African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Mgt. Vol. 22 No. 4


VOL. 22 NO. 4 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2896 – 1783



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


An Analysis of the Aesthetics of University Campuses in Nigeria Using Hard Landscape Elements and Its Impact on the Wellbeing of the Staff and Students: A Case Study of the University of Jos Campus (Permanent Site/ Naraguta)


Uyi Ezeanah; Slyvanus Songden; & Da’orong Kyenshak James

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Jos, Nigeria



The aesthetics of a university campus are determined by the landscape elements of the surrounding area, which influence the impression made on staff, students, and visitors. According to research, landscape design of outdoor spaces with vegetation, water features, or other landscape elements, as well as landmarks and structures, contributes to the creation of a more sustainable and healthy environment that surrounds humans and provides the highest possible quality of life. This paper examines The Aesthetics of University Campuses in Nigeria Using Hard Landscape Elements and Its Impact on the Wellbeing of the Staff and Students: A Case Study of the University of Jos Campus (Permanent Site). A quantitative method was employed for this study making use of questionnaires and visual images. The study’s findings reveal that the aesthetics of the University of Jos (Naraguta Campus) have been degraded, as evidenced by the state of the hard landscape features analysed in this study and this affect the overall productivity of both the staff and students of the university. The study proposes some designs that will help to enhance the aesthetic of the university campus.

Keywords: Aesthetics, campus, landscape, university, wellbeing




Effect of Land Title Registration on Land Sales and Professionals’ Satisfaction


Iroaganachi Nneoma; Kalu, Joseph Ufere; & Jatau Abigail Francis

Department of Estate Management and Valuation; Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria



This study investigates the special effects of proficient land title registration process on land sales transactions and allied professional’s satisfaction in a view to enhance efficiency of the process for land title registration. Quantitative method was adopted and data was collected using questionnaires. With a sample frame of 300, a  sample size of 253 was agreed  but 284 questionnaires was distributed to cover for shortfall, and simple random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of research element. Multiple Regression and Correlation analysis was adopted for analysis. The result showed a significant regression coefficient was achieved. This shows that there is a there is a significant positive correlation between the process of land title registration and land sales traction, which implies that with improvements in the land registration process there will be a 41.5% positive corresponding improvement in Land sales transaction. The result of the multiple regression shows that the Professionals’ Satisfaction has the highest standardized Coefficients with beta value of .672, while the land sales transaction has the lowest standardized Coefficients with beta value of .481; hence we can adduce that registration process has stronger effect on professional satisfaction than on the market forces of land sales transaction which may have other deterministic factors. Base on the finding the study concludes that there is a significance positive direct relationship between efficient land title registration process and land sales transaction and land- allied professionals’ satisfaction.

Keywords: Land, Land Title Registration, Satisfaction




Persistent Flooding in Dutse Municipality, Jigawa State, Nigeria: The Remediation.


*U O Ujih; **Adoka, Agye Ibrahim; & ***Abdulkadir Suleiman 

*Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University Dutse, Ibrahim Aliyu Bye-Pass, P.M.B, 7156, Dutse, Jigawa State. **School of General Studies, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State. ***GIS Unit, Ministry of Lands and Regional Planning, Dutse, Jigawa State



The reoccurrences of flooding in Dutse metropolis has become a yearly pandemonium.  Population explosion and urban land use conversions are among the high degree of environmental hazards and disasters in Dutse with competing users of spaces, solid wastes, narrowed drainage designs, drainage blockages and buildings on water ways are major causes of flooding in the flood plain areas of 27 LGAs Guest Houses, Yalwawa, Gida Dubu, Federal University Dutse, LRP DU9 behind Commissioners Quarters, Kargo LRP DU5, Bokoto, Fagoji, Garu and Fattara II Housing Estate areas. The task in this study, is to find out the sources of the urban runoffs which are mostly from the hills, roof tops and storm water discharge that are not properly channelled nor harvested (managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for uses in irrigating  road sides ornamentals and as water for urban agriculture and livestock. The methods adopted are primary and secondary sources of data collections. The findings of this study revealed that flooding leads to loss of properties, lives and disruption of ecological balances of Dutse urban environments. It is, therefore, recommended that flood can be mediated through; topographic mapping, wide drainage constructions, municipal wastes evacuation/disposal, rain harvesting, flood hazard monitoring and detection using remote sensing /GIS, proper urban planning regulation and enforcement by Dutse Capital Development Authority (DCDA) and Jigawa State Environmental Agency (JISEPA).

