African Scholar Journal of Business Dev. & Management Res. Vol. 25 No. 7


VOL. 25 NO. 7 JUNE, 2022 ISSN: 2190-2099



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Impact of Monetary Policy on Price Stability in Nigeria (2016 -2021)


Fatima Binta Haruna

Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University Dutse Ibrahim Aliyu by pass, P.M.B 7156 Dutse- Jigawa Nigeria.



This article investigated the impact of monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria from 2016-2021. The procedure for this investigation was achieved with Structural Autoregressive (SVAR), it was found that MPR contributed (impacted) much more in the variation of lending rate (LEND) throughout the period under consideration than to the variation (changes) in inflation rate (INF) and the nominal effective exchange rate (NEER). For example, MPR accounted for 4.25% and 4.85% of the variability in the lending rate (LEND) in the second and third month. In the same period, MPR contributed 0.98% and 1.12% to the changes in inflation rate (INF). However, this contribution within same period was much lesser to exchange rate (NEER), where the record exposed a contribution of just 0.03% and 0.04% respectively. In general, the result uncovered that MPR has much more contribution to interest rate (LEND) than inflation (INF) and exchange rate (NEER). It revealed that the greatest contribution of MPR is to interest rate (LEND), followed by the rate of inflation (INF) and eventually accompanied by exchange rate (NEER) (which receives the lowest share). In a less exact language, the result vindicated that the greatest impact (effect) of changes in MPR was on interest rate (LEND), followed by the rate of inflation (INF) and exchange rate (NEER) (in that order). Hence, this indicates that all things being equal, any change in MPR would first and foremost lead to changes in interest rate (LEND) which would in turn produce change in inflation (INF) and eventually give birth to changes in the exchange rate (NEER). Fortunately, this result has tallied with the a priori expectation, it is expected that changes in MPR should have more effect on LEND and INF than NEER which ideally supposed to drive its impact from MPR via changes in inflationary pressures. Research limitation/ implication: the outcome of this analysis has disclosed that a bigger percentage of the changes in the outcome of the macroeconomic variables was explained by their own innovations within the considered period suggesting that adjustments of aggregate demand in the real sector do not necessarily adhere to shocks in monetary policy variables.

Keywords: Monetary policy, price stability and structural autoregressive (SVAR), Nigeria.




A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Financial Inclusion and Economic Development


Kolawole A. Bello

LIGS University, Hawaii, USA




In the last two decades, there has been much discussion about the impact of financial inclusion on the economic development of nations. This paper provides a meta-analysis of some existing literature on the relationship between financial inclusion and economic development to present researchers in the field of study with an insightful summary of approaches adopted by researchers and the findings of their work. It divides the review into studies that concluded a unidirectional relationship between financial inclusion and economic development and those that found otherwise. It then discusses the studies’ methodologies to identify their gaps and recommends dimensions further studies in the field should consider.

Keywords: Correlation, Economic Development, Economic Growth, Economic Pyramid, Financial Inclusion, Unidirectional.




Impact of Resource Based Theory on Entrepreneurship in Nigeria


*Oluwatusin James Adekunle; & **Dr. Owolabi Babatunde Israel

*Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria. **National Orthopedic Hospital, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria



Academic research has proved that despite the robust resources available to several big firms, many organisations still find it difficult to break even or make considerable profit. This challenge could be largely linked with various reasons ranging from insufficient resources to inefficient resource allocation which can be attributed to entrepreneurs’ failure. This paper assesses the impact of resource based theory on the success of entrepreneurs in Nigeria. It focuses on the reasons for the high rate of entrepreneurs’ failure and recommends the effective use of the scares resources by entrepreneurs to ensure maximization of profit. Without doubts, there are entrepreneurs with little financial base that are succeeding and translating this success to become bigger and extend their business market share within limited time compared to bigger entrepreneurs who are at advantage in terms of large pool of resources. Therefore, this study advocated that entrepreneurs must take the subject of resource identification, management and its strategic allocation for the development and growth of entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Resources, Theory, Entrepreneurs, Success, Firms, Financial base.




