African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 21 No. 6


VOL. 21 NO. 6 JUNE, 2021 ISSN: 2110 – 2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Awareness and Implications of Buy Made-In -Nigeria Broadcast Campaign on the Purchase Decision of Residents in Alimosho Local Government Area Lagos


Jegede Omolayo O.; Ernest-Onuiri Patricia E.; Solo-Anaeto Margret; & Adeboye Marvelous

Department of Mass Communication, Veronica Adeleke School of Social Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state



The Nigerian government has since 1994 made conscious efforts to encourage a favorable attitude towards Made-in-Nigeria goods otherwise referred to as locally made goods. It is an effort geared towards reducing the dominance of foreign products which has adversely affected the patronage of locally made goods, the growth of her industry and economy. Anchored on the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the influence of the awareness of the Buy Made-in-Nigeria Campaign on television, radio, and social media on the purchase decision of residents of Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos state. Survey research design was adopted; 400 respondents were systematically through purposive, and simple random sampling techniques. The study found that exposure to the Buy Made-in-Nigeria Campaign on Television and Radio (X=3.82), and social media(X=3.72) had a significant positive influence on the purchase decision of locally made goods among respondents. It was recommended that the government should pay more attention to the campaign; and broadcast it more frequently to strengthen the perception and trust that the people have for made-in- Nigeria goods.

Key words:  Made-in-Nigeria, Buy Made-in-Nigeria Campaign, Purchase decision, Broadcast campaign, Awareness




Probability of Transiting from a Casual to a Permanent Work Arrangement


Ake Modupe1; Ake Susan2; Rasak Bamidele3; Ogunlade Peter4; Asamu Festus5; Oye Olubukoye6; & Ganiu Rasaq Omokeji7

1, Department of Political Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State. 2Department of Mass Communication, Baze University, Abuja, FCT. 3, 4, 5, 6 Department of Sociology, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State. 7Department of Sociology, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State



Education is one important factor that impacts the chances of consolidating the employment relationship, with profoundly educated workers, those with a college degree, having more chances, ceteris paribus, to transit to a permanent job than those with lower levels of education. Similarly, both the occupation of the worker and the economic activity of the business play a job in deciding the transition from one sort of employment to another. Accordingly, occupations in development and agriculture offer casual workers fewer chances of transition, what may be explained by the more seasonal character of these activities in comparison to industry and services. Studies have revealed how workers in nonqualified occupations have the most reduced probability of getting utilized on a permanent basis. Based on this argument, therefore, this study examines the probability of transiting from a casual to a permanent work arrangement and utilized equity theory as a theoretical framework.

Keywords: Casual worker, Casualization, Permanent work arrangement, Casual work arrangement, Employment relationship




Religion Education as a Panacea for Injustice and Corruption in Nigeria


*Wadam Z. S.; *Zakka S.W.; & **Zakka V.

*Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Jos **Faculty of Law Misau, Bauchi State University



Nigeria history is been characterized by the encounter with the European imperialist which this paper tries to examine, the encounter took three stages namely, slave trade, the partition of African by the European powers who scrambled territories therein, had the Christianization of Africa which occurred during the partition. Although the public sector is the machinery of government in achieving meaningful development in the area of infrastructures education health, means of transport and others. The failure to achieve any of these developmental scourge is very important that needs immediate action. The aims/purpose of the study includes is to determine the pattern experiences and manifestation of injustice and corruption in Nigeria. The research work investigates the aspects of religion education as a panacea injustice and corruption in Nigeria. Some problems associated to injustice and corruption in Nigeria to the failure of public sector which is the machinery of government in achieving meaningful development in the area of infrastructures such as education, health, means of transport and achieve any developmental scourge is very important for it seek immediate attention. The efforts of the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) and the economic and financial crime commission had done little to combing this monster as care and magnitudes of corruption is still insignificant compared to the poverty level. The overall aim of this study is to determine the pattern experiences and manifestation of injustice and corruption it manifestation, and to proffer possible solution and the political system of Nigeria. One of the methodology used was questionnaires administered, of which fifty were returned fully. Despite the experienced with various political government institutions corruption and injustice, none has succeeded in reducing it. Let alien illuminating. The study recommends that leadership must display transparency, honesty, probity, accountability, purposefulness and commitments to good ideal to convince the followers.