Keywords: Drainage, Dutse, enforcement, flood plains, hazards, urban planning




Management Related Barriers to Completion of Licensed Modular Refinery Projects in Nigeria


Sadiq Ajibola Ibrahim; Joseph K. Makinde; & Abdulganiyu A. Oke

Candidate, Dept of Project Management, Federal University of Technology Minna



Modular refinery projects were born out of a bid by the Federal Government of Nigeria to achieve the three-pronged aim of discouraging illegal oil refining, eliminating environmental degradation and boosting local refining of petroleum products. Investors were granted licenses to establish (LTE) modular refineries (MR) of varying operational capacities. The MR policy has been considered timely and necessary, because Nigeria imports almost all of the refined petroleum consumed locally. However, several years after the take-off of the MR policy, none of the licensed MRs has been completed. Some of the licenses have been withdrawn due to stagnation and lack of visible progress on the part of the investors. This paper aimed to assess the factors hindering the progress and completion of MR projects in Nigeria. Secondary data obtained from the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) was used to examine the licensing regime, operational characteristics and progress achieved for licensed MRs. The data was further analyzed and examined using frequency count and percentage analysis which revealed that 59.09% of licensed MRs have funding as the major challenge impeding their completion. This barrier might perhaps be best tackled by linking up MR investors with venture capitalists, rather than through direct funding by government. In extreme cases, government might provide some form of guarantees.

Keywords: barriers, modular refinery, oil and gas, progress, project




Influence of Communication Practices on Performance of Medium Sized Construction Firms in Abuja


E O Whyte, R. A Jimoh

Building Department Federal University of Technology Minna



Today most developing nations like Nigeria are tending towards small and medium enterprises as a means of strengthening its economic performance in the construction industry. Most projects within Nigeria and some part of the world fail because of the lack of proper communication method and practices within constructing firms and it external stakeholders.  The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of communication practices on performance of construction firm. The article examined the internal and external communication practice within the firm, assessed the factors influencing internal and external communication, determined the critical success factor influencing performance, established a relationship between internal and external communication and proposed strategy for improving communication practices within a firm. The study adopted a qualitative and quantitative method of data collection from both managers/owners of firms and employees in the firm. The qualitative method data was gotten from 10 manager/owner of firm via structured interview question and the quantitative data was gotten from the employee in various firms.

Keyword: Communication, Internal, External and Performance.




Effect of Business Continuity Management Practices on Organisational Performance among Construction Firms in Abuja


Victor Oluwamayowa Fameso

Department Of Quantity Surveying, Federal University Of Technology, Minna, Niger State



Organizational performance is crucial in any business organisation operating in a rapidly changing environment characterised by increased competition, advanced technology, increase regulations and disruptions that affects business operations. Business Continuity Management (BCM) is one of the key driving forces to strengthen a firm’s ability to withstand risks and survive under extreme organizational and environmental pressures. In an effort to ensure continuity of business operations, organisation in the construction industry have also adopted BCM practices. The extent to which BCM practices contribute to organisational performance particularly among construction organizations in Nigeria however remains unknown and the general objective of the study therefore was to determine the effect of Business Continuity Management practices on organizational performance among construction firms in Abuja. To analyse the variables under study, data and information retrieved from 151 questionnaires administered to professionals in construction firms registered with the Federation of Construction Industry (FOCI) within Abuja were subjected to descriptive and simple percentile analysis. The study findings showed that the performance of construction companies in Abuja is influenced by the level of support of top management, allocation of sufficient resources, organizational preparedness and embeddedness of continuity practices. Hence a more strategic approach such as BCM that clearly outlines strategies for continuity of business operations is deemed necessary to enhance organizational performance within construction firms as obtainable in other sectors.

Keywords: Disruption, Resilience, Continuity, Construction Business, Organisational Performance




Assessment of Informal E-Waste Refurbishing Activities in Niger State, Nigeria


Abdulsalam Abdulmajeed B.; Owodunni, A. S.; & Kareem, W. B.

Department of Industrial & Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



Electronic waste (e-waste) has become a growing concern in today’s environment, particularly in developing countries like Nigeria, which has given rise to a new environmental challenge and health problems. This study assessed the activities of informal E-waste refurbishing in Minna, metropolis, Niger State. The study adopted a mixed method research design. The targeted population for the study was 428 respondents. True Non-probability sampling techniques, snowball and convenient sampling sampling techniques was used to draw 40 EEE Repairers/Refurbishers, 40 EEE local Recyclers, 30 collectors and 79 regulators taken from (NISEPA 50, NESREA 40, FME 7) in Minna metropolis Niger State. Structured questionnaire items and structured interviews questions were used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts and Cronbach Alpha was used to ascertain the extent of the internal consistency of the instrument and a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained for the entire instrument. Data was collected and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 21). Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The study found that E-waste is discarded indiscriminately along streets, those that generate E-waste are liable for disposal, and E-waste refurbishing activities are carried out without the use of personal protective equipment. E-waste is dismantled and disassembled to extract valuable materials, while non-value materials are inappropriately disposed of and burned in the environment. The study recommended, among others, that that residents and e-waste workers should be enlightened and sensitized on how to handle e-waste; the government should set up an effective monitoring system for proper e-waste handling in Niger State, Nigeria.