Evaluation of the Role of Professional Ethics in Accounting and Audit


Ango Nuhu Aliyu (PhD)

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria



Ethics is a comprehensive issue covering all aspects of life. Accounting inludes accounting services and is one of the jobs based on discipline in the world. This profession is associated with one of the issues of people in the society, property and assets of people. Ethical principles or ethics are defined in a set of spiritual values and principles. All of us have such set of values although we don’t know anything about them. If accountants and auditors working in business environment are not dependent upon professional ethics, it has harmful effect for those trusting them. Thus, accounting professional ethics is of great importance for accountants and professional auditors and those involved in auditing and accounting. The present study showed that professional ethics is a necessity for accounting job (accounting and audit). It seems accounting ethics like any accounting product needs accounting and audit. The role and duty of professional accountants to society, capital holders and other people required that they observe all general principles of good morality in all aspects and resort to the professional behaviour regulation to achieve acceptance, credit and social respect as the requirement of activity in each specialized job

Keywords: Ethics, Professional Ethics, Accounting, Accounting Profession, Audit




Effects of Total Quality Management on Performance of Micro-Finance Banks in Taraba State, Nigeria


1Mohammed, Muktar & 2Sani, A.B. Hussein

1Registry Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria. 2Department of Business Education, Taraba State College of Education, Zing, Nigeria



This study examined the effects of Total Quality Management (TQM) on performance of Micro-finance banks in Taraba State, Nigeria. The study adopted ex post facto research design. The population of the study was eight thousand six hundred and fifty four (8,654) consisting of staff and customers of deposit-taking micro-finance banks in Taraba State. A sample of three hundred and eighty two (382) was selected randomly using stratified random sampling technique. Two researcher-developed questionnaires were used for data collection (TQMQ and ETQMOP). The instruments were validated by three experts. Reliability of the instruments was estimated using Cronbach Alpha method. The instruments yielded reliability coefficients of 0.87 and 0.79 respectively after pilot testing. Data collected was analyzed using Simple Linear Regression at 0.05 significance level. Result revealed that total quality management practices have significant effect on customers’ satisfaction (R2 = .137, Beta = .370, p < .005). Results further revealed that total quality management have significant effects on customer’s continuous loyalty and on service delivery. It was concluded that TQM significantly influence performance of Micro-finance banks in Taraba State. The study recommended among others that Micro-finance banks should ensure full pledge implementation of TQM so as to improve organisational performance.

Keywords: Total Quality Management (TQM), Micro-finance banks, Customers’ Satisfaction, Customers’ Loyalty, Service Delivery




An Investigation into Factors Influencing Students’ Satisfaction in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi


1Maleka, U Rakiya (Hajiya); 2 Dimfwina, N Tongshinen

1Registry Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 2Hospitality Management Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



This study evaluates the level to which academic related factors affect the overall satisfaction of students in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. This research specific objective was to assess lecturer performance and students’ satisfaction; to evaluate the effect of student- lecturers’ interaction on the student and also to determine if students are satisfied with the Courses undertaken. This study was quantitative in nature using five point scale satisfaction questionnaire as a tool of collecting primary data, from the sample size of 312 students in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. Three key factors were embraced and formulated as a conceptual model in testing this study. Data analysis included descriptive and hypothesis testing was performed using Pearson’s product moment correlation and multiple regressions. Conclusion was made that Student-lecturer interaction needs to be greatly encouraged in implementing their teaching and learning activity; this is to encourage the students to be interested in the learning too. The study concluded that on student- lecturer interaction; lecturers should encourage students to become actively involved in the courses discussions; they also agreed that lecturers should provide feedback on student work through comments and students should also interact with the lecturers during the courses discussions.  It is important for lecturers to establish good relationship with their students in order to increase students’ satisfaction as students are the major clients of the school and finally Lecturers need to treat students fairly and respect them.

