African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 22 No. 6


VOL. 22 NO. 6 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2110 – 2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Attention and Response to Ambient Advertisement among Undergraduate Students in North – East, Nigeria


*Prof. Uche Ebeze, (PhD); & **Kwase Audu Dogari

*Department of Mass Communication, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Nigeria. **Department of Mass Communication, Taraba state University, PMB 1167 Jalingo.



Ambient advertising is one of the fastest-growing advertising strategies; however, formal research into this field within Nigeria is very limited. This study investigated attention and response to ambient advertising of telecommunication companies among undergraduate students in Northeast region, Nigeria.  The study was anchored Schema Congruity Theory, the research method used was quantity descriptive survey.  Three universities (Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Taraba State University, Jalingo and Kwararafa University, Wukari) in northeast region were randomly selected. Furthermore, multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select a sample size of 350 respondents. The data collected was analyzed using frequency and simple percentages.  Findings revealed high (70.1%) exposure to ambient advertising of telecommunication, among undergraduate students in northeast.  Findings also revealed that shop paintings (33.1%), vehicle wraps and bodies of tricycles (21%), Tables/chairs and handheld materials (13.3%) walkways/bus stop (12.1%) sport/event centers (11.2%) and clothing (9.2%) were the popular platforms or sources of ambient advertising of telecommunication companies in the region. The study further revealed unfavorable perception of the students toward ambient advertising of telecommunication companies; 56.8% considered the ambient advertising as insignificant, 41.1% revealed that that the advertising messages not captivating while 97.3% revealed that the advertising did not in any way influenced them to patronage decision. The study recommended amongst other things, that the telecommunication companies should be more creative in their design of ambient advertisements to make it more captivating as well as improve quality and affordability of their goods and services.

Keywords: Ambient Advertising, Attention, Response, Undergraduate, Nigeria




Political Corruption and Youth Restiveness in Kaduna State: Issues and Prospect.


Ochube Agaba Godwin; & Hamza Abidin

Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.



This paper gives details of how the activities of corrupt political leaders affects youth`s socio economic development and how youth restiveness intensify violent conflict and deviant behaviors in Kaduna state and beyond. The paper investigates the nature and forms of corruption, the effects of corruption on socio-economic development of youths and youth restiveness in Kaduna state, issues and way forward. Data for this paper were drawn from both primary and secondary source. Anomie theory which was utilized is predicated on the notion that most youths strive to achieve culturally recognized goals. A state of anomie develops when access to these goals is blocked by the activities of corrupt politicians. Corruption has led to alienation among youths and has progressed into a dysfunctional inability to integrate within normative situations of their social world like to find a job, find success in relationships, etc. The paper reveals that activities of corrupt politicians and youth restiveness are caused by lack of social ethics, ignorance, illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, and unhealthy communication among others. This produces moral deregulation and an absence of legitimate aspirations.  These issues creates avenue for alternatives to goal attainment because most youths may feel alienated and purposelessness. The paper recommends among others the need for social institutions such as the justice system, the family, religion and education as agent of socialization and means of social cohesion and bond to bring about moral community in Kaduna state in particular and in Nigeria at large.

Keywords: Politics; Corruption; Youth Restiveness; Youth; Socio-Economic Development;




Ethics and Moral Education as a Way for Zaar Community Development


*Samson, I. M; & **Wadam, Z. S

*Department of Religion and Philosophy, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. **Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



