African Scholar Journal of Management Science and Entrepreneurship Vol. 22 No. 7


VOL. 22 NO. 7 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2276 – 0732



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Assessing the Bane of Rural Development Financing in FCT Area Councils, Abuja, Nigeria


Sarka S.W., 1 Magaji J. Y., 2 & Nden N. N.3

1Department of Public Administration, National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja. 2Department of Geography and environmental Management, University of Abuja. 3Department of Finance and Accounts, FCT Area Councils Staff Pension Board, Abuja.



One significant index of Nations’ development globally, is the extent of their development at the rural areas. To this end, this paper assesses the challenges inherent in rural development financing in three Area Councils (ACs) (Abaji, Bwari, and Gwagwalada) of the FCT, Abuja in relation to their developmental state. The bane of rural development financing in the Area Councils was particularly examined based on the perception of the respondents on some factors believed to be militating against rural development. The study is anchored on integrated rural development theory. It adopted a survey research design and employed both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources include the administration of questionnaires to 274 respondents and field observation, while, the secondary data was gleaned from the records of the selected Area councils, books, and periodicals, among others. The primary data was analyzed with the help of SPSS software; Kruskal-Wallis H-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis. Findings of the study reveals, high interference on the affairs of the area councils by higher tiers of government, political and traditional elites; non-viability and ignorance of some potentials revenue sources; undue reliant on statutory allocations which impact negatively on their internal revenue derives; corruption, tax evasion and conflicts over control of some viable revenue sources between the state (FCTA) and the area councils limit the finances available for rural development. Finally, the area councils lack adequate knowledge of investments that could enlarge their coffers. The study therefore, recommends election of visionary and discipline leaders to attract the deserved political support for efficiency, timely revision of revenue tariff to reflect current economic realities, specialized revenue court for proper disciplinary and legal measures in mitigating the problem of tax evasion habits, misconduct and corruption among the revenue officials/consultants.

Keywords: Local Government, Financing, Financing Sources, Development, Rural Development.




Electronic Banking and Monetary Policy in Nigeria: Instruments and Efficency.


Odumu Ato Victor, PhD; & Orabueze, Uchechukwu Ebuka

Department of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Jos- Nigeria.



This study examined the impact of electronic banking instruments on monetary policy efficiency in Nigeria. The study utilized a panel cross sectional data covering the period 2016 to 2020. The study employed multiple regression analysis with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 25. The results showed that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between Point of sales service (POS), the Mobile service (MOB), Internet service (INTS) and monetary policy efficiency (MPE) in Nigeria. The study recommended that Monetary authorities should continue to strengthen e-banking instruments by creating the enabling environment for it to function optimally; Regulatory authorities should intensify the current security apparatus through electronic experiences and expertise so as to give a more secure feeling to electronic banking system.

Keywords: Monetary Policy Efficiency, E-banking, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking, POS




On and Off -Job Training and Development on Performance of Manufacturing Firms


*Jacob Olubukola Oladipo; & **Moses Adebayo

*Department of Business Management Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. **Department of Management and Accounting, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.



The study evaluated the impact of on and Off-Job training and Development on the performance of Manufacturing Firms. Data were collected through questionnaires, descriptive analysis, percentages and regression analysis was used to establish relevance and association between the variables and manufacturing firms’ performance. The results revealed through Liker- Scale format of questionnaires showed that the standard deviation across all the questions used was far away from the mean depicting, there was minimal error around the mean. Over 70% of the responses adjudged that on and off-job training and development increase performance level of manufacturing firms under consideration. Finally, the regression results arrived at is significant at 0.000. R-Square stating that 78% of the dependent variables could explain the dependent variable. It is  recommended that manufacturing industries should make it a matter of deliberate necessity and managerial attempts to be enrolling their employees for both on and off-job training.

