic shock), the results revealed that 36% of the soybean farmers in Kaduna State had their farms invaded by cattle. Economic risk such as insufficient supply of seed (58.6%) which resulted mostly in reduced output was a major source of economic risk. Production risk, Soybean farmers in Kaduna State rated high cost of fertilizer, untimely supply of fertilizer and poor soil as the three most important sources of production risk. Other sources were technical, policy and human risk. However, devised different risk management strategies to prevent, reduce and cope with the different sources of risk. The results revealed that risk prevention strategies were planting of other crops, planting of improved varieties, diversify to off-farming activities, farm on different land/field and insurance. In the study area, majority (70.4%) prevent risk by planting of improved varieties. Risk coping strategies refer to borrowing, savings/Adashe(cash contribution), off-farm income and selling assets. Overall, soybean farmers (42.8%) majority used savings/Adashe(cash contribution) to cope with the risk in the study area. And Risk reducing strategies were   necessarily risk management tools used by most farmers. In the study area, the most important is the used of fertilizer (44.8%). The findings show that soybean farmers in the study area were facing different types of risk in soybean production. Soybean farmers devised management strategies to prevent risk. the problem of production risk for example, could be addressed through technology change, such as breeding for drought tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases.

Keywords: sources of risk, risk management strategies and soybean farmers




Integrated Assessment of Land and Water Resources Potentials towards Surface Irrigation Systems Development in Upper Ogun River Basin, Nigeria


Benjamin Ifedeji AJISAFE1, 3; Simeon Oluwole OGUNLADE (PhD) 2

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria. 2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3C/O Surv. Ajisafe, Benjamin Ifedeji, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Geospatial Sciences, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.



Global warming with resultant gross rainfall unreliability and variability negatively impacts agricultural production thus constituting serious threat to sustainable food production systems. To address this problem, there is great need for a sustainable irrigated agricultural development based on an integrated assessment of land and water resources to ensure optimal utilization. An integrated evaluation of the land and water resources of the upper Ogun River Basin was embarked on to identify suitable lands, based on mitigating factors such as terrain relief, soil physical properties, land cover/use, river proximity, road accessibility, farm settlement and markets locations, and to quantify the volume of accessible surface water to drive irrigated agricultural development. The methodology involves the utilization of georeferenced remotely sensed datasets (10m Sentinel-2 imagery, 12.5m ASTER GDEM, spatially interpolated climate and soil data on grids, etc.) and the employment of geo-statistical and geo-visualization capabilities of GIS tools (Sentinel SNAP, ENVI5.3, Google Earth Pro, ArcGIS 10.8 and HEC-HMS 4.7.1) for image processing and accuracy assessment, land cover characterisation, watershed delineation, soil suitability evaluation, hydrological simulation, etc., to generate the final products. Analytical Hierarchical Process was the fundamental scale for pair wise comparison matrix of the elements used for surface irrigation suitability evaluation. The results revealed that approximately 704.9 square kilometres (9%) of the total land area is suitable for immediate irrigated agricultural development while the total volume of surface water accessible was quantified as 11,194,205,087.223 cubic metre. This baseline information provides an important guide at the conception of an irrigated agricultural development project.

Keywords: Land suitability evaluation, Water resource assessment, Surface irrigation systems, Hydrological modelling, Analytical Hierarchical Process.



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