Morals and ethics are closely related in meaning. The term moral comes from the Latin word “moralis” and ethics comes from the Greek word “ethos” both terms meant custom or way of life Barclay (1971). According to Joseph (2011), there are tendency of using the term morals and morality to refer to the conduct itself and ethics and ethical to refer to the study of moral conduct or the system or code that is followed. Ethics and moral are code of thinking and behavior sounded by personal cultural grades of what is right though right varies with circumstances and culture. Inculcating ethical and moral education in the heart of people in the community will reshape the people thinking and thought that can lead to community development. The paper focus on ethics and moral education as a way for Zaar (Sayawa) community development. It aimed at providing a means through which Zaar (Sayawa) people can inculcate ethical and moral education in the mind of its people among which are: through family; peers; religious institutions; schools; and mass media. The researcher uses sociological analytical method to guide the research. Based on the discussion, the researcher made some recommendations among which are: parents must see installing moral and ethical values in the mind of their children as their sole responsibility; there should be trained group of mentors mostly people of matured both in chronological and mental age from the society who should be in places that young people gather to correct and mentor their behaviors; radio/TV show talk particularly children/youths programs and all related communication areas should carry programs that will promote good moral and ethical education in the mind of the children and youths; there should be character molding courses at both level of education in schools; and lastly, religious leaders should be encourage to reinforce their teaching which will promote ethical and moral education in the mind of its followers.

Keywords: Ethics, Moral, Education, Zaar (Sayawa), Community, Development.




Awareness and Utilization of Information on Google Map and Traffic Radio Broadcast in Ogun State 


*Dr. A.O Otunla; & **Banjo, Abosede Olubunmi 

*Department of Mass Communication, Lead City University, Ibadan **Department of Mass Communication, the Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro



Mobility and transportation is fundamental to all human activities and more importantly, for social economic development. Thus, automobiles play a significant role in conveying people and moving their goods from one place to the other upon which their lifestyles and economy are dependent on all aspects of the society. However, limited roads networks and road transportation management is becoming a perennial problem to vehicular movement and economic growth. This study investigated awareness and utilization of information on Google Map and Traffic radio broadcasts in Ogun State. The study’s objectives were to investigate the extent to which road users in Ogun state are aware of Google map Information and Traffic Radio Broadcast. Survey method was adopted while the multistage and purposive sampling technique was used to select 175 respondents. The study revealed majority (59.5%) were not aware that Google Maps and traffic guide road users to the alternative route.  The majority (68.7%) are fully aware that OGBC FM reviews of traffic situations on daily basis. Results also revealed that (65.1%) not aware of active engagement on Google Maps for traffic directions. The majority (83.5%) of respondents also received daily alerts on traffic congestions on OGBC F.M. for ease of transit in Ogun State. The study concluded that the respondents are not aware and do not use Google Maps during traffic congestions.  

Keywords: Awareness, Utilization, Google Map, Traffic Radio Broadcast




The Hellenization of African Traditional Deities: The Case of Ekwensu and Esu


Ikechukwu Anthony Kanu

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State



The understanding of the African world through the lens or framework of the west has been a topical issue among African scholars and beyond. This anthropological approach has been described variously by thinkers of various backgrounds. However, this approach was considered Hellenization by scholars like Okot p’Bitek. This work, therefore, studied the Hellenization of particular African deities from the Igbo and Yoruba religious backgrounds: Ekwensu and Esu respectively. The concept of Hellenization is employed within the context of western and African missionaries trying to understand African traditional world and religion without taking into consideration the peculiarity or particularity of the African religious context. This piece observes that the emergence of these names as the Igbo and Yoruba equivalents of Satan in the Bible, reveals poor commitment on the part of the translators to going deeper and spend time in their research. It also observes that the introduction of these Igbo and Yoruba deities into Christianity, has led to the misunderstanding of their functions in Igbo and Yoruba belief systems. More important is that this misinterpretation will continue to enhance the challenge of interfaith dialogue which should encourage cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions. The present research would employ the anthropological approach in its investigation into the question of the Hellenization of African traditional deities. The phenomenological approach of inquiry would further be employed in the study of Ekwensu and Esu.