Keywords: Investigation, Factors, Students and Satisfaction




Database Management Skills Needed by Secretaries for Effective Job Performance in the Federal Polytechnic Bida


Kolo Joshua (MABEN); Oghomwen, John N. Smith; & Adakole, Enonche

Department of Office Technology & Management, the Federal Polytechnic, PMB 55, BIDA, Niger State



This research work was conducted to identify Database Management Skills required by secretaries for effective job performance in the Federal Polytechnic Bida. The research design was a survey. The population for the study consisted of fifty (50) secretaries in the Federal Polytechnic Bida. A modified 5 points likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data which was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. From the findings of this research, it was revealed among others that, database management security skills, database management design and planning skills and database software management skills were some of the skills required of secretaries in the Federal Polytechnic Bida. It was concluded that the success of a database management depends largely on the acquisition of the above mentioned skills for effective management of database. It was therefore, recommended that secretaries should endeavor to obtain a formal education in database management discipline as this will sharpen, expose and broaden their perception about managing database of an organization successfully. Secretaries in the institution should periodically review the goals and objectives for which the databases were created as this can be achieved through the identification of strength, weakness, opportunities and threats inherent in database management by implementing strategic database work plans. The institution should periodically organize seminars, workshops and lectures for secretaries to enable them acquire what is recent about database skills, ideas and database managerial abilities necessary for self-reliance.

Keywords:  Database, Management, Skills, Secretaries




Financial Market and Human Development Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa Countries: A Dynamic Panel Data Estimation


Anuya, David Enasavwerie (Ph.D)

Department of Banking and Finance, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria



The study examines the nexus between financial market development and human development in Sub-Saharan Africa countries from year 2000 to 2019. Particularly, the study investigates the three dimensions of financial market development in term of access, depth and efficiency with human development index. To achieve this objective, the study employed the GMM dynamic panel framework based on Arellano and Bond’s (1991) first difference approach. While lagged levels of the dependent variables for different periods are used as the instruments to control the endogeneity bias associated with dynamic panel specifications, the model adequacy is determined using the J-statistic (Sargan’s test) and the Arellano-Bond first and second order serial correlation tests. The result shows that financial markets development indices are positive and highly significant on human development within the SSA region. The study therefore, recommend that Sub-Saharan African countries focus on developing and implementing policies and program that will critically improve financial markets access, depth and efficiency if they must achieve higher human development, a prerequisite for economic development, particularly in SSA countries.

Keywords: Financial Market Access, Financial Market Depth, Financial Market Efficiency, Human Development, Dynamic Panel GMM




Impact of Macroeconomic Variables and Profitability of Deposit Money Banks: A Nigerian Experience


Mohammed Yusuf1 & Nuhu, M. A.2

1Department of Accountancy, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State – Nigeria. 2Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State – Nigeria



This study examined the impact of macroeconomic variables and profitability of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. Data for the study were gathered through Annual Reports and Accounts of the deposit money banks and Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria for the period under study. Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test the hypothesis using the SPSS. Findings of the study revealed that Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Inflation Rate (IFR), Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Monetary Policy Rate (MPR), have no statistically significant impact on the return on capital employed of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that the insignificance nature of gross domestic product and profitability proxy by return on capital employed of DMBs in Nigeria, require an improvement of the GDP by the concern policy makers and monetary policy committee members of the CBN. Considering the fact that, inflation rate has no statistically significant impact on profitability proxy by return on capital employed of DMBs in Nigeria, the study recommends the need for the for a low single digit inflation rate by the policy makers in Nigeria. Considering the insignificance of the cash reserve ratio on the return on capital employed of the selected deposit money banks in Nigeria, the study recommends the need for managers of these banks to fully adhere to the CRR policy by organising more training and workshops to staff on the importance of preserving and adhering to the macroeconomic variables for the effective and efficient operationalisation of the banks in the short-run and a better health: on banking industry in the long-run.

Keywords: Gross Domestic Product, Inflation Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Monetary policy Rate, Return on Capital Employed, DMBs.   