Keywords: On and off-Job training, Development, Performance, Employees




Microinsurance and Microinsurance Risk Control Impact on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) Performance in Nigeria


*Omoniyi Oladipupo Agboola; & **Prof. Festus M  Epetimehin   

*Entreprenuership Department, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, (JABU) **Dept. of Actuarial Sc. And In, JABU, Ikeji-Arakeji Osun State



This study examined the effect of microinsurance and microinsurance risk control on Small and Medium Enterprises(SMEs)performance.Nigeria’s economy is dominated by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Agriculture, Manufacturing, Commerce, Industry and Services.Their poor performance has however been a matter of great concern because they experience major challenges as regard their performance over the years. The study used questionnaire in collection of data and adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was8,395 registered SMEs in Lagos State. The study used simple random sampling technique. G-power software was used to determine sample size for the study with 0.15 effect size and 2 predictors. Sample size was three hundred and thirty-one (331).For data analysis and testing of hypotheses, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) softwareand Structural Equation ModelPartial Least Square (SEM-PLS) SmartPLS 3.3.3.was used to analyze the collected data. Finding revealed that microinsurancehave a positive and significant effect on SMEs performance whereas Microinsurance Risk Control have a negative effect on SMEs performance. The study recommends that Small and Medium Enterprises should hold microinsurance policies for business sustainability and continuity.

Keywords:   Microinsurance, Microinsurance Risk Control, SMEs, Performance, and Microfinance




Impact of Packaging Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) on Consumer Buying Behaviour- A Review of Literature


*Maimuna Bulama; **Mukhtar Halliru; & **Ahmad Audu Maiyaki

*Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu- Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship, Bayero University Kano- Nigeria



The stiff competition in business environment today requires marketers to fully understand the factors that influence consumer behaviour. Packaging is one of the important factors influencing consumer buying decisions and encompasses almost every product category- from FMCG, food and beverages to pharmaceuticals and personal care. It is now crucial to understand more about the packaging attributes that best influences the consumer and to also understand more about how consumers perceive and respond to changes in product packaging. This paper is aimed at examining the impact of packaging on consumer buying behaviour while purchasing FMCG products. The paper relies heavily on textbooks, magazines, newspapers, journals, internet and other relevant materials as sources of data. Based on the extant literature it was found that packaging elements represent a good means of marketing communications and helps to attract the consumers’ attention. The paper also recommends that retailers and marketers should invest on research to understand the packaging attributes that their consumers would be more interested in so as to meet their preference.

Keywords: Packaging, FMCG, Consumer Buying Behaviour




Assessment of the Delight Factors that Determine Customers’banking Habit: A Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc, Bida Branch, Niger State


Kehinde, Samson Oladejo1; & Bello, Babatunde Sikiru2

1Department of Banking & Finance, Federal Polytechnic, Bida 2Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida



This work assesses the delight factors that determine customers’ banking habits using First Bank Nigeria Plc, Bida as a study. The study is predicated on an assessment of the literature presented in different studies which revealed that studies conducted on delight factors determining customer’s banking habit examined a variety of attributes as determinants of the banking habit process and discovered a variance in the nature and importance of these attributes. The work aims to identify the major delight factor(s) that determine customers’ banking habit as well determine the criteria that customers consider as important when selecting a bank and how those criteria are prioritized according to their importance. The study, which adopts descriptive research design, employed both primary and secondary data. Primary data were sourced with structured questionnaires administered to the sampled population of both the staff of First Bank, Bida and their customers using random sampling technique. The secondary data used emanated from journals, textbooks and other relevant publications, the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in a simple pie chart. Related literatures were reviewed and authors were duly cited. From the findings, it was discovered that there is significant relationship between delight factors and customers’ banking habit. The study concludes that one of the basic factors that influence customers’ favourable banking habit lies in banks having good and attractive products and services that can appeal to customers’ attention and meet their financial requirements. It was also concluded that in forming a banking habit, customers consider the proximity of bank to their homes and/or workplaces. Thus, the study recommends among others that Banks should develop robust and customer-friendly products and services such as low interest rate on loan, reasonable payback period, attractive interest for savings account and others that can attract customers to patronize them. Banks should also concentrate more on increasing the efficiency of completing banking transactions.