Keywords: Hellenization, African, Traditional, Deities, Igbo, Yoruba, Ekwensu, Esu




Holistic View of the Implications in Power Centered Approach to the Political Economy of Developing Counties


Nchedo Josephine Oguine; Yahya A. Adadu; Ruth Luka Caleb; & Eugene T. Aliegba

Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria



The Power Centered Approach to political economy emphasizes the importance of power in economic relations; and proves if the democracy and legitimacy associated with power are justifiable. It analyzes the nature and different forms of power in relation to the crucial and basic part of the political order. This paper explains the implications of political powers to create worthy reforms in the socio-economic activities of a state to command expected change, growth, and development of the market society. The big puzzles are how undesirable outcomes can be avoided and what type of power does a leader/State exercises to affect a policy change to influence socio-economic activities? The State once triggered by external shock can propel changes of policies, institutions forcing the state to devolve some of its power. This will give rise to the emergence of independent legal, political, and economic institutions; propelling change and proffering solutions to challenges. This research adopted the secondary source of data collection.

Keywords: Political Economy, Power-Centered Approach, Developing Countries, Agriculture, Power




Perception of Psychoactive Substances Related Social Media Content Among Youths in Sagamu, Ogun State


Akintayo, Babafemi J., Ekeh, Charles M., & Oloruntola, Benedict D.

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



Psychoactive substance use and abuse remains a major global public health challenge. This has been escalated by the wrongful depiction of psychoactive substances and the unrestricted access youth have to social media. This study therefore investigated youths’ perception of psychoactive substances related social media content. The study adopted the survey research method. It was found that there is a high level of social media usage among youths, and that this high level usage of social media exposes them to wrongful depiction of psychoactive substances, which tend to influence their perception of such substances. It was therefore recommended that media influencers should endeavour to embody a positive image in order to influence their followers rightly, rather than depicting positive portrayal of morally debasing habits, youths are encouraged to engage in social media usage wisely.

Keywords: Social media, psychoactive substances, perception, social media content, undergraduates’ perception




Comparative Assessment of Women Political Participation between Nigeria and United States of America


Giwa Christopher Musa

School of the Spirit Bible Institute of America, Lima Ohio, USA



To a large majority of nations, democracy has been a nascent practice and this is why it is still been experimented at different levels to bring out the most stable form of it. Even in nations that has several years of democratic practice, it has been difficult to maintain stability. In a constant bid to attain minimum threshold, nations have had to learn from each other how specific aspects of democratic practices are perfected. It is against this backdrop that this paper was carried out to compare the level of female political participation in Nigeria and the United States with a bid to know how both nations have fared so far on this front. The study looked out how Level of education, party structure, women global quota as prescribed by the Beijing convention, political violence, female economic empowerment and socio-cultural issues have impacted women involvement in politics in both nations. The study drew upon data from secondary sources and analysed same using the independent sample T-test to compare the means of two independent groups in other to determine whether there is a statistical evidence that the associated population means are significantly different. The independent sample T-test is a parametric test, hence the data used for the analysis satisfied normality. The study found that Both Nigeria and the USA have not at any time met the 35% affirmation in the congresses of both nations, it was also revealed that there still exists some level of political violence which tends to deter female participation in both nations. Furthermore, the study found out that high level of education does not necessarily translate into corresponding political participation. While socio-cultural issues hamper female participation in Nigeria, it does very little to deter female political participation in the USA. Party structure mostly headed by men tends to systematically discriminate against female in both nations just as poor female economic empowerment affects the ability of women to do politics in both nations due to the huge role money play during proper politicking. The study therefore concluded that there is no significant difference between the level of female political participation in both nations. It therefore recommends that the parliament of both nations needs to enact laws which create enabling environment and which stipulate that both nations comply with international protocol on women quota because certain European and even African nations have met and even surpass these quotas.

Keywords: Political participation, Comparison, Global Quota, Nigeria, and United States of America




Media Promotion of Gender, ‘STEM’ Stereotypes and Mass Communication Female Majority


Ajaegbu, Oguchi O. (PhD) 1, Oloyede, David Binta (PhD)2 , Ejoor, Kesina O. 3 , Atakiti, Ifeoluwa O. (PhD)4

1.3, 4Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.