Keywords:  E-waste, collection activities, Refurbishing activities, Techniques for improvement, Assessment




Review of the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Plan of Oil and Gas Companies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.


*Abugu Nkechinyere Anthonia; **Thompson Hope H; & ***Aliyu Haruna Awaisu3

*Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi. **Department of Development Control Federal Capital Territory Administration, Abuja. ***Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Federal polytechnic Nasarawa State



Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been seen as being ineffective legislative tools for environmental sustainability mainly due to poor implementation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP). Review of the effectiveness of environmental management plan of oil and gas companies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria was carried out. The known was highlighted and the missing link was suggested for further study. Research articles on oil and gas production, EIA and ESMP numbering over four hundred and fifty (450) were collected and preview for review. Approximately 56% were considered relevance in terms of contextual and temporal scope.  Thus, article must be on environmental effects of oil and gas production, EMP, or linked EIA and oil and gas production. Article must not be published before1958 but preference was given to articles published from 1992 upwards when EIA act was enacted in Nigeria. Result showed that. Authors generally (100%) agreed on EIA’s role and process. Most (54%) authors pointed poor or no follow up of Environmental and Social Management Plan as the major reason of the ineffectiveness of EIA.  A good number of studies have also seen poor participation of Project Affected Persons in EIA process as a major barrier to its effectiveness. Other notable barriers to EIA performance included poor funding, dearth knowledge of environmental laws among major stakeholders (PAPs). Despite the well documentations of researches on EIA and its effectiveness, there is yet sparse knowledge on the follow up of ESMP of oil and gas. Previous studies on ESMP follow up where done in other jurisdictions (mining and dam). In conclusion, researches have pointed out many limitations to EIA including poor implementation of the management plan; however, the follow-up is yet be elaborated in oil and gas context especially in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. 

Keywords: Oil and Gas, EIA, Follow up, EMP, Implementation, Niger Delta.





Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been seen as being ineffective legislative tools for environmental sustainability mainly due to poor implementation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP). Review of the effectiveness of environmental management plan of oil and gas companies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria was carried out. The known was highlighted and the missing link was suggested for further study. Research articles on oil and gas production, EIA and ESMP numbering over four hundred and fifty (450) were collected and preview for review. Approximately 56% were considered relevance in terms of contextual and temporal scope.  Thus, article must be on environmental effects of oil and gas production, EMP, or linked EIA and oil and gas production. Article must not be published before1958 but preference was given to articles published from 1992 upwards when EIA act was enacted in Nigeria. Result showed that. Authors generally (100%) agreed on EIA’s role and process. Most (54%) authors pointed poor or no follow up of Environmental and Social Management Plan as the major reason of the ineffectiveness of EIA.  A good number of studies have also seen poor participation of Project Affected Persons in EIA process as a major barrier to its effectiveness. Other notable barriers to EIA performance included poor funding, dearth knowledge of environmental laws among major stakeholders (PAPs). Despite the well documentations of researches on EIA and its effectiveness, there is yet sparse knowledge on the follow up of ESMP of oil and gas. Previous studies on ESMP follow up where done in other jurisdictions (mining and dam). In conclusion, researches have pointed out many limitations to EIA including poor implementation of the management plan; however, the follow-up is yet be elaborated in oil and gas context especially in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. 

Keywords: Oil and Gas, EIA, Follow up, EMP, Implementation, Niger Delta.




Evaluation of Level of Private Housing Quality in Bauchi Metropolis: View Point of Tambari Housing Estate


Lubabbatu Sani Bello; Muhammad Umar Bello; & Maryam Salihu Muhammad

Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, PMB 0248, Gubi, Kano Road Bauchi Nigeria



Housing is solitary of the three basic requirements of mankind and it is the most important for the physical survival of man after the provision of food. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of housing quality and occupant satisfaction on Bauchi Investment Cooperation (BIC) in Tambari and Gida Dubu. With a view of making process more efficient. The study adopted a quantitative approach, where data was collected using questionnaires administered to 320 household heads living in both Tambari and Gida Dubu. Systematic sampling was used. Data collection was subject to descriptive analysis with mean ranking. The study reveals store, sewage system and road network system are moderate while roofing, living room, waste disposal are low. It was recommended that there should be improvement in waste disposal system, electricitys and security in the study area.