The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Payroll Operations for polytechnics in Nigeria


Akilu Umar Bakari

School of Business and Management Technology, Department of General Studies, the polytechnic Bali



Payrolling of staff in polytechnics lays significance on prompt rewards and productivity. Payment of salary in polytechnics is a key to performance effectiveness, efficiency and service success. This work discusses the role of Information and communication technologies (ICT) in payroll operation for polytechnics in Nigeria. Information and communication technologies (ICT) refer to several forms of information exchange between two or more computers through any of the several methods of interconnection. These technologies provide speedy, low-cost and convenient means of communication. The adoption of these technologies in polytechnics in Nigeria federal and state government have been found to have direct positive impact on the institutions efficiency and have led to more rapid acceleration of development in the country. Technology is transforming human resource (HR) practices and activities by improving their effectiveness in managing organizational resources. The use of relevant technology in HR would increase organizational ability to meet new challenges such as globalization and increase of diversity in workplaces. Computerized payroll system is one of the technologies commonly used in HR and measured as the heart of HR activities. Utilization of Information Technology (IT) is now entered in a very good condition that can be used in every aspect of life. Utilization of good IT will generate benefits for its users in utilizing IT. As well as in the field of employee payroll information systems are needed in the polytechnics system, by utilizing IT, will be faster in processing data and generate payroll reports are also fast. The study proposes some recommendations and suggests other avenues for more research as well.

Keywords: Role, Information and communication technologies (ICT), Payroll, polytechnics, Nigeria. 




Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Performance of Employees in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria.


1Ahmed Aliyu Tanko, 2Justin Shekwoyadu Zakoyi & 3Garba Ibrahim

1Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State – Nigeria. 2&3Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State – Nigeria.



The Federal Medical Centre is expected to render quality services at the time that the services is seriously needed while employees are expected to improve the general wellbeing of organization but coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed the way everything is done in the Federal Medical Centre, Keffi and virus does not discriminate at all, it infects all and sundry. This has led to sudden rise in the demand of medical and non-medical personnel to limit the spread of the virus. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on performance of employees in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi. Data was collected using a well structure questionnaire which was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses. A population of 2,838 employees and a sample of 351 respondents was drawn using Yamane’s (1967) simplified formulae. The findings showed that COVID-19 has destabilized the activities of employees in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi. The study concluded that COVID-19 pandemic has significant effect on punctuality to work, service quality and employee perception in FMC, Keffi. In light of these, the study recommended that Federal Medical Centre, Keffi should modify their strategy on the awareness campaign to educate the public on coronavirus disease 2019, seminars and workshops should be organized for employees on survival strategy during and after Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019, employee, performance, lock-down, pandemic.




Manufacturing Sector Growth and Trade Policy in Nigeria


*Ariwoola Olajumoke Abosede; **George Tolulope Oluwakemi; & ***Egbuonu Ifunanya Chioma

*Ilorin, Kwara State. **Corporate Affairs and Information Department, National Productivity Centre, Oyo State Office. ***Productivity Measurement and Index, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office



Trade policy or openness to trade in an economy has the potential of engendering growth. Theoretically, trade openness can lead to improvements in industrial growth through access to better and cheaper technology, economies of scale and X-efficiency as a result of exposure to foreign competition. Has this actually happened? It is against this backdrop that the present study investigated the relationship between trade policy and manufacturing sector growth and through that assesses the impact of trade policy on manufacturing sector growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2015. The Dynamic and Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS and FMOLS) techniques were used for the analysis. The empirical results indicate that on one hand, trade policy measured by degree of openness, exchange rate and broad money supply are positively related to manufacturing sector growth. Interest rate on the other hand, was found to have an inverse relationship with manufacturing sector growth and statistically significant in the in the DOLS framework. Since the empirical evidence revealed that trade policy captured by degree of openness is positively related to manufacturing sector growth and further clears any ambiguity of whether trade openness promotes growth in manufacturing in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that policy direction in Nigeria should focus on more open policies as a long-term plan. The pursuit of outward-looking strategies should be strengthened depending on the comparative advantages in the liberalised sector and as a cushion against vulnerability impacts of the exports and imports market.

Keywords: Trade Openness, Manufacturing Growth, Cointegration, Autoregressive Distributed Lag, Nigeria, Export and Import market.