It is an issue of concern that females who dominate the communication classrooms are not very prominent in media practice as compared to the male counterparts. The study was anchored on three theories namely, the social learning theory, agenda setting theory and the cultivation theory. The survey research method was adopted with a sample of 245 students. The result showed students are aware of females’ exposure to Gender and ‘STEM’ stereotypes and are aware of the effects it has on the female gender which aided the conclusion that media promotion of stereotypes encourages the perception that mass communication is a feminine course. The study recommends that there should be creation of awareness on the harmfulness of stereotypes as they could influence the course of a person’s life.

Keywords: Agenda-Setting, Communication Education, Gender and STEM stereotypes, Mass communication female majority, Motivation, Social Learning




Christianity and its Philosophical Relevance: A Review of African Christian Philosophers


*Adamu, Ruth Enoch PhD; **Jalo, Ayuba Solomon; & ***Oholiabs, D. Tuduks PhD

*Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos. **Department of Christian Religious Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Federal, College of Education Okene, Kogi State ***Department of Religious Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, Gombe State University.



Africa is a continent of Christian religious fundamentalism that gave birth to renowned philosophers whose philosophical relevance remains unshakable in the face of the earth. The fact about Africa, having the Audible historical fact form the biblical world history cannot be deemed. A good percentage of the blessing God’s people received in the Bible originated in Africa. For example, Abraham became rich in Africa, Isaac was blessed in Africa, Africa fed the world during Joseph’s reign Egypt in a (famine) Moses was born in Africa, in Africa the Jews amused wealth, it was in Africa Jesus find refuge. The transporter of the cross of Jesus was an African. The philosophers who credibly defended the sovereignty of God and their philosophical postulations which stand the taste of time till date ware Africans. African Christian philosophers also played an important role in the world of philosophical endeavour that influenced the knowledge about God, good life and living in general.  This research is a review of some African Christian philosophers and their works which shows the relevance of what they did as foundations and contributions to religious beliefs and practices that cut across eras- ancient, medial modern and contemporary eras. The review is meant to ignite Africans to draw our pieces of cotton and keep up philosophizing amides rooted in challenges, criticism and marginalization, so we can appreciate who we are, and our contributions to religious inquiry. African had made history and they shall continue making history till the end comes.

Keywords: Review, African Christians, Philosophers, Relevance, Christianity




Domestic Violence: A Threat of Family Harmony on National Development in Nigeria.


Oloyede Funmilayo PhD and Osundina, Olasunkanmi PhD

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.



There is no gainsaying that the family is the bedrock of the society. This suggest that the foundational structure upon which society is built is the family. Hence, if domestic violence is allow to thrive, such will create a threat to family harmony and by extension impair national development and peace of the society. This paper, in order to address properly the exigencies of this problematic adopted an exploratory cum content-based approach to dissect the issues inherent in the topic. This approach, in its analysis, focuses on the social, economic, and politically framework implications of violence in family on national development. By this, a structural functionalist theory was employed as the framework of the study. The paper follows the Biblical methodological perspective in addressing fundamental domestic violence along the concepts of dialogue, mediation and avoidance problem-solving solution paradigm in our changing political space. The paper revealed that in solving violence related issues, the first step to take is dialogue (between parties), if it fails, then mediation follows (third party approach); again if it fails, avoidance related approach should be applied. Therefore, it was concluded and recommended that in dispute resolution, a win-win bargaining approach should defined the game plan matrix at domestic-family-state level to achieve national development in the society.      

Keywords- Domestic Violence, Family, National Development, Society, Nigeria.  




Menace of Illegal Rehabilitation Centres in Ilorin Metropolis: Challenges for Counsellors and Religious’ Leaders


*Jamiu, Mahmood Suleiman; *Mahmud, Aremu Musa; **Kamaldeen Sofiyullahi Kamaldeen; ***Aminullahi Mubarak; & ****Rauph Moshood Kayode

*School of Education and General Studies, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. **School of Law, Shariah Department, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. ***School of Arts and Islamic Studies, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. ****School of Languages, Department of Nigerian Language, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal Studies, Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria.