Keywords: Housing, Quality, delivery, Investment and Performance




Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners in Bakin Ayeni Community of Kokona Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria


B.L Nasir1; Nasiru Umar2; & Muhammad K. Dahiru3

1&2Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Geography,  Faculty of Social Science, Federal University, Lafia



This study is aimed at assessing the rehabilitation practices of artisanal and small-scale miners that will ultimately mitigate the adverse environmental, occupational and health effects and impacts arising from their mining activities in Bakin Ayeni community of Kokona LGA of Nasarawa State. The study revealed that artisanal and small-scale mining activity despite its illegal nature and outlook as carried out in Bakin Ayeni community has been generally accepted as a way of life by the people who sees the natural resources endowed in their community as their God’s give gift which can be exploited without recourse to any approving authority. With this mindset and disposition therefore it is seen by the people as any rural community members will see the act of farming food and cash crops as a source of livelihood. In effect, it is taken as a way of life accommodating all ages of people with no gender barriers or inhibitions. Also, there is no barrier to entry or exit beside the traditional land ownership rights. This is more so, as the study revealed that no formal training or specialized skills are required to be so engaged in any of the activities. In a nutshell, their activities are not perceived by the miners as illegal in spite their not having any official permits to so mined the mineral resources. Also, the study revealed that the people resorted to mining mainly as a livelihood strategy in the absence of better alternatives. The respondents adduced various reasons for their taking into mining amongst which are to provide for the basic needs of life and their families, meeting children’s school fee, being the easily available option after loss of formal employment and as a veritable means of accumulating savings for lesser strenuous future undertakings such as trading. Through such trade associations and co-operative societies, it will be easier for them to mobilize funds, organize trainings, awareness and sensitization programmes for the miners. Also, from the rules that govern the associations and co-operative societies, it will be easier to implement environmental and safety measures so as to reduce on environmental and health hazards that affects the environment and constrain the activities of the miners.

Keywords: Environmental, Artisanal, Mining, Effect, Degradation, Small-scale. 




Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.


Rita Adenike Olaomi, Prof D.U Sangari, Dr. Adamu Tanko Ogah, Dr. J.I Magaji

Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University (NSUK)



Implications: AMAC is one of the fastest growing Area Council in the FCT, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been carried out to estimate the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in this Town. Therefore, the authors estimated the generation of the WEEE by the “use and consumption” method. The results of this study can be useful not only for decision-making organizations of AMAC to manage and recycle this type of waste but also can be used as a method to estimate the generation of e-waste in different locations of the Country, especially in places where the generation of such waste could be a risk to human health and the environment.




Built Environment and its impact on Human Health and the Natural Environment.


*Anyanwu Ignatius; **Kalu Mba Mba; ***Udodirim Lilian C; ****Dioka Marvise; ****Uwaoma Blessing; & *****Onyele Victor.

*Department of Urban and Regional Planning; **Estate Management; ***Building Technology; ****Civil Engineering; and *****Quantity Surveying.



The environment plays an important role in disease dynamics and in determining the health of individuals. Specifically, the built environment has a large impact on the prevention and containment of both chronic and infectious disease in humans and in non-human animals. The effects of the built environment on health can be direct, for example, by influencing environmental quality, or indirect by influencing behaviours that impact disease transmission and health.The research highlights the profound effects that built environments have on built environment, public-health and natural environment. Planning decisions influence neighborhood configuration, housing design, parks, location of stores and schools, as well as factors such as traffic density and air and water quality. These characteristics, in turn, affect physical and psychological health for people of all ages. “Making health an explicit component of planning is critical. The built environment significantly affects the public’s health. This was most obvious when infectious disease was the primary public health threat during the industrial revolution; unsanitary conditions and overcrowded urban areas facilitated the spread of infection. However, even today in the age of chronic diseases there remains an important connection between population health and the built environment. Physical spaces can expose people to toxins or pollutants and influence lifestyles that contribute to diabetes, coronary vascular disease, and asthma. Public health advocates can help shape the design of cities and suburbs in ways that improve public health, but to do so effectively they need to understand the legal framework. This article reviews the connection between public health and the built environment and then describes the legal pathways for improving the design of our built environment.

Keyword: Built Environment, Human Health, Natural Environment, Housing, Effect, Development.




An Evaluation of Environmental Illumination Adequacy within a work environment: A case study of The Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun.