Keywords: Religion, Education. Panacea, Injustice, Corruption, Nigeria.




Religion: A Widget of Culture in African Societies


Abdullahi Ahmad Musa; & Abdulmalik Abdulrahman Abdulmalik

Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



Culture is a total way of life of every one in a society. Every human in a society is under a certain set of rules, regulations, behaviuor, mindset, and even materials for a way of living. The concept of culture is a debatable discussion among many scholars, but every society and scholars agreed on the existence of culture. Thus, culture is a universal phenomenon found everywhere but in a different format, this culture changes over time and the causes of its changes usually account for the external factors accepted by an individual or group of people under the same culture. This paper seeks to highlight religion as a key factor controlling culture and influencing other parts of culture in a giving society. The paper gives an empirical analysis of various aspects of culture been influenced by religion from different part of Africa, with much attention from Nigeria as a region. The paper concludes with an overview that culture is influenced by many factors, but religion is a principal factor and served as the widget of culture in African societies.

Keywords:  Culture, Religion, African Societies, Widget, and Influence.




A Survey of Police Operations and Insecurity in Nigeria


Akoji, Richard Oklagba; & Prof. David Oladimeji Alao (Ph.D)

Department of Political Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



Police operations are expected to cover areas such as peace maintenance, combating crime patrolling and communication. However, there has been a steady increase in the spate of insecurity in Nigeria between 2009 and 2020. This has caused the death of thousands of people and destruction of property on account of Boko Haram criminality, kidnapping, herdsmen menace, armed banditry and ritual killings. The Nigeria Police is incapable to combat this insecurity effectively in spite of the efforts of their numerous tactical outfits such as the Mobile police, Anti-cultism, Anti-kidnapping, Special Weapon and Tactics, and Anti-Terrorist. It is worrisome that the Nigeria Police Force serving in various foreign missions have been applauded and rated high in their tactical operational effectiveness but such could not be achieved domestically. Relying on both primary and secondary sources of information, the paper found that work conditions that the operatives of the Nigeria police force had to face all the time especially with regard to scarcity of modern equipment affects their operational capacity. The paper also found that lack of adequate education among the operatives as well as low staff strength, affect their performance. The paper recommended that there must be incentives, good condition of service, and provision of adequate operational infrastructure for effective policing.

Keywords: Nigeria Police Force, Nigeria, Police Operations, Insecurity, Security Operatives,




The Fusion of Activism and Imagination in Ryan Coogler’s Black Panther.


Mohammed El-Nasir, Al-Amin.

English Department, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria.



Literature has enabled Blacks all over the world in looking toward the future, by envisioning the world they want to see, and taking concrete steps to create it. They see the need to rekindle the spirit of radical imagination that fueled so many black activists before now. What then constitutes these imaginations among the Blacks is the focus of this paper.The methodology is exclusively analytical and discursive in approach, with a touch of Post-colonial theory and Afrofuturism. Afrofuturist ideas have further been expanded by scholars like Alondra NelsonGreg TateTricia RoseKodwoEshun, and others. The primary data selected for the purpose of this study is the movie titled Black Panther an American superhero film, produced and directed by Kevin Feign and Ryan Coogler in 2018, respectively. The data is subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the depth of its richness to what imaginative activism is, in the lives of the Blacks. The study finds out that the events and technological advancement in the Black Panther could be said to have been the dream every Black man in the world have been craving for. Ryan Coogler, the movie director affirms that, it was his quest for African identity that led to the emergence of the movie. This paper has discussed, with copious examples on how Wakanda exemplifies the imagination of the writer and the cultural assertion of the African heritage. With the audio surveillance system, automated shoes, sonic stabilizers and magnetic levitation, Wakanda is believed to be more of a magical place in the eyes of the whites rather than technologically advanced enclave of the Blacks. This paper acknowledges the fact that one day, Black nation would rise to be part of the shakers and movers of the world. And with the fusion of activism and imagination highlighted in this paper, it is evident that there is hope for the Blacks in the universe. In conclusion, this study has been able to answer the questions on activism and imagination in Black movement couple with the various instances where the movie envisions Black prospect, Black cultural reassertion, in contrast to the way it has been viewed by Africans and the outside world, the unity of the Black nation in forming a county called Wakanda; the incredible role of the female characters; the management of their natural resources (vibranium) to proffer solution to their immediate needs; the readiness to help other third world country in time of crises such as Nigeria, and so on.