Industrializing the Nigerian Economy: The Fiscal Option


*Muhammad Bello; *Yusuf Mustapha Muhammed; & **Toba Rachael Funke

*Procurement Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters. **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters



This paper has examined the efficacy of fiscal options in driving industrialization in Nigeria over the period 1970 to 2015. It used the Phillips-Perron unit root test to ascertain the order of integration of the series. Also, the paper employed Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) co-integration technique to determine both the short-run and long-run relationships among the variables. Consequently, the study found that in both runs, government capital expenditure, economic growth and fiscal freedom significantly propelled industrialization in Nigeria. However, as bank domestic credit to the private sector had positive significant impact in the short-run, foreign direct investment could not drive industrialization in both runs in the country. Thus, it was concluded that fiscal options, in the form of government capital expenditure and fiscal freedom, were important for industrialization in Nigeria. It was, therefore, recommended that government should increase the capital aspect of its budgetary allocations and direct same to industry-driving projects and facilities. Also, government should intensify efforts at growth-enhancing industrial policies and strategies in the country.

Keywords: ARDL, Co-integration, Economic growth, Fiscal options, Industrialization, Government and Capital Expenditure.




International Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries (Nigeria)


Asore E. Patricia (Mrs)

Department of Marketing Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.



The main objective of the paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities faced by export marketers in Nigeria. The supporting Objectives are as follows: to outline the major challenges faced by export marketers in Nigeria ,to proffer solutions to the challenges faced by export marketers in Nigeria, to outline  the products exported from Nigeria, to do a summary of Nigeria’s export markets, to highlight the opportunities available for those involved in International Marketing. Method wise, the paper is written from a descriptive perspective. The major objectives of international marketing are outlined. The issue of Comparative advantage which  describes the economic reality of the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations, which arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress was addressed. Some key differences between domestic trade and international trade   were addressed and quite interesting too. A summary of Nigeria’s Export and import trade with her trading partners comprising the various values of goods/services traded with over the years was undertaken. From this it was discovered that for about five years Nigeria has had a continuous trade deficit of about minus 10billion dollars (-$10billion).The top ten agricultural produce exports from Nigeria were highlighted. .Ten major challenges  faced by  export marketers in Nigeria were highlighted, and they are  as follows: Getting reliable buyers for international deals, product sourcing and quality, source financing for the export contracts, payment challenges with the international buyers, issues with trade terms, local transportation system problems in Nigeria, Documentation and licenses, Export process with freight forwarding companies, Standardization and  Packaging. These are really quite enormous and shocking. Probable solutions were provided for the challenges faced by the export marketers. Opportunities for Export Marketers  in Nigeria were heighted. . The conclusion reached is that, since it is international trade that builds the world’s economy; by allowing the flow of goods and services between countries which  remains one of the most important drivers of job creation and prosperity, Nigeria either exports or she perishes. Amongst the various recommendations made include: To address  the challenge of getting buyers for Nigeria’s products abroad, exhibitions and trade fairs/ trade shows can be organized by some Nigerian exporters in big cities abroad that our products are exported to – like India, the U.S., china, France, Nether lands   and others where at least about a 100 or more Nigerian business persons will attend and exhibit their products . This will enable the importing companies abroad to attend and take a look at what Nigerian companies have to offer. This way the problem of not having buyers for Nigerian products will be solved; herby enabling the Nigerian companies/exporters to have buyers and trading partners. To take care of the multiplicity of agencies exporters have to deal with, government is the only one that can simplify it. It needs to bring all the agencies together in one centralized place, preferably near the ports and have a coordinating body to handle the whole export processes so that when exporters take their goods there, whatever clearance is needed  is done in one place and by one body; from documentation to inspection including the presence The NEPC,  the Customs , NAFDAC, and   the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON).

Keywords: International Marketing, Sesame seed, Open account, CBN, Freight forwarders, Packaging, Transportation




Consumers’ Perception of Product Packages and Sales Volume of Consumer Products


Ogundeji, Sunday Tolulope; Abdulsalam, Abdulmutalib Adinoyi & Salihu, Shehu

Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida



This work is on consumers’ perception of product packages and sales volume of consumer products. The writers intend to focus on the sales of cosmetic products as a yardstick to establish whether there is relationship between sales volume and consumer perception of product value, know the impact that such perception has on the sales volume of goods and draw conclusion on the study. This study adopts survey design, the population of the study is made up of customers that use Rexona Deodorant, a cosmetic product of Unilever Nigeria Limited, who are estimated to be nine hundred and seventy-seven 977. The sample size of the study is 284, which was determined by Taro Yamane’s formula. In a major finding, majority of the respondents strongly agreed that product packaging significantly changes the perception of consumers and sales volume of cosmetic products. In conclusion, evidences show that printed information on product packages and colour are significant influencers of consumers’ purchase decisions. It was therefore recommended that marketers and producers should also ensure that their product packages are not deceptive and also ensure that printed information on products are correct and real.