Keywords: Assessment; Delight Factors; Determine; Customers; Banking Habit




Issues and Realities in Employee Job Placement: A Second Look


1Okeke Raymond Njelita; 1Chukwuezi Franklin Nzubechukwu; & 1Uzoma Felicia Ifeyinwa

Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo



Institutions become organizations as work is shared and people who have requisite skills are placed on the job. This marks the emergence of management as an organizational activity. Employee job placement ensures success or otherwise of an organization. The finding of this research is that there are criteria for assessing appropriateness of employee job placement, which include passion for service delivery, interpersonal relationship, employee appraisal, meeting targets and objectives, and level of accidents and wastages incurred on the job. It was also discovered that poor orientation, poor working condition, technological changes, attitude of employee, managers style of leadership, and poor selection process are the factors that hinder employee job placement. Findings also indicate employees suffer frustration, loss of confidence, turnover and not meeting objectives due to inappropriate job placement. 

Keywords: Employee, job placement, organization, management, structure 




Effect of Organizational Conflict on Employees Job Satisfaction in Federal Medical Center Yola, Adamawa State


Adamu Ahmed Girei 

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria



This study examined the effect of organizational conflict on employee job satisfaction in federal medical center Yola, Adamawa State. A survey research design was employed for this study in which questionnaire was used to generate responses. The population of the study is 1832 staff of Federal Medical Center Yola drawn from various departments out of which 328 respondents were drawn using Yamani’s (1967) formula. Correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS Version 24. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between interpersonal conflict, intragroup conflict and employee job satisfaction in Federal Medical Center, Yola but intergroup conflict failed to show significant relationship with employee job satisfaction. It is recommended that to enhance job satisfaction among staff of Federal Medical Center, it is imperative to improve harmony and ensure good match between the employees needs and the needs of the organization. The management of federal medical center, Yola should place less emphasis on intergroup organizational conflict among the employees as it does not affect job satisfaction. It was concluded that organizational conflict played a significant role on employees’ job satisfaction.

Keywords: Organizational conflict, Interpersonal, Intergroup, Intragroup, job satisfaction




Interest Rate as a Key Monetary Instrument for Economic Growth: The Nigeria’s Experience


Dr. Mohammed Yusuf Gana

Department of Banking and Finance, College of Administrative and Business Studies, Bida Campus, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru.



The macroeconomic environment of Nigerian economy is characterized by instability which causes a major challenge to the economic growth of the country. The situation requires faithful application of the major monetary instruments in the implementation of the macroeconomic policies (monetary and fiscal). It is against this background that, this study sought to examine the effect of interest rate on the economic growth of Nigeria, 1999 – 2016. The study adopted ex – post facto research design, as data used were secondary data drawn from the publications of CBN and NBS. The Hypothesis which states that, Interest rate does not have a positive and significant effect on Economic growth (GDP) was formulated and tested, using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regression technique. The result emanating from this study indicates that, the null hypothesis is upheld. The conclusion of the study therefore, was that, Interest rate as a key monetary instrument, if properly applied, can be effective in achieving the desired macroeconomic targets, particularly, rapid economic growth. It is then recommended that, the monetary authorities should endeavour to keep, the interest rate, as low as possible, in order to achieve stable macroeconomic environment, for enhanced economic growth and development.

Keywords: Interest Rate, Economic Growth, Macroeconomic Policies, Monetary authorities, Instability.




The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Workers Performance in Organisazation


Dr Anthony Emhenya Iyoha

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo State University, Uzairue.