Keywords: Fusion, Activism, Imagination, Ryan, Coogler’s Black Panther.




The Consequences of the Implementationof Adopted Governance System with Collapse of Democratic Systems


Adm. Kola Gidily Nzadeno

Department of Public Administration, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola



This paper studies how some sets of nation-states have been haunted by series of historical challenges like human injustices, human depression, oppression similar to what the colonial masters have done to our ancestors on the African continent. The paper went further to find and compare the public dominance of resources control, politics of god-fatherism, struggle for political power, confused and working at cross purpose legislative systems, egocentric, self-serving leaders of the historical past and the present. This paper was able to show the master and servant relationship that prevailed instead of a proud well-functioning political system. Prior study of collapse society due to poor governance had and will continue to be cause of violence and violent crimes, destructions, lack of obeying law and order, lawlessness and so on. The paper suggests among other things a call upon the international communities, government, corrupt free associations, nongovernmental societies and individual activists to commit themselves to further development in good governance to avoid collapse of society and obtain equal development, poverty and disease free society, political and economic growth and development.

Keywords:  Nation-states, governance system, democratic society, violence and violent crimes,neo-colonialist.




An Appraisal of Functions of English in Relation to Local Languages in Nigeria


Vincent S. Gonding and Olusolabomi O. Mabadeje

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state.



There is no country in the world without language problems. Even if a country is monolingual, there may be problem of regional or social dialects. Every nation has a language that is regarded as a national language.  A national language needs the acceptance of the community- it should be spoken by a majority of the population. National language problems are not the same in all nations. A national language is used for communication across all the regions of a country. No Nigerian language can perform this function. There are too many languages in Nigeria. It is difficult to choose one as a national language. English, a foreign language is the official language in Nigeria. This is because none of the local languages has been developed enough to play this role. Attempts aimed at developing one local language to serve as lingua franca has often engendered tension in the country as people are always ready to protect their languages jealously. These languages have helped to preserve and sustain the cultures of the ethnic groups that make up Nigeria. English has occupied a prominent position as an official language in Nigeria because of the existence of many languages in the country. English language is neutral, accessible and acceptable to virtually all communities in the country. The language is used in governance, mass media, commerce, education and international relations. A variety of English with distinct features is beginning to emerge in Nigeria. English has helped to link Nigeria with the global village and we are benefiting from globalization with its technology-the internet, integrated world economy, computer and cyber space.

Keywords: Appraisal, English, Relation, Local Languages, Nigeria.




Risk Perception by Journalists and Coverage of Endsars Protests In Nigeria


John Bamidele Ige PhD; & Tope Ige

Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Offa, Nigeria.



Mass protests predate independence in Nigeria. There were women riots in Eastern Nigeria between 1925-1930 and Abeokuta about 1948-1949. In her more recent history, Nigeria experienced the “Alli Must Go” protests in 1978 and the June 12 protest and riots in 1993. None of these protests attracted media attention, foreign and local, and impacted media establishments and practitioners in Nigeria like #EndSars protests of the latter part of the year 2020. Media houses were vandalized and burnt and practitioners assaulted. The social movement dubbed EndSars has widened its demand beyond disbandment of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad unit of the Nigeria Police to include demand for good and accountable governance in Nigeria. The implication is that it has evolved into a movement with perpetual causes and call for protests, with the possibility of risks and violence on media houses and practitioners. This scenario leads to the question of how journalists perceive risks associated with coverage of EndSars protests. The research method adopted was survey. Structured questionnaires were administered on 210 media practitioners. Our analysis of data collected showed that majority of the respondents 75% view coverage of EndSars protests as very risky. Inspite of this, most journalists, 86% are highly inclined to cover the protests. Our conclusion is that inspite of perceiving coverage of the EndSars protests as highly risky, majority of the journalists are prepared to perceive it as inevitable hazards of the job. Given this scenario, this paper recommends adequate insurance cover for journalists covering the protests. It also recommends that media practitioners should ensure balance, eschew bias, verify facts and give voice to the victims in their reportage.

Keywords: Protests, EndSARS, Journalist, Perception, Coverage.




Diaspora’s use of Local Radio Stations During the 2019 General Elections in Oyo State, Nigeria


*Abegunrin, A.O.; **Popoola E.K.O.; & *Muslim, N.A.

*General Studies Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State **Public Administration Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State



The advent of new media technologies, such as the advent of the internet, has profoundly improved the rate and pattern of local media content consumption by members of diasporic communities. Coincidentally, Oyo state, Nigeria has continued to witness proliferation of FM radio stations in the last fifteen years. Almost all these radio stations transmit on the internet through Apps and social media platforms. This has enabled Nigerians in the diaspora to be active participants in discussions on local radio stations. This paper examined diaspora’s use of local radio stations during the 2019 general elections in Oyo state. The paper found out that apart from using their contributions to local radio stations to declare support for or against certain political parties and candidates, members of the diaspora also raised some issues concerning the poll through their comments.

Keywords: media technologies, diaspora, FM radio, election, internet  




La Violence  Contre  L’africaine A Travers La Secretaire Particulière De Jean Pliya Et  C’est Le Soleil Qui  M’a  Brulée De Calixthe Bayela.


Member Ordue; Prof. C.I. Ihon; & Prof. J.B. Ashikô.

French Department, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.



Résumé: La violence contre la femme constitue une grande partie de la préoccupation de la plupart des écrivains africains de la littérature africaine postcoloniale. Nos écrivains de corpus, Calixthe Beyala et Jean Pliya  font partie d’écrivains dont leurs romans tentent à adresser l’injustice  contre la femme dans la société africaine. L’Afrique est notamment connue par les pratiques abusives, comme la violence, la mutilation  pour ne citer  que les deux contre la femme, les femmes souffrent   de l’oppressions et parfois les amène à la mort. C’est à cause de ça  que plusieurs écrivains féministes dénoncent cette  violence contre l’africaine. Les auteurs /œuvres que nous avons choisi essaient de conscientiser, de critiquer et d’éveiller les lecteurs contre les abus du system patriarcal. Non seulement ça, ils ont utilisé aussi quelques-uns de ses personnages pour proposer la transformation.

Les mot clés: violence, émancipation, la femme,  l’africain et le womanisme.


Abstract: The violence against woman constitutes a major pre-occupation of African writers of post independent era. The authors chosen in this research; Calixthe Bayela and Jean Pliya are part of this movement. Africa is notably known for abusive practices like violence, mutilation to cite two out of many ills against African woman. The woman suffers of these abuses and sometimes leads to their death. It is because of that most feminist writers take it upon themselves to denounce this violence against African woman. The works chosen in this research have tried to conscientise, criticise the readers against the abuse of this patriarchal system. Not only that but they used some of their characters to propose change.

Keywords: Violence, liberation, emancipation, woman, African woman and womanisme.




Corporate Fraud in Nigeria (A Two Case Study)


*Okeke Raphael Chukwuma; & **Obiakor Ugochukwu Jude

*Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State. **Department of Business Administration, Federal Polyechnic Oko, Anambra State