Keywords: Consumers; Perception; Product; Packages; Sales Volume; Consumer Products




Achieving Customer Drive Objective through Effective Public Relations in Banking Operations in Nigeria


Kehinde, Samson Oladejo1; Abdullahi, Ndagi Yakub2 & Bello, Babatunde Sikiru3

Department of Banking & Finance, Federal Polytechnic, Bida Niger State1. Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida Niger State2&3



This study is predicated on the achievement customer drive objective by banking operations by means of effective Public Relations (PR) in Nigeria with focus on Guarantee Trust Bank (GTB), Minna Niger State Operation Office. The population of the study comprises of the staff and customers of GTB Minna which stood at 230. The study adopts non-probability sampling technique to study a sample size of 230 (30 staff and 200 customers) which were randomly selected using. A major finding shows that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that PR in Deposit Money Banks is an active and effective strategy that guarantees competitiveness and customer satisfaction, also that customers are sensitive to workers’ attitude when they visit the Bank. In conclusion, evidence shows that public relations play vital role in promoting and improving the quality of services rendered by Deposit Money Banks. It is therefore recommended among others that organization should understand the best target audience for their public relations activities and they need to understand more about their customers. Also, Banks should increase their budget to the public relations department so as to be more effective in carrying their responsibilities effectively.

Keywords: Achieving; Customer; Drive; Objective; Effective; Public Relations; Banking; Operations.




An Appraisal of Workers’ Motivation on Organizational Productivity (A Study of National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria)


Ayodele, Oloruntoba Churchill; & Mohammed Baba Umar

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State



The issue of motivation has continually posed a big challenge to business organizations around the globe especially in the manufacturing industries where high levels of productivity affect or play a major role in determining the profitability, growth, development, stability and future success of an organization. Therefore an organization in a bid to achieve success in maintaining a competitive edge over its rival as well as avoid a steady decline in the productivity levels of its employees must ensure members of the workforce are adequately motivated. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the effect of employee motivation on organizational productivity. This study adopted a descriptive and causal research design as well as the survey method in investigating the effects of motivation on organizational productivity levels. The entire population of the study was 475 as a result the sample size determined is 217. A well- structured self-administered questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection and was administered to 217 respondents out of which 185 were retrieved and appropriately filled. Reliability of the research instrument was calculated and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.868. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis. From the hypotheses tested, the result indicated that there is a significant relationship between employee motivation and organizational productivity. Findings also revealed that 35.8% of the variations in productivity can be explained by employee motivation in the organization used as a study in this research. The results also revealed that extrinsic factors were considered to have more significant effects on organizational productivity than intrinsic factors. The study concluded that although both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are significant predictors of productivity, extrinsic factors appear to be more significant or valued by respondents in the organization used as a study. Furthermore this study also recommended that management of organizations should take appropriate measures in figuring out those factors that motivate their employees and seek ways of ensuring that they are adequately motivated in order to improve their performance and productivity levels. Finally the study also suggested that future studies should focus on other industries apart from the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector.

Keywords: Motivation, Productivity, Organization, Employees, Efficiency, Effectiveness.




Effects of Exchange Rates on External Reserve in Nigeria from 2008 to March, 2022


Oyesiji, Yinusa Kolawole; Sikiru, Isiaka Olawale; & Oladeji Emmanuel Olayinka

Banking and Finance Department. The Oke- Ogun polytechnic, Saki. (TOPS)



Excess relied on importation of goods and services lead to deficit in balance of payment which reduces external reserve. As a result, it impacts on exchange rate in Nigeria. This study examined the effects of exchange rate on external reserves in Nigeria. Monthly time series data were sourced for from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), from Jan, 2008 to March, 2022 for this study. The following tests were conducted: descriptive statistic, unit root and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) used in estimating the parameters of the model. The results revealed that REXR in a month lag and three months’ lag and BDC effectively influence the exchange rates from Jan, 2008 to March, 2022 in Nigeria. They have positive significant influence on exchange rate. This is an indication that the increases the exchange rate in local market increase the rate in official market. On the other hand, REXR in two months’ lag and export also have negative significant influence on exchange rate in Nigeria during this period. This is an indication that increase in export reduces exchange rate. The study recommends that Government should encourage local production and create incentive for exportation of goods and services.