This researcher discusses the effect of Job Satisfaction on workers performance in an organization using Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi as a case study. The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of Job Satisfaction on workers performance. Primary and secondary sources was used for the gathering of data. The primary source focused on the questionnaire and personal interview while the secondary source involved the consultation of relevant magazines and Journals. Based on analyzed data, it was discovered that there is a relationship between workers and management. The researcher therefore recommends among others, that adequate incentives should be given to workers to motivate them to higher performance and productivity in the organization.

Keywords: Organization, Attitude, Management. Reward, Job, Salary.




Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainability of Business Growth: Empirical Evidence of Smes in Odeda, Nigeria


*Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo; **Akinyele, Feyisayo Esther; & *Kamarakolleh, Kindness Foday

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria



Intellectual property right is key in the quest for sustainability of business growth. Protecting an invention/innovation is one of the key roles that intellectual property rights plays in any business enterprise. This study investigated the influence of intellectual property right and sustainability of business growth in Odeda, Nigeria. The specific objective of the study to investigate the effect of patents and trademarks on profitability; determine the effect of industrial designs on return on assets and examine  the relationship between trade secrets and competitive edge. In attaining the highlighted objectives, a well-structured questionnaire was administered for information and data collection. A stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents from the study areas. A  total number of 133 respondents was distributed across the study area. The analysis of data was done using descriptive tools basically to show the distribution of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, and inferential to estimate influence of intellectual property right and sustainability of business growth. Regression and Correlation Models and Chi Square Test were employed. This study findings based on test of the three (3) hypotheses in the study, show that there is no significant effect of patents and trademarks on profitability (R2=0.072, F cal.= 9.653, P<0.05 at 0.002 significant level); there is no significant effect of industrial designs on return on assets (R2=0.151, F cal.= 22.206, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level); Trade secret has no significant effect on competitive edge (R2=0.230, F cal.= 37.346, P<0.05 at 0.000 significant level). In conclusion, the study reflected that each of these independent variables play a significant role on sustainability of business growth in a positive way. Based on these findings, the study recommends that following recommendations: the policy of development of science and technologies should be further improved so that the process of catching up with the technological progress would accelerate, and our economy transfer from the stage of users to the stage of producers of technologies; It is necessary to ensure well-established mechanism of permanent harmonization of domestic legal acts with new Nigeria regulation in the area of intellectual property, as well as their effective enforcement;  Introduction of intellectual property in curricula at all faculties teaching the law, engineering, economy, agriculture, art or management Finally, It is necessary to improve assessment methods of economic value of economic operators and affirm business transactions with intellectual property.

Keywords: Business, Enterprises, Growth,  Intellectual, Property Rights,  and Sustainability.




Challenges of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria. Evidence from Selected SME in Kwara State


*Akanni, Lanre Fatai; **Oba Rasak Bolanta; ***Wahab, Babatunde Habeeb; ***Aluko Muhammed Amin; & *Kamaluddeen, Salamat Ayo

*Business Education Departmet, kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. **Business Education Departmet, kwara State College of Education, Oro. ***Department of Technical Education, kwara State College of Education, Ilorin.



Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) are largely viewed as the engine wire of any nation’s economic growth and they are regarded as justifiable means that propel development globally. SMEs play significant parts in linking, strengthen and enhance the development of the countries. There performance and growth in manufacturing, agriculture, services, etc., has been considered as the drivers and has contributed to the Nigeria economy. Sustainable growth and the increase in SMEs performance create competitiveness that opens numerous doors for employment opportunities, contribution to the national GDP, increasing the standard of living of the citizens of the nation and above all sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of effective operation of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. All small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria are the population of the study while the target population is the SMEs in Kwara state. Purposive sampling techniques was used to select 50 sampled SME in the three senatorial district of  Kwara State. Questionnaire was the instrument used in collecting data from the sampled respondent. The three hypotheses stated were tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression technique to ascertain the relationship between challenges of SME and growth of SMEs in Nigeria by the use of STATA 11 software application. The result reveal that there is  relationship between funds and growth of SME in Nigeria , the second objective revel that there is relationship between infrastructure and growth of SME in Nigeria, while the result of the objective three tested shows that there is relationship between  entrepreneur factors and growth SME in Nigeria. Based on the result it was recommended that government should provide enable environment for the Nigeria SME in term of infrastructure facility, young and infant industry be protected, there should be tax relief on SMEs and provision of fund through special  loan at a reduce or no interest rate.