This paper discussed the menace of illegal rehabilitation centres in Ilorin metropolis: Challenges for the counsellors and religious’ leaders with its attendant challenges in every facet of life. The incessant discovery of unapproved rehabilitation centres with all the gory stories connected with them have become so much pronounced that governments, opinion leaders, educational institutions and spirited individuals are saddled with responsibility of exterminating completely or reducing them to the barest minimum. The methodology used in this study was historical method to gather information, whereby the origin/brief history of illegal rehabilitation centres in Ilorin was traced; types of rehabilitation services x-rayed; and Counsellor and Religion fundamentals in illegal rehabilitation centres in Ilorin metropolis are discussed. It concludes by tasking governments and their relevant agencies to rise up to their responsibility in safe-guarding citizens from the devilish handiwork of the mischief doers in the society under the cover of providing rehabilitation services, giving religious training and developing skills in their unsuspecting victims. Finally, it is recommended that parents and guardians should be alive to their responsibility of child/ward’s upbringing and they should desist from looking for surrogate parents for their children/wards. 

Keywords: Menace; Illegal; Rehabilitation Centres; Counsellor; Metropolis and Religious Leader.   




A Semiotic Analysis of a Text Play


Shaba Ibrahim Bake; Yahaya Mohammed; Abdulmaroof Muhammad; & Ndagana Adamu Alhaji

Department of Languages, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru



The paper examines the various semiotic signs used in the play Parity State by adopting Sander Pierce’s (1931) concept of semiotics. This research is significant because it will fill the existing vacuum in both semiotic and linguistic studies. Our findings revealed that the indexical sign is predominantly used in the play corroborating the fact that the play is strongly an effort to make reference to the life in the prison. Besides, the typology of signs _ icons, indices and symbols deployed in the play point to the semiosphere of the prisoners’ life which relates to parity, equality, an solidarity needed for the seemingly free outside world to attain meaningful social, political and economic progress. The paper concludes that without understanding the symbols, icons and indices including the representamen, object and the interpretant used in/of the text the audience will not grasp the significations of the play.

Keywords: indexical sign, symbols, icons, signs, signifier, signified, representamen, object and interpretant.




Cultural Xenocentricism, Language Denaturing and the Atrophism of the Yoruba Language.


Adedeji   B. Adewole.

General Studies Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Ede.



Language is such a phenomenon in human society that it cannot be ignored when considering the salutary existence and development of a human society. It is the essence of our being. The importance of language in development and wellness of human society is evident in the discontinuation of the biblical “Tower of Babel”. Human beings need language to aggregate and realise their potentials. Human language is a living phenomenon as it responds to the societal dynamism. A language changes either for good or ill, for progress or decay. Whatever happens to a language is largely determined by the attitudes of its users to that language. This is the case of the Yoruba language as it is being stifled in its speech community; it is suffering neglect especially by younger generation of the Yorubas in its native soil.  This paper investigates how the Yoruba language is being denatured in its native speech community. It further navigates measures to get the language out of its morass. The study utilized a 4 point Likert scale primary data to access the opinion of respondents on how religion and westernisation have impacted on the use of the Yoruba Language. Analysis from this primary data shows that foregoing attitudes of the Yoruba language endanger and portend doom for the language.  These cheerless attitudes if left to fester much longer will make Yoruba language ineffective in communication and when a language is no longer fit for effective communication, it heads towards extinction.

Keywords: Language Attitudes, Language atrophism, Language Denaturing, Speech Community, Societal Dynamism, Cultural Dynamism.




The Role of African Traditional Religion in Conflict Management in Nigeria


*Deacon Samson Oloyede Oyelade; & **Dr. Akano Ezekiel K.

*National Museum, Ogbomoso, Oyo State. **Christian Religious Studies, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State.