The Purpose of this study is to compare Corporate fraud in a profit making organisation and a non-profit making organisation in the particular circumstances of a developing country like Nigeria with a view to drawing out the similarities and differences between them. A case study approach was adopted using Cadbury( Nig.)Plc.  and the Nigerian Stock Exchange as organisations of study. This approach was also supplemented with the use of newspaper reports and interviews granted by knowledgeable persons in the industries. The study was anchored on the acronym “CRIME” representing Cooks, Recipes, Incentives, Monitoring and End results. The findings suggest that there are similarities. These include the fact that top management were mainly the architects of the frauds; Top management were buoyed in part by greed; the end result was massive loss to investors and loss of employment by both perpetrators and innocent other employees. There were also differences. The vehicles used in perpetrating the fraud were different reflecting the different objectives of the organisations. Some of the incentives also differed. The monitoring mechanisms put in place in both organisations also differed in breath. The study results are based on only two cases and should therefore be interpreted with caution. This paper has practical implications for Nigerian regulators including the Nigerian Security and Exchange Commission. The Central Bank of Nigeria, investors, Board of directors and all those interested in reigning in the monster of corporate fraud in Nigeria. The findings of this study are generally in line with similar studies in other climes. However, the study identifies some other factors peculiar to corporate frauds in Nigeria. This is also, perhaps,the first study in Nigeria to compare fraud in a Nigerian profit making company and the Nigerian Bourse.

Keywords: Corporate, Fraud, Nigeria, Corporate, Crime.




Menace of Drug and Substance Abuse Problems to Adolescents and the Society


*Anasin Salisu Muhammad; **Musa Baba Abubakar; **Adam Muhammad El-Hamees; **Adamu Saleh; & *Salisu Yakubu Idris

*Registry Dept. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Dept. General Studies, School of General Studies. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



Drugs or substance abuse continues to be the major risk behaviour among youth and adolescents, with physical and mental health complications. Despite the known risks associated with the drugs, adolescents continue using these drugs. This paper reveals the prevalence of drug abuse among adolescent’s in Nigeria societies, problems associated with drugs abuse and reasons why adolescents are vulnerable to drugs abuse. Drug abuse causes a lot of risk among the adolescents; it results to gang formation, armed robbery, mental illness and cultism. Studies revealed that most of the drug addicts started smoking from their young age. As they grow older they seek new thrills and gradually go into hard drugs. There was an indication that 65 percent of high school students used drugs to have good time, 54 percent wanted to experiment to see what it is like, 20–40 percent used it to alter their moods. It concludes by prescribing some ways of curbing the menace arising from drug abuse and a little history of drug.

Keywords: Adolescents, Substance abuse, Problem, Society and Prevention.




Addressing Inconsistency In Appeal Procedure Before The Tax Appeal Tribunal In Nigeria.


Aniekan J. Mendie

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



The practice and procedure of tax law in Nigeria is regulated by some legal regime which include the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 and Tax Appeal Tribunal (Procedure) Rules, 2010, among others. This legal regime exists under the constitutional structure which aims at ensuring a level playing field for any appellant, whether private person or government agency like the Federal Inland Revenue Service, (FIRS) in the exercise of right of appeal before The Tax Appeal Tribunal (TAT). However, nothing could be further from the truth when it comes to exercise of right of appeal by a government agency such as the Federal Inland Revenue Service before the Tax Appeal Tribunal (TAT). A critical reading of the Federal Inland Revenue Act, 2007 and Tax Appeal Tribunal Rules, 2010 discloses a serious inconsistency which introduces inequality in appeal procedure regarding exercise of right of filing an appeal before the Tax Appeal Tribunal between a private appellant and official appellant (example, the FIRS). This paper therefore addresses the issues of inconsistency and inequality characterizing the appeal procedure before Tax Appeal Tribunal and seeks to find solutions thereto. To that extent, the paper adopts the doctrinal approach in explaining legal rules and principles with respect to appeal procedure before the Tax Appeal Tribunal. It also adopts content analysis methodology in looking at the provisions of substantive and procedural laws regarding institution of appeals before the Tax Appeal Tribunal. The paper draws materials from primary sources such as tax statutes, rules of the tribunal and judicial precedents in developing its topical concerns. Secondary materials from the cyber space also aided the discussion of the issues under the paper. As it draws conclusion, the paper recommends that the regulatory statute be amended to allow for equality, equity and justice in the procedural process of exercising right of appeal before the Tax Appeal Tribunal.

Keywords: Tax Appeal, Procedure, Inconsistency, Tribunal, Nigeria




Prospects to the Perceived Possible Extinction of Indigenous (Igbo) Language in a Globalized World: A Paradigm Shift


Ven Egesi Jonathan .C.; *Emenyonu Immaculate Adaku; & **Uchechi Dike

*Department Of General Studies, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo – Ohaji. **Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo – Ohaji



Language has served the purpose of communication among humans since time immemorial. That is simply saying that without language human existence and co-habitation will not be achieved. It is in this sense that humans deem it necessary to pass their indigenous language from one generation to another. One other thing that must be mentioned is that language is unique to give people. Back home, the Igbo language has over the years gone by been an integrate part of the Igbo people. That is simply saying that the easiest and simplest way of identifying an ideal or typical Igbo man is by his language. The Igbo people parade their language with all sense of pride and jealously. They see their language as being unique, and worth dying for. But just recently, the over – whelming loved Igbo language seem to be gradually dying off and seem not to be important anymore. Most indigenous Igbo men and women have resorted to teaching and communication with their children and wards in other languages with English the over – whelming favorite and more widely spoken language. This gives the Igbo language no chance of seeing the nearest future. Even at the global scene, the Igbo language is among the language considered inferior and rarely spoken. This study is an effort at re-awakening our people to pick up their pieces and guard jealously their highly prized asset (Igbo language) before it dies off and never to resurrect again.

Keywords: Prospects, Possible, Extinction, Indigenious (Igbo) Language, Globalized.




The Challenges of Teaching English Language Lexis and Structure


Abubakar Yusuf

Department of Languages & Communication Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State



This paper focuses on the challenges of teaching English Language Lexis and Structure in a tertiary institution which is the basic block foundation of any other topic in English Language. Therefore, this paper will be of great importance to students, teachers, education planners and researchers. This is because it will draw the attention of teachers towards the need for effective teaching and learning of English lexis and structure. Above all, the method used in teaching lexis and structure, the challenges and proper solutions are fully discussed; As no institution will prosper without knowledge of lexis and structure in the language of instruction.

Keywords: Teaching, Language, English, lexis, structure, composition




Legal Ambit and Limits of Trade Disputes and Disputes Resolution in Nigeria


Kenneth Bawo Atsenuwa Esq.

School of General Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Nigeria.



Trade/Labour Disputes have been a recurring decimal in Nigeria especially under the current democratic dispensation. This paper applies the doctrinal research method in appraising the legal parameters of valid trade disputes in Nigeria as well as legal limitations imposed on the parties prior to, during the actual manifestation of trade disputes, as well as procedural and legal requirements for dispute resolution. This paper concludes that frequency of trade disputes in Nigeria is attributable to non-compliance with the legal and regulatory framework by the parties. It is recommended that labour and employers should fully comply with the legal framework for trade disputes and disputes resolution in Nigeria so as to foster industrial peace and harmonious employer-employee relations.

Keywords: Legal Ambit, Trade Disputes, Dispute Resolution




Hospitality Industry: A Tool for Women’s Empowerment in Nigeria


Okunlola Kafilat Asake and Okunola Adafin A. Olaiya

Department Of Hospitality Management, School Of Applied And Natural Sciences, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.



Hospitality industry is considered as one of the world’s largest economic activities today. The Draft hospitality industry is an important instrument for sustainable human development including poverty alleviation, employment generation, environment regeneration and advancement of women. The contribution of women in the business world has increased in recent years, although women are underrepresented in management and leadership. In the hospitality industry, the percentage of women who work in the industry is high, but their function is dominated by unskilled, low-paid jobs. The hospitality industry definitely provides various entry points for women’s employment and opportunities for creating self-employment in small and medium sized income generating activities. In recent years the increased number of women in the hospitality industry and their underrepresentation has made women’s status in industry a great concern. This paper aims to examine Hospitality industry as a tool for women’s empowerment in Nigeria. In addition, the paper discusses the perceived factors that facilitate and constrain women’s in the industry. The paper also attempts to explain the need for approaching the Hospitality industry sector as mechanism for women empowerment. It also explains the importance and benefits that arise from women empowerment and highlights the essential element of empowerments. The paper concludes that, Hospitality sector in the Nigeria could play an important role in creating a more equitable environment for women advancement.

Keywords: Hospitality, Management, Empowerment, Polytechnic, Education.