Keyword: Enterprises, Challenges, funds, infrastructure, organization, SME.




The effect of Corporate Governance in Fraud Prevention and Detection in Public Sector: Evidence of Nigerian Context


*Shehu Umar Sa’id; **Abdullahi Bala Alhaji; ***Kateri Zahraddeen Ahmadu; & *Abdullahi Mu’azu

*Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. **Department of Accounting, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto State, Nigeria. ***Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education Yola



The purpose of this paper is to assess the level to which corporate governance contribute to the improvements in the adequacy and effectiveness controls over public financial management in Nigeria. And also to determine the influence of effective corporate governance towards reducing fraudulent activities in Nigerian public sector. This study is a review paper. It concentrates on finding the outcome from the secondary sources of data that consist of government reports, EFCC cases, and newspaper clippings. The found that audit committee effectiveness, internal audit effectiveness, external audit effectiveness, employees training and culture of honesty as they key element for successful implementation of corporate governance that reduce poverty rate. The study will give an intuition to academician and consultants in both public and private sector in Nigeria and their international counterparts to develop systematic approaches of tackling fraud using logical innovations. The study also has a scholarly contribution to the body of knowledge and existing literature. This paper is original and unique in its form and has value in the prevention of modern-day fraud cases in the Nigerian public sector. The article is also useful to all those who might cherish to admire its standing.

Keywords – Corporate governance, Fraud, Prevention, Detection, public sector, Nigeria




Impact of Agricultural Credit and Interventions on Output and Profit of Farmers in Bauchi Local Government Area (Field Of Study Bayara)


1Olalekan Olukemi Oluyemisi; & 2Hamza Salihu

Department of Banking and Finance, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.



In most agrarian economies like the type that exists in Nigeria, agricultural production provides the needed support upon which a sustainable development would blossom. Being the main source of food for most of the population, till date, agricultural production remains the mainstay of the Nigerian populace. The purpose of the research is to investigate the impact of agricultural credit and intervention on output and profit of farmers using a quantitative method which  was employed through structured questionnaire administered to 120 farmers in Bayara area of Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State. The result of the research revealed that though majority of farming activities are subsistence in nature, however from the analysis it showed that there is a strong relationship between increase in yield and output amongst those that accessed the credit scheme in 2016 than those that access the agricultural credit scheme in 2017 while statistics also indicated  the number of  farmers without access to credit/ interventions.

Keywords: Agriculture, credit scheme, farmers output




Waste to Resource: A New Perspective for Economic and Environmental Sustainabilty in Jimeta, Adamawa State


Bello Hayatu; & Ishaku Hassan (Ph.D)



Millions of people worldwide make a living collecting, sorting, recycling and selling materials that someone else has thrown away, there is a growing recognition that waste collection has contributed to the local economy and to environmental sustainability. There is evidence in the literature that suggests these activities have both economic and environmental benefits thereby contributing towards job creation and environmental sustainability. This research aimed to access the contributions of waste scavenging activities to economic development and to the environment in jimeta, which was achieved from analysis of the data collected on the field and from existing reports. Both primary and secondary data required in this research were collected through administration of questionnaire. The result revealed that waste pickers with their activities contribute greatly to environmental sustainability, minimize and divert waste that might end up in the bin. Despite their contributions, they are however affected by transportation problems, harassment and theft, general lack of physical infrastructure, injuries and exploitation by some middle men. To achieve the sustainable environment and economy where many unemployed will have something doing and be integrated into the economic system, this study identifies barriers that hinder the integration of the informal sector into an inclusive waste management system, as lack of supportive evidence, lack of cooperation between waste pickers and waste buyers and lots of middle men. The study therefore proposed the adoption of  formal integration approach after evaluating the three integration approaches (case studies) through identifying and registration of waste pickers, conduct a need analysis workshop, procurement of proper protective clothing, identification of training need etc and recommended that There should be a shift toward recycling of recoverable materials to empower individuals economically, waste pickers and green entrepreneurial initiatives, Government needs to acknowledge and integrate the informal sector in its current format, rather than replacing them.