*Mercy O., Omoifo-Irefo; & **Taiwo K., Olamoju

*Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology Department, Petroleum Training Institute, PMB 20, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria **University of South Wales, Pontypridd, United Kingdom



The extent to which the productivity and wellbeing of employees is being impacted and determined by extent of illumination within workplaces cannot be overemphasized. This has become so pertinent that health and safety agencies across the globe have continued to enjoin and educate employers on the pressing need to put adequate lighting equipment and mechanisms in place to ensure the continuous safety and wellbeing of their employees. This study focused on evaluating the extent and impacts of illumination (lighting) levels within the physical work environment, using the Petroleum Training Institute (Effurun, Delta State) as a case study. This study utilized survey method (questionnaires) to elicit primary data on the perception of 150 employees (lecturers, administrative staffs, technicians and librarians) on about illumination levels within the institute using a 4-point likert scale. This study also utilized photometer to measure illumination levels at offices in 4 different locations (Academic Block, Administrative Block, Administrative Extension Block and Laboratories) within the institute. In addition, observations were done on the locations during mid-day. The data generated was analyzed using S.P.S.S version 23. The findings from evaluation reveal that despite majority of participants admitting that they feel safe with lighting conditions in the institute, it was also discovered that lighting need to be improved in some locations to meet recommended standards by the US General Services Administration (GSA). It is suggested that illumination levels need to be adjusted in locations where they are considered low or high within the institute to reduce exposure to health hazards like poor eyesight, overheating and exhaustion, coupled with frequent monitoring of illumination levels within all locations within the institute.

Keywords: Wellbeing; Measures; Conditions; Adequacy; Standards




Effects of Building Matetials on Housing Development a Case Study of Maiduguri Metropolis.


Muktar Usman Alhaji, Hussaini Alhassan Funtua and Babagana Bukar

Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State.



Over the years there has been an increase in the rising cost of building materials and which in-turn discourage individuals to embark in housing development. This research paper was designed in order to look into the effects of building materials cost on housing development in Maiduguri metropolis area of Borno State. Data on the prices of building materials were obtained by the researcher through market survey between the year 2019 and 2020. One hundred and Twenty Five (125) respondents were selected randomly. One hundred and twenty questionnaire were dully returned and were used for the analysis. The data were presented using chi-square statistics and theoretical analysis were used to analyse data that are not numerical in nature. The analysis revealed that the implication on building material cost could result in the downward effect on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the nation’s economy. The result also shows that rising cost of building materials was generated due to the exchange rate of the Nigerian Naira. It is recommended that the use of local building materials should be encourage by individuals, housing developers as well as contractors in order to produce houses at subsidize rate. Government at all levels should endeavour to play their own role in the control of prices of building materials in order to avoid further inflation in the country.

Keywords: Building, Materials, Housing, Development. Building Materials, Housing Development




Suitability of Locust Beans Waste Ash and Alkaline Activated Rice Husk Ash as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete


Adejoh Benjamin Ochola1, Kamar Usman Otaru2, Umar Musa3

1.2Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



In this study, the suitability of locust beans waste ash and alkaline activated rice husk ash as Cementious materials in partial replacement for cement in concrete was investigated. The locust beans waste ash and activated rice husk ash were used to partially replace cement by percentage of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in concrete cube samples. 60 number of grade 20 concrete cubes and 60 numbers of grade 25 concrete cubes were cast in laboratory and cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in accordance to BS1881: part 116: 1983. Water/cement ratio of 0.55 was used in the work; the study is aimed towards managing the of locust beans waste and rice husks through reuse so as to reduce there accumulation which constitute nuisance on the environment and could cause environmental health hazards. The locust beans was incinerated, sieved after incineration using sieve size of 150m and was later mixed with the activated rice husk ash in the laboratory at equal percentage. However despite the observed loss in compressive strengths of the concrete, it can still be used for various application requiring medium and low strength in accordance to concrete grade 5, a strength which is achieved with these replacement of locust beans waste ash and activated rice husk ash in concrete: such as non-load bearing concrete wall, sidewalks, road barrier, concrete block, kerbs. The amount of concrete produce worldwide for this application could ensure the viability of this study.

Keywords: Locust beans waste ash, rice husk ash, Cementious material, Environmental health hazard, Compressive strength.




Architectural Hallmarks and How they are Determined


Samuel Peter

Architectural Technology Department, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazure, Jigawa State.



Humans differ from each other no matter how closely related they might be. There are traits, visible or not visible, that are responsible for these differences. The same distinguishing characteristics apply to buildings. These traits set them apart and give each building its own unique place in time and space. Despite their uniqueness, buildings share certain hallmarks in common. These hallmarks qualify them as works of architecture. This study plans to identify these hallmarks to find out if they are conventional, subject to change, conceptually or empirically determined as well as find out if they are rule-governed. To do this, qualitative methodology was employed. The study focused on analysing literatures using logical argumentation strategy. The analysed information led to the conclusion that the three hallmarks (shelter, arrangement and expression) must be present in every building to qualify the structure as an architectural work. However, the study observed that the shelter and arrangement hallmarks are conventional, subject to change and rule-governed. They can also be determined conceptually or empirically. While the expression hallmark is not conventional, rule-governed, conceptually or empirically determined but it is subject to change. 

Keywords: Conceptually-determined, Conventionally-determined, Empirically-determined, Hallmark, Ruled-governed.




Embracing Facilities Management Practice for Infrastructural Improvement


*Alabi, Oluwole Titilayo; **Uwaezuoke, Ngozi Ifeanyi; & **Olatunji Olarewaju Samson

*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria.



Infrastructure development refers to the basic infrastructure and systems that serve a country, city, or region, as well as the services and facilities that are required to run its economy. Housing, roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewage, electrical grids, and telecommunications are all examples of technological constructions, All of these factors, when combined, can result in the provision of adequate and cheap housing, which is important for a community’s smooth operation. Infrastructure development has a direct impact on production and consumption, but it also generates a slew of direct and indirect externalities. It Infrastructure development and efficiency are critical for regional economic development and progress. Because of a lack of funds, infrastructure improvement in underdeveloped countries is at an all-time low. The Transformation Agenda consists of a set of priority policies that, if implemented, will transform developing economies into self-sufficient developed countries. According to studies, over $57 trillion would be needed to fund global infrastructure by 2030 in order to support sustainable GDP development. However, given the severe fiscal restrictions that have emerged in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, new approaches to increasing productivity in global infrastructure construction will be required. This study examined the significance of roles of facilities management in infrastructure development in developing nations and offered recommendation in that direction that the impact of a lack of infrastructure in developing countries can be mitigated by implementing facility management Practice. Additionally, in line with Vision 2030 development initiative, effective facilities management practice will support the expected GDP growth through 2030. Facilities management must be viewed as a tool for infrastructure development in underdeveloped countries to be evolved into globally developed Nations

Keywords: Facilities Management, Infrastructure, Infrastructure Improvement, Third World Communities, Global Developed Nation.




The Implication of Inclusive Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Angola and Nigeria.


Anyanwu Ignatius Uzoma

Department of Urban And Regional Planning, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.



Over the years, African economies have undergone considerable transformation, with consistent and robust growth, in sharp contrast to decades of slow or even negative growth, which characterized the 1970s into the 1990s. While the region’s economies slowed down from an average of 5.6% during the period 2002-2008 to  2.2% in  2009, in  the wake of  the global  financial crisis;  Africa promptly  recovered, with  an average growth rate of 4.6% in 2010 and 6.2% in 2012, as well as 4.0 and 4.3% for 2013 and 2014, respectively. In Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth is even more robust, averaging about 6% over the past decade. This development has made the region to be acknowledged with the second highest economic growth in the world in recent times. However, contemporary economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unaccompanied by employment generation or increased livelihood  opportunities. Consequently, poverty levels across the region remain relatively  high,  at  48%  of  the  population.  The challenges  posed  by  lack  of  inclusive  growth  are particularly evident in Angola and Nigeria, countries that feature economies driven by the petroleum industry. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to shed light on the challenges associated with lack of inclusive growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper employs empirical data to analyze Angola and Nigeria case studies, which reveal both countries as resource-rich economies featuring relatively high economic profiles, devoid of widespread employment opportunities, with grave consequences for endemic poverty. Consequently, the paper presents a policy framework,  grounded in  poverty reduction  strategies, enterprise  development and  capacity building aimed at promoting broad-based economic growth as the cornerstone of African economies.

Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Implication, Inclusive growth, Sub-saharan Africa, Angola and Nigeria




Use of Industrial Waste Product for Soil Improvement: A Review


Baba Benjamin

Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko



Waste materials are one of the most risky issues that the environment could be faced. Many procedures have been taken by both individuals, non-governmental organizations and governments in order to reduce these global effects or issues, and one of these procedures were done by reducing the creating of the industrial waste, the reducing of waste does not mean there is no waste will procedure. However, the best way to reduce the impact of industrial waste is by re-using them in another application as soil improvement. Soil existing at a particular site may not be appropriate for construction of engineering structures. The modern study made an attempt to enhance the geotechnical properties of a soil replaced with industrial wastes having pozzolanic value like fly ash (FA).

Keywords: Improvement, Industrial, Waste Product, Soil, Review




Assessment of the Level of Implementation of Space Standards on Commercial Properties in Ikot Ekpene Urban, Nigeria


*Koffi, Ayadu E; & Willie, Janet S

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osuara



Space and planning standards are fundamental tools which provide direction for the development of the future environment. They involve specifications employed to guide the use of urban land in all over the world both in the developing and the developed society where development are springing up at exponential rate. Since land is the central theme and the primary requirement for the development, there is a serious need to regulate the activities of the developers in order to achieve a balance system of development. Therefore the study seek to assess the level of compliance of space standards in the development of commercial properties in Ikot Ekpene Urban. The methodology applied in this study involved direct measurement and field observations as a source of primary data while review of the building regulations in Ikot Ekpene for appropriate space standard constituted the secondary data. Results showed that in Ikot Ekpene Urban the level of compliance by the developers and enforcement by the Ikot Ekpene Area Planning Authority is low as compared to others cities of the world. Therefore the study recommends for the specifications of standards in all types of developments and ensure enforcement of such in order to achieve aesthetically pleasing environment.   

Keywords: Implementation, Space Standards, Commercial Properties, Urban Development, Nigeria




Landscaping as a Strategy for Improving an Institutional Environment, a Case of Akanu-Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, P.M.B 1007 Afikpo Ebonyi State


Arc. Nwabuna, Nwokedi Patrick; Cheche, Kalu Kalu; & Arc. Udomiaye Emmanuel

Department of Architectural Technology, Akanu-Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, P.M.B 1007 Afikpo Ebonyi State



The three primary needs of man are food, clothing and shelter. Shelter provides man with protection against the effects of the elements of weather, cold, heat from the sun, unwanted cold flushes and also provides him with protection from predators. The development of man over the years goes with the development of shelter abode to make it suit his purposes for erecting the shelter, suit his aesthetic appeal and conform with his status in the society. One of the ways through which man has been able to achieve the above conditions was through proper landscaping of his environment. Landscaping as the tool used for institutional, urban and even rural improvement aims at enhancing the beauty and aesthetic quality of the environment for the use of man. The objective of the department of physical planning is to transform the developable and developed surfaces of settlement into functional and quality environment for its residents. (Amaobichukwu, U. and Isu, H.E, 2019). The concept of landscape planning gives credence to environmental impact design for an improved urban and institutional environmental quality in a period of rapid environmental transformation in Nigeria. While acknowledging the fact that a greater percentage of the Nigerian Institutional Environment is in a deplorable state, the writer highlights the environmental impacts of landscaping, giving special attention to environmental cost benefit analysis. The aim of this paper therefore is to bring to the fore the importance of landscaping the environment, maintenance of landscaped surfaces and structures of the Akanu-Ibiam Federal Polytechnic while suggesting ways on how the Polytechnic environment can be treated to reduce the depressing and gloomy state of its outlook. This will be achieved through personal visits, documenting existing landscaped areas to obtain data and intensive literature review of documents, journals, books amongst others.

Keywords: Landscaping, Landscape Elements, Aesthetics, Hard and Soft Landscapes, Landscape features.




Insurance Investment Opportunities in the Nigerian Construction Sector


Shwarka, M.  S. PhD & Odeniyi, V. A.

Department of Building, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.



Insurance has become very relevant to infrastructural development, particularly in the construction sector which is bedevilled with numerous process risks, including project failures. The construction sector if well managed can contribute greatly to national economic growth. However, insurance has not assumed its proper role within the sector in Nigeria. This paper seeks to identify opportunities for insurance in construction and to determine the severity of challenges militating against insurance investment in the Nigerian construction sector. The study was conducted among 20 insurance practitioners and 46 construction clients and contractors in Kaduna and Abuja, Nigeria. Data gathered was evaluated by means of a four point sliding scale. Severity indexes of challenges were computed and ranked. Findings showed five most severe challenges were lack of trust in the ability of the insurers to pay claims, changes in construction client needs and expectations, financial constraints of construction contractors to purchase insurance policies, lack of expert risks/failure analysts for construction projects and economic instability with severity indexes of 33.6%, 31.2%, 29.2%, 28.8% and 28.6% respectively. The study concluded that for optimal use of construction resources and greater impact on construction managerial decisions, insurance underwriters must be re-oriented to recognize construction as complex and dynamic in terms of policy servicing and claims, have competent risk/failure business  analyst who understand that in every challenge there exists an opportunity to invest. The study recommends more effective communication by construction insurance business analyst, greater integrity, and discouragement of delay in compensation payments in order to enhance trust in the insured. It also suggests amendment to the Nigerian the Public Procurement Act to encourage purchase of insurance bonds rather than bank bonds for contractors to help reduce cost of bond purchase.

Keywords:  Construction, Challenges, Insurance, Investment, Opportunities.  




Effective Structural Design of High Rise Buildings: Cost Comparisons between Software and Manual Methods


Bldr. Dr. Mohammed Olowoake; & Azeez Oladimeji

Department of Building Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria



Many years ago manual method of design was the only way of preparing structural design for constructing high rise buildings, but today, we are in computer age where application of software, programmed, has been using to ease the stress and sleepless nights of the structural engineers from rigorous calculations before deriving the working drawing which will be used to determine the kind of reinforcement to use. Nowadays, engineers are no more suffering unnecessarily as it were for them by then. Moreover the software method is unlike method which takes much time and consumes more energy which consequently exult the engineer. The use of software for structural designs has lots of advantages, parts of which are good colorful design, good packaging which makes the engineer’s work look professional. The study compares the costs of manual structural design to software structural design of high rise buildings, and proposes the best alternative method of designing high rise buildings. From the data gathered and presented the major findings of the research confirm that: Software method of structural design is faster than manual method in terms of time, more costly than manual method of structural design. more dependable when it comes to accuracy, smarter and manual method of design cause most fatigue to the designer due to the fact that it takes a lot of time. The researchers recommend the use of software for structural design because it most reliable in terms of time, speed, accuracy, and cost effectiveness.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, high rise building, manual method, software method and Structural design




Analysis of Due Process Compliance and Construction Success in Bauchi


Ibrahim Garba; Salisu Magaji; Hafsatu Jidere Bala; & Mudashir M.R

Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi – Nigeria



This study attempted to assess the relationship between success of construction projects and adherence to due process policy in Bauchi. A literature review reveals a limited amount of research in the area of assessing the extent of stakeholder’s compliance with due process policy on construction projects. Questionnaire was distributed to 150 officials to obtain primary data for this study. The data was statistically analyzed to showcase relationship. The findings indicated that there is strong relationship between success of construction projects and adherence to due process policy. Findings from this study can be useful to the policy makers, companies and other relevant authorities in their efforts to enhance the effectiveness and adherence with due process.

Key words: Due Process; Construction Projects; Compliance




Perceptions on Tree Shelterbelts as an Element to Improve Environmental Resource in Parts of Bauchi State


Bala, Sagir Madaki and Ashiru Sabiu Yusuf

Dept. of General Studies, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This study was conducted in southern Bauchi State. It is aimed at determining the improvements achieved after Shelterbelt initiative. The study found that prior to the Shelterbelt initiative, the area exhibited frequent dust storm, loss in biodiversity etc. Cultivation of crops were restricted to certain types, water bodies were lost e.g. ponds etc. After the establishment of Shelterbelts, there was improvements with increased abundance of trees, shrubs and grasses, reduced wind or dust storms and better harvest of agricultural products, increased biodiversity. The study can be used as an intervention to prevent environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, prevent socio political conflicts, desert encroachment, and rural-urban drift.

Keywords: Shelterbelts, element, improve environmental, resource.




Planning Proposal for Trucks and Tankers Garage in Jimeta, Yola North Local Government Area Adamawa-Nigeria


1Yakubu Usman Mohammed; 2Zainab Yusuf; & 1Suleiman Mohammed Daji

1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa-Nigeria. 2Department of Environmental Management, Kaduna State University, Kaduna-Nigeria



The paper proposes a Transit Truck Park for short and long-term parking demand in Jimeta, Adamawa state. This was done by examining the challenges and prospect faced by truck and trailer drivers and suitability of the selected site for the proposal. The data was collected from primary (field study) and secondary (existing literature, data Government reports and allied documents) sources. Alternatives sites were evaluated with regard to suitability of siting a Transit Truck Park, standards and design consideration were used as guiding principle for the design and proposal in the study area. The study concludes that the introduction of technology enabled solution, investment in building attractive truck transit parks, and proper regulation of the road freight sectors are recommended as short and medium plans for minimizing truck fatigue induced accidents on Nigerian roads. The study also recommends that the truck organization should work with the local jurisdictions to identify and adopt guidelines for accommodating and developing truck parking facilities, including identifying ways to accommodate truck parking in local land use development and redevelopment processes among others. 

Keywords: Transit Truck Park, Tankers parking facilities, Garage, standards.



Modelling Floodplain areas in Jibia town and its Environs Using Geospatial Techniques


H Musa1 and Na’iya K.H2

1Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina. 2Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Katsina



In order to analyze the causes of flooding in Jibia town and its environs, this study used SRTM-Digital elevation, Land sat Images and Map of dam facilities. The base maps of the study area were delineated for the years 1990, 2003 and 2018 respectively. Digital elevation model, Flow direction, flow accumulation and slope of the study area were generated from Digital elevation. Map of the study area was overlaid on Digital elevation model, flow direction, flow accumulation and slope of the study area. Finding reveals that, the primary cause of flooding in Jibia town is the encroachment of built-up areas in the water bodies. This incidence cost life and property of the people in Jibia town. It also caused the erosion of township roads. The study recommended the resettlement of people living in flood prone areas and dredging the control drainages regularly. Government should extend social amenities to areas beyond Jibia Irrigation project area to decongest the town.

Keywords: Modelling, Floodplain, Jibia, Remote sensing, Geospatial Information System.




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