Gender Disparity and Career Success of Female Newspaper Journalists in Lagos and Abuja


Ogunwemimo, Oluwafisayo O. (PhD) & Ibanga, Victoria

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



Despite a high number of women’s involvement in journalism, gender disparity in the profession seems to persist and some obstacles continue to inhibit their career success. Top positions in newspaper organisations are being dominated by men who enjoy regular promotions and professional recognition compared to female journalists. This study investigated the prevalence of gender disparity and the extent to which it influences the career success of newspaper female journalists. It used the Human Capital theory and the Muted Group theory. The study was conducted using the convergent parallel mixed-method research design. The population of the study was 205 newspaper female journalists from 41 registered national newspapers in Lagos and Abuja. A sample size of 205 was determined using total enumeration. The results revealed a high prevalence of gender disparity in newspaper organizations (x̅= 3.43). It also indicated that gender disparity in newspaper organizations had a negative significant influence on the career success of female newspaper journalists (R2= 0.040, β= -0.199, t = – 896, p≤ 0.05). The study concluded that gender disparity was prevalent in newspaper organisations in Lagos and Abuja with extent of career success of female journalists in Lagos and Abuja being low. It recommended that Newspaper organisations should make a conscious effort to key into the ideals of gender mainstreaming by implementing mainstreaming policies to advance the career success of female newspaper journalists.

Keyword: Career success, Gender disparity, Female journalists, Newspaper, Job satisfaction




Onomastics Analysis in Ola Rotimi’s Plays: The Examples of Our Husband has Gone Mad Again and Hopes of the Living Dead


Okekunle Aderemi Omolara

Department of English, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



Onomastics is the study of origins, meaning and science of names. Names are given to human beings as a means of identification. There are two contexts in naming: the literary context and the socio-cultural context. The literary context is the significance of the names in the text, how they are deployed. Names in the text are indexical of the socio-cultural context. Two works of Ola Rotimi selected for this work are “Hopes of the living dead” and Our husband has gone mad again” because they replete with characters’ name which have profound significance in the socio-cultural milieu of Nigeria The objectives of this study centered on identifying the names’ types in the selected texts. It categorized the names of the characters according to situation. It justified the significance of the names in relation to the themes of the texts. Speech act theory is the theoretical framework used for the work Descriptive design is used as the methodology of the work. Research sample is got by extracting the names from the two texts, the data gathered were analyzed using the acronym of VARIES and also illocutionary act distribution is used to analyzed the act of each character. The findings of the research revealed that there are three categories of names; the real names, the role names and the titular names. There are religious names and traditional names. The meanings of all the names at all levels corroborate with the relation to the themes. It is concluded that fictional names are taken from the actual names in use and that names in African settings are carefully constructed in a semantico-syntactic sense to manifest specific meaning. The study recommends that literary onomastics should be undertaken by more researchers in order to reveal the different socio-cultural, political and psychological contexts of naming.

Keywords: names, onomastics, literary texts etc.




An Appraisal of Ethno Ethnic Crisis in Nigeria: The Need for Remediation


*Mohammed Musa; **Suleiman Adamu; & *Felix Hasley

*Department of International Relation and Strategic Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola **Department of Crime Prevention Management and Control, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola



Nigeria is enmeshed in unresolved and unsetting religion conflict of great magnitude that has defied solution up till this moment with its attendant negative consequences on the socio potential and economic well-being of the country. Under the current fourth republic ushered in 1999, politicians mobilized groups based on ethnic and religion to achieve their selfish aims. Violent youth gangs and militant are formed and unleash harm on the innocent citizen through the expression of ethno-religion violence. Nigeria’s  political  history  is  replete  with  unresolved  and  unsettling  ethno-religious  fracas  and largely  impotent  panels  to  determine  their  causes  with  a  view  of  preventing  future  occurrence when  conflicts  have  not occurred, or  have  somehow  abated;  associated  tensions  have  remained high,  with  all  the  attendant  negative  consequences  on  the  socio-political  and  economic development  in  the  country. Therefore, the paper seeks to address the consequences of ethno-religious crises with a view to proffer solutions. The paper use secondary school data to arrive at its conclusion and recommendations.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Ethnic group, Conflict, Ethno-religious crisis



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