Integrated Payroll and Personnel Information System (Ippis) Panacea for Ghost Workers Problem in Nigeria


1 Samuel Abraham Adegbile   2 Zahraddeen Abbas Bello    3 Mariamu Amos Kwaji

1 & 2 Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, 3 Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P. M. B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State.



This paper assesses the role of IPPIS panacea for ghost workers problem in Nigeria. The issue of ghost worker has been one of major problems across all tiers of government and has led government in spending a lot of huge amount of naira to non-existing employees in government payroll. Although the research work is a non-survey. The researchers conclude that introduction of IPPIS in Nigeria has helped to check abnormality and regularized the payment of employees’ entitlement and it has helped to reduce the number of ghost workers level in the government payroll. Also, IPPIS has led to improvement in reporting of ghost workers in public service which led to reduction in personnel costs of government.  Similarly, the researchers recommend that government should ensure all the employees who are not captured under IPPIS platform are captured in order to wipe away ghost workers in Nigeria system. Also, any corrupt officer found guilty of any criminal offences relating to ghost workers should be sanctioned appropriately in order to serve as deterrent to others who may likely nursing such idea in mind.

Keywords: Ghost workers, Integrated, Personnel, Payroll and Information System




Globalization and the Nigerian Business Environment: The Difference and the Underlying Assumptions


Obimma Juliet Adanma

Department of Business Administration and Management,, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State.



The phenomenon of globalization is one of the major trends that have become dominant in contemporary world system. Given the new wave of information technology, it is not only irreversible but capable of defining the policy of development in the 21st century. This paper through historical antecedents uses colonial and post colonial theories located in contextual political, economic, geographical and cultural equations dating back to 1900 to plot the involvement of both Western countries as well as their multinational corporations’ complicity in creating the current restrictive nature of globalization in Nigeria. We took a holistic view of the problematique of our study in subsections. Historical antecedents reveal shenanigans that caused Nigeria designers’ observation of the unfolding events with mixed feeling despondence and awareness but hopelessly inactive at plotting creative equation with their western counterparts within supposed blurred cultural boundaries. We equally traced the history of international advertising. It situates the effects of educational void created by colonialism, postcolonial politics and economic logjams. Finally, we substantiated the position taken on identity issues, canons, and paradigm shift, which rest on Difference. It also includes the concluding remarks.




An Examination of Investors’ Protection Under Nigerian Law


Anyaehie Juliet Chizoba

Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic Oko



A company has over time proven to be a very viable form of business, the company has grown tremendously in size and number of shareholders base making it necessary that a few people be selected to manage the company on behalf of the investors since all of them Laws are put in place to put a check on these managers to prevent corporate abuse and ensure that the company is managed with due care and skill to the benefit of the investors. This research has shown that the government lacks the will and determination for the prompt implementation of its laws despite all the efforts made in providing the law, there are also some loopholes can through which fraudulent and dishonest persons can take advantage of for their own personal gains thereby defeating the very essence of the laws which are investors protection. An examination of some of the laws provided to protect investors in Nigeria shows their inadequacies and the fact that it has become a mere academic exercise, ink on paper and is quite different from what is obtainable in practice. Doctrinal method of research was used in this research referring to statutory laws, textbooks, journals, newspapers and internet materials. The findings were that; there is the lack of will by the regulatory bodies to implement the law, company meetings have been provided as an important tool for investors’ protection in Nigeria but that has been circumvented through late delivery of the notice of meetings or inefficiency of the postal system, the Companies and Allied Matters Act did not provide for qualifications for people to be appointed as members of the audit committee and the inspectors to investigate the affairs of a company and also in a bid for the provision of Section 63 of the Companies and Allied Matters Act to provide for division of powers among the board of directors and the shareholders it ended up bringing in terms as’ good faith’ and ‘due diligence’ which are subjective terms. It is therefore recommended that; The regulatory bodies should ensure prompt implementation of its laws and policies; it should be mandatory that companies should use the message alerts and emails in addition to the traditional form of notice to inform share holders of any company meeting; The Companies and Allied Matters Act should provide for people to be appointed as members of the audit committee should be people with knowledge in accounting, company law and vast experience and section 63(4)of the Companies and Allied Matters Act should be Expunged. In conclusion it can be said that investors’ protection does not lie on the Government alone but on all stakeholders, it lies on the investors sought to be protected to be vigilant, exercise all their rights provided by law and for the regulatory bodies to live up to their role and enforce the provisions of the law when there is any violat