Religion has been observed to be a strong factor of conflict in contemporary Africa. Many religious crisis and those with religious undertone pervade the Africa continent and happen on high frequency with high proportion of cataclysmic consequence across the state of Africa, for instance, boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, Al-Shabab religious violence in Somalia, Kenya and Eritrea, as well as religious crisis in Sudan. Notwithstanding the potency of religion for conflict creation, religion can still be exploited to be positively functional and beneficial as well as useful for conflict management process in Africa. This work, from the prism of qualitative analytical approach, offer to explore the character and doctrine of Africa Traditional Religion (ATR) as they are advantageous and essential for conflict prevention, conflict resolution, conflict transformation and peace building in Nigeria. The paper suggests, among other things, a social re-engineering of communitarian ethos as promoted by the Africa belief system. This is believed to encourage and ensure more peaceful and harmonious coexistence among different societies of the Nigerian state.  Data for this week are collected from books, journal articles, newspapers, and other relevant historical documents.

Keywords: Africa, Religion, African Traditional Religion, Conflict Management, Communitarian ethos.




Cross, Cresent and Corruption; Religious Leaders and the Moral Fibre of Nigerian Society.


Adedeji, B. A, Oyewole M. T and Iwuajoku. R.N

General Studies Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State.



Almost all Homo sapiens believe in the existence of a power higher than him, although they have different names to address this power. To the Christians and Muslims God or Allah is central to the two religions; Christianity and Islam respectively and the traditional religion worshippers have  Olodumare . However the words “God” and “ Supreme Being” are  understood by the three religions as referring to this higher power. This higher power is believed to be the creator of the earth and everything there in. He controls and maintains order in the life of His creatures especially the human beings through his viceregents such as Prophets, Pastors, Evangelists, Sheiks, Imams, Ustazs, traditional priests etc. it is these human agents who are expected to be well versed in the knowledge and are mandated by the higher power to make people to know about the almighty and righteous nature of God and  as the ultimate arbiter of justice in the earthly planet and also the only One who can admit people who thread his paths into paradise. The attribute and nature of this Supreme Being is awe- inspiring. But some of these human agents are often swayed by consideration of the sensuous life. The desire for pecuniary ease makes them to compromise the sacrosancy of their callings and thereby engage in diabolical and other unholy practices which are damaging to the morality in the society. This has culminated in the diminished esteem in which some followers hold God and this is manifested in people choosing the Devil’s alternatives which make moral fibre of the society threadbare.  This paper X-rays the cheerless and damnable attitudes of this class of religious functionaries and the effects on the moral fibre of the society. In doing this, the paper scoops from the dastardly acts of some religious functionaries as exposed in both print and electronic media and dissected them in the light of the acceptable moral and religious comportments expected of this class of religious functionaries as espoused in  some literary and scriptural materials. 

Keywords: Corruption, Religion, Religious functionaries, God, Moral fibre,




Effect of Denominationalism of the Church and the Need for Unity


Mamman Nathan Enos

Christian Religious Studies Department, Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri



The church since reformation has undergone dramatic change. It has metamorphosed from one single body into numerous bodies. The church today look more or less as financial institution which was fundamentally metamorphosed based on the motive of these denominationally formed bodies. The word divisions or denominations rightly fit the church. This is because a proper meaning of denomination defined the churches today. These divisions have identified the church/churches with different functions and motives. It has created an avenue for serious competition among church members. This paper identified the various causes of denominationalism; its effect and suggest possible ways of uniting these churches. It also highlighted the need for uniting of the church for which it was founded upon. The causes of division are numerous but one may add that ,the Church was brought into Africa in a fragmented form. It is never the wish of Christ that the church be divided but that all will be one.

Keywords:Effects,Denominationalism,Church,Comercialization,Unity, Proliferation, Proliferation, Christianity,       




An Appraisal of Functions of English in Relation to Local Languages in Nigeria


Vincent S. Gonding; & Olusolabomi O. Mabadeje

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state.