Keywords: Exchange rate, external reserve, bureau de change, export, import.




The Effects of Organisational Factors on Turnover Intention among Bauchi State Mass Transit Corporation, Nigeria


Ahmad Muhammad Jarmajoa, Mukhtar Shehu Aliyub, Ahmad. A. Maiyakic, Dahiru Mohammed Yoled

aDepartment of Business Education, School of Undergraduate Studies, Aminu Sale College of Education, Azare, Bauchi, Nigeria. b&cDepartment of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. dDepartment of Banking and Finance, ModibboAdama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.



Turnover issue is a general or global phenomenon to all organizations, as it has become common in many organizations This research was aimed at exploring the effects of organisational factors on turnover intention. Based on a population of 270, the study arrived at sample size of 160. Also, the study adopts simple random  sampling technique in selecting the samples and data was collected from the respondents (Bauchi State Mass Transit Corporation Workers) using self administered questionnaire.  The study was analysed by the used of Smart PLS    in testing the proposed relationships. The result revealed that a positive and significant relationship exist between Perceived Politics Organisation and Turnover Intention. Also a strongest significant relationship exists between Training and Development and Turnover Intention. Finally, Compensation Practices exposed a significant influence on Turnover Intention. Therefore, it was established that fair organizational politics, greater Training and Development and presence of Compensation Practices initiatives within an organization both contribute to the reduction of turnover intention of mass transit workers. Several implications of the research were provided.

Keywords: Perceived Organisational Politics, Perceived Training and Development, Perceived Compensation Practices, and Turnover Intention, Mass Transit Corporation, Bauchi State Nigeria




Human Resource Accounting Disclosure and Artificial Intelligence in the Future of Public Service of Developing World


*Obiah Mmadubuike Emmanuel; & **Onwumere Chinasa

*Department of Accountancy, Imo state Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus), Imo State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma (Mbano Campus), Imo State, Nigeria



The paper examined artificial intelligence in human resources accounting disclosure and the need to present this important asset in the financial statement which can be reflected as part of government financial performance. The study employed descriptive design. Thus, it is exploratory in nature based on extensive review of relevant literature on artificial intelligence, and human resources accounting. The findings revealed that artificial intelligence is gradually taking over certain areas of public service and most ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) have failed to recognize them in the financial statement as required. The paper therefore, recommended among others that human resource available in the public service should be rightly assessed and should be further developed through motivational training and development, and perception to the needs of the MDA concerned. This will help to determine the financial performance of the government as it will reflect in the financial statement. Again, artificial intelligence is redirecting human capital in the public service, so the cost of acquiring artificial intelligence and human capital in the public service should be reflected in the financial statement of the government. Further studies can be empirically done on this topic to establish the relationship between the variables.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Human Resource Accounting, Public Service




Effect of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria (2015 – 2020)


1Akamiokhor, Clifford Aliu; & 2Okologume, Henry Chukwudi

1Department of Accountancy, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria



The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate the Effect of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria (2015 – 2020). The study covered a period of six (6) years. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between board independence, board size, board meeting and board gender diversity and financial performance of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Ten (10) quoted manufacturing companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange constituted the sample size of this study. The study comprise of a single regression model with a panel of 60 observations in a six-year period, 2015 to 2020. The model has Financial Performance proxied for Return on Asset as the dependent variable and board independence, board size, board meeting and board gender diversity as the independent variables. Panel Least Square (PLS) regression technique was employed in estimating the data and testing the formulated hypotheses. Based on the analysis, the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between board meeting and financial performance of manufacturing companies in Nigeria (proxied for Return on Asset) and that there is no significant relationship between board independence, board size, board gender diversity and financial performance of manufacturing companies in Nigeria (proxied for Return on Asset). In line with the findings, the study recommended that quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria should consider the increase of the proportion of woman board member (i.e. female representation) in order to improve board behaviour and effectiveness simply because the women on corporate boards tend to be better prepared for the board meetings than men.

Keywords: Board size, return on asset, financial performance, board independence.




Relationship between Cash Management and Financial Performance of Accredited National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria


Farayola, Ayo Ade; Yusuf Ova Mutalib; and Ayanwuyi Johnson

Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



The main purpose of this study was to examine cash management relationship with financial performance of Accredited National Health Insurance scheme (NHIS) hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria. Descriptive research design was adopt for this study. The target population for this study was 25 NHIS hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria. The researchers collected primary data from the respondents. The data collected was quantitative and was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSSV20). The Study analyzed for inferential and non inferential statistics. The findings revealed that cash conversion cycle (CCC) as well as cash budgeting had a positive and significant effect on financial performance of NHIS Accredited hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria. On the other hand, cash banking and cash flow forecasting did not have significant change on financial performance. From the results and findings cash management practices were found to have impact on the financial performance of private hospitals. This study therefore recommends the use of cash budgeting, cash banking, cash conversion cycle and cash flow forecasting to NHIS Accredited hospitals. For NHIS Accredited hospitals to be efficient and effective in their cash management; clear rules, financial guidelines and prudence practices should be developed based on the hospitals needs to guide the employees in doing the same. Equally, for NHIS Accredited hospitals to monitor cash flows, they should adopt automated cash management technology to aid in maintaining healthy cash flow position. Investment in cash management technology by NHIS Accredited hospitals will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of cash management and allows the staff to focus on development and innovation.

Keywords: Cash Budgeting, Cash Banking, Cash Conversion Cycle, Cash Flow Forecasting, Financial Performance, NHIS Accredited Hospitals




Influence of Entrepreneurship Education on Job Creation among Youths in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria


Maimuna Ibrahim; & Dr. Mrs. Abigail Joke Ojetola

Home Economics Department, Federal College Of Education, Katsina State



This paper assessed the influence of entrepreneurship education on job creation among youths in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria. This study employed descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised of 76,491 youths in Funtua Local Government area of Katsina State, Nigeria. A sample of three hundred and sixty five (365) was used. The instrument used for data collection for the conduct of this research was questionnaire. The questionnaire had sections ‘A’ which dealt with the instruction for respondents. Section ‘B’ contained questionnaire items of the influence of entrepreneurship education on job creation. based on four Likert type scale of Strongly Agree (SA)=4, Agree (A)=3 Disagree (D)=2 and Strongly Disagree (SD)=1 with reliability of 0.86. The data generated were analyzed using mean score and standard deviation to answer the research questions while chi-square was used to test the null hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. It was concluded that there is influence of entrepreneurship education on job creation among youths in Funtua local government area. Among others It was recommended that government should provide streamlines entrepreneurship education along the lines of practical skills acquisition in tandem with up to date technological innovation in the world of business and all institutions of higher learning offering entrepreneurship education should be mandated to establish Entrepreneurship Education Centre. This Centre should be equipped with all the modern facilities which could enrich the students with both theoretical and practical skills acquisition.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, job creation, education, Youths.




Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in First Bank Plc Owerri, Imo State


Chidi M. Ayozie

Department of Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State



This study examined the service quality and customer satisfaction in First Bank Plc Owerri, Imo State. Three research objectives, three research questions and three research hypotheses guided the study. Survey research design was employed and questionnaire served as the instrument of data collection.  The data was collected through questionnaire and analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square. It was discovered that reliability affects customer satisfaction in the Nigeria banking industry, responsiveness affects customer satisfaction in the Nigeria banking industry and empathy affects customer satisfaction in the Nigeria banking industry. Based on the result, it was recommended that the banking industry should continue to show high level of reliability to their customers. Also, there is need for high level of responsiveness of Nigerian commercial bank to their customers to enhance satisfaction. The bank should do this by keeping customers informed on when service should be done, giving prompt service to customers and show high level of willingness to help customers.

Keywords: service quality, customer satisfaction, reliability, responsiveness, and empathy.



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