Mediating Effects of Financial Aid on the Relationship between Poverty and Students Academic Performance for Sustainable Development in North Eastern Nigeria


*Yusuf Ova Mutalib; & **Sadeeq Garba Abubakar

*Department of Accountancy, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Business Administration and Management, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Access to education is one of the important basic human rights in all societies. In Nigeria, the provision of education has been one of the most critical issues of government social policy especially since after independence in 1960. Poverty has however remained a stumbling block for most people to attain this basic right. This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of financial aid on the relationship between poverty and students academic performance for sustainable Development in North Eastern Nigeria. The methodology used in this study was a survey research design. Data was gathered using questionnaires Administered to School among the North Eastern States of Nigeria. SPSS software tool was used to analyze the data. Descriptive, reliability and multiple linear regression statistics are employed to test the conceptual framework. The results reveal death of parents; insecurity within the zone, unemployment and lack of access to education were the prime causes of poverty therefore poverty has a negative impact on the Student Academic Performance in North Eastern Nigeria. Equally, the result shows that financial Aid has a great impact on student academic performance and has mediates the relationship between poverty and Student Academic in North Eastern Nigeria. This paper concludes that poverty has effect on student academic performance and that with financial Aid student Academic Performance will be improved. This paper then recommends that government should provide the enabling environment for learning, provisions of security, stagger payment of school fees in order to accommodate the less privileged students. Other Governmental agencies, Donor Community are urge on the need to channel resources to education and feeding of students who came from impoverished backgrounds.

Keywords: Financial Aid, Poverty, Students Academic Performance and Sustainable Development




Women Involvement in Public Decision-Making Process in Nigeria: Maternal Responsibility an Anathema for Active Participation


Ngozi Edith Iyoho

Social Policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan.



Over the years, the issues of women, their role, and involvement in public matters such as decision-making and relationship with men among others have dominated public discussions by scholars and public policy analysts. Though women form a greater chunk of the human population, at every turn women find themselves segregated from decision-making levels, as a result, suffer marginalization, underrepresentation, rights abuse, dehumanization, and conflict of interest among others, occasioned by socio-cultural, political, and economic factors that are mainly human-induced. To that effect, gender activists are preoccupied with campaigns, proclamations, and demand on how to make positive change. The paper, therefore, examines women’s participation in decision-making processes despite the challenges of meeting up maternal responsibilities in Nigeria. Data were collected through secondary and observational methods. It is the position of the paper that the maternal role of women and socio-cultural factors are among the issues that hinder women’s active involvement in the decision-making process. The paper concluded that the involvement of women in decision-making has the potentials to strengthen the progress of the nation and also create a positive impact on society at large.

KeywordsWomen, decision making, maternal responsibility, public matter, and gender activist.




Role of Government Policies in Addressing Business Startup Issues in Nigeria,


Nwalusiuka Nkemjika Anulika

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Oko.