There is no country in the world without language problems. Even if a country is monolingual, there may be problem of regional or social dialects. Every nation has a language that is regarded as a national language.  A national language needs the acceptance of the community- it should be spoken by a majority of the population. National language problems are not the same in all nations. A national language is used for communication across all the regions of a country. No Nigerian language can perform this function. There are too many languages in Nigeria. It is difficult to choose one as a national language. English, a foreign language is the official language in Nigeria. This is because none of the local languages has been developed enough to play this role. Attempts aimed at developing one local language to serve as lingua franca has often engendered tension in the country as people are always ready to protect their languages jealously. These languages have helped to preserve and sustain the cultures of the ethnic groups that make up Nigeria. English has occupied a prominent position as an official language in Nigeria because of the existence of many languages in the country. English language is neutral, accessible and acceptable to virtually all communities in the country. The language is used in governance, mass media, commerce, education and international relations. A variety of English with distinct features is beginning to emerge in Nigeria. English has helped to link Nigeria with the global village and we are benefiting from globalization with its technology-the internet, integrated world economy, computer and cyber space.

Keywords: National language, Indigenous language, monolingual, multi lingual, dialect




Curbing the Menace of Insecurity in Northern Nigeria: Focus on Hausa Language as a Panacea


Umma Sa’ade Abdulaziz

Department of Hausa, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



The importance, the role and the spread of Hausa language in Northern Nigeria, Southern Niger, Northern Cameroun and Northern Ghana cannot be overemphasised. Also the presence and predominance of Hausa language and its speakers are manifest in many other African countries. No wonder, citing Muhammad et al (2001) in Janiu, et al Hausa language ranks as one of the major world languages. According to Philips (1993: 13) Hausa people have every right to be considered a civilized nation, because, according to him they have their language transformed to writing which they used in teaching their children. Today, Hausa language is undoubtfully and indisputably the lingua franca of the present Northern Nigeria comprising nineteen states except Kwara and Kogi with large size of Yoruba native speakers who are always conscious of their Yoruba origin. Based on the facts above, emphasis would be laid on Hausa language and insecurity in Nigeria considering the fact that a large percentage of the current cases of insecurity such as Boko Haram insurgency, cow rustling, banditary, kidnapping and several other social malaise do often take place in the North East, North West and North central where Hausa is their major language and lingua franca despite the fact that native speakers of at least two hundred other linguistic groups dwell and live together with Hausa native speakers even the Fulani who dominate them socially, culturally and politically speak Hausa language.

Keywords:   Curbing, Menace, Insecurity, Hausa language, Panacea, Peaceful Co-existence.




Public Views on the Impact of Felling Trees for Fuel Wood on the Environment of Jama’are Local Government Area of Bauchi State


*Bala, Sagir Madaki; & **Yahuza Shehu

*Department of General Studie, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Leisure and Tourism, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This work looks at level of awareness of the impact of felling of trees for fuel wood in Jama’are L.G.A of Bauchi State. Data was collected using Field observation, questionnaire administration etc. Descriptive analysis was used in analysing the data. The work showed that some tree species are more preferred. Some trees are also used as medicine, soil stabilizers, wind breaker, and as ornaments. Demand was also driven by economic factors. These activity are decreasing the numbers of valuable species in the area. It is recommended that other alternative, more efficient and effective sources of energy such as methane (gas), agriculture residue etc are needed to reduce pressure on forest wood so as to reduce the consequences of deforestation.

Keywords: Trees, Firewood, Energy, Environment, Degradation.




Intermodal Container Transport Logistics, To And From Nigerian Ports To Hinterland


Musa Shitu Maisalati; Etsu, Muhammad shafiyi; & Kim elkiakim Pwara.



Transportation system in Nigeria is predominantly uni-modal. It is estimated that over ninety per cent of containers and passengers are transported by road. The over-reliance on road transport for the conveyance of containers and people has contributed greatly to the deterioration of Nigeria’s roads and the attendant increase in road maintenance costs. Scholars have revealed that a single means of transport cannot adequately serve the transportation needs of the people living in urban centers, but are yet to be fully developed and integrated with the dominant road transport system. This paper examines the current transport challenges in the transport systems in the area and the wider Nigerian context and advocates for inter-modal transport system, that is, the blending of road, water and rail to facilitate easy movement of people and containers. The paper submits that the development of an efficient inter-modal transport system would minimize the frequent chaotic traffic congestion experienced by motorists from ports to hinterland.

Keywords; Intermodal, container transport, hinterlands, ports.




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