The influence of government policies in addressing startup issues is the trust of this work. This study employs a survey which elicited opinions of new businesses within the life span of three (3) years in Anambra State using questionnaires. The study made use of a random sample of 400 new businesses in Anambra State using a snowball. The primary source of data collected with the aid of structured questionnaire was used for the study. The various hypotheses were tested using Chi-square test of independence at 5% level of significance. The area of study was Onitsha, Awka, Nnewi and their environs. The results reveal that government policies have significant influence on business start-ups access to finance. Also, the results show that there is a significant association between government policies and survival of Start-ups in the study area. The result further reveals the existence of significant association between government policies on business support and development; and survival of startups in the study area. The study therefore concludes that favourable government policies help a great deal in addressing business start p issues in the study area. The study recommends that government should as a matter of urgency further improve on the mechanism put in place in accessing the dividends of such business policies, such as provision of vital information relating to financial assistance to new businesses, low cost of assessing and utilizing government infrastructures for the purpose of doing business. New business (Start-ups) should also avail themselves of such opportunities provided by government so as to improve their business survivability.

Keywords: Start-up, Infrastructure, finance, business survival, Policies.




Organizational Structure in Nigeria Breweries


Okeke Agatha Chinenye

Department of Business Administration, Fedral Polytechnic, Oko



The topic of this study is Impact of Organizational Structure in Effective Management of Nigerian Organization (A study of Nigerian Brewery Plc, Enugu State. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey design. The researcher used both the primary, and secondary sources of Data in the course of the study. The primary data was sourced through the instrument of questionnaire and oral interview while secondary data was sourced through texts books, magazines, journals and internet. The Population of the study is eight hundred and ninety while the sample size is one hundred and thirty- three.  The findings revealed among others that organizational structure has  a great impact in the effective management of organizations. The researcher recommended among others that organizations should endeavour to have well structured organization, in order to achieve the set up objectives.




Assessing the Effect of Post-harvest Income Losses on Rice Farmers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


Wazis, D.H

Department of Research Outreach, Nigerian Stored Product, Research Institute, Kano, P.M.B. 3032, Kano, Nigeria.



For what has been a close observation, post-harvest income losses have been one of the major setbacks to farmers in Nigeria. Owing to this, the study aimed at assessing the effect of post-harvest income losses on rice farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 200 farming households was sampled, using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data analysis was carried out through inferential statistics, with phased estimation of post-harvest losses and regression analysis. The ordinary least squares regression estimates showed that threshing losses and household sizes were significant determinants of rice farmers’ income at 1% and 5% level probability levels respectively, while the analysis of constraints revealed that lack of harvesting equipment constituted a significant challenge to rice post- harvest loss remedy. The study concluded that threshing losses had adverse effect on rice farmers’ income and thus, recommended renewed awareness campaigns and demonstrations on rice handling and post- harvest loss prevention so as to forestall future post-harvest income losses.

Key Words: Effect, Post-harvest Income losses, Farmers, Rice, threshing losses, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.




Impact of Packaging and Price on Consumable Product and Services in Kebbi State


Abba Aji Abba

Department of Marketing, College of Administration, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnicbirnin Kebbi



The consumable businesses have been thriving for many years in Kebbi State. This study will examine the impact packaging and price on consumable product and services in Kebbi State, with define purpose to understand how consumers in Kebbi State re-act to packaging and price of consumable items. Sample of 613 questionnaires were distributed to the various shop owners in Kebbi State ultra model market. Therefore, 400 registered responses were obtained from the total population. Data were collected using questionnaire and was analyzed using multiple regressions.  This study revealed that, all the independent variables has a significant positive relationship on consumables construct. The study recommends that a suitable price and appropriate packaging is the key for successful sales and turn over for any consumables in kebbi state considering the micro and macro environment of marketing.   

Keywords: packaging, price, consumables.




Receive Updates

No spam guarantee.

I agree to have my email transferred to MailChimp ( more information )

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *