African Scholar Journal of Contemporary Education Research Vol. 21 No. 8


VOL. 21 NO. 8 JUNE, 2021 ISSN: 2359 – 1991



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Principals’ Instructional Supervisory Roles and Teachers’ Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria


*Dr. Gladys Uwaleke C.; & **Iyala, Felix Emeka (Ph.D.); & *Yakubu, Sani Ph.D

*Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. **Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Veritas University, Abuja



The study assessed the principals’ supervisory roles and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Ekiti State. Two objectives with corresponding two research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The correlational survey research design was used for the study. A sample size of 693 teachers was selected from a population of 6936 using the multistage and simple random sampling techniques. The researchers’ self-designed questionnaire that consisted of 12 items was used for data collection. The instrument is titled “Teachers’ Questionnaire on Principals’ Instructional Supervisory Roles and Teachers’ Job Performance (TQPISRTJP). The instrument was duly validated and it yielded 0.86 as the index of rational validity. Cronbach Alpha was employed to determine the reliability of the instrument and it yielded 0.76 as the coefficient of internal consistency. Descriptive statistics of means and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study indicated that there was a significant relationship between the principals’ role of classroom observation and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Ekiti State and there was a significant relationship between the principals’ role of staff evaluation and teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Ekiti State. The study recommended that the Ekiti State Ministry of Education needs to organize workshops, conferences, symposia and seminars for principals to enable them acquire the requisite knowledge and skills needed for classroom observation of teachers by identifying their teaching weaknesses and develop strategies for teachers to overcome the weaknesses and perform their job effectively. The study also recommended that the Ekiti State Teaching Service Commission needs to mandate every principal to submit the outcome of the staff evaluation exercise on yearly basis to the commission to ensure that principals undertake the exercise judiciously with a high level of commitment as such effort would help the commission to use the results of the evaluation and organize training programmes to improve the job performance of underperforming teachers.

Keywords: Instructional Supervisory Roles, Teachers’ Job Performance, Classroom Observation and Staff Evaluation




Influence of Anxiety on Test Performance among Students of Jigawa State College of Education Gumel


Muhammad Gaddafi Shuaibu

Department of Education, Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa, Jigawa State



This research was carried out to examine the extent to which anxiety influence test performance of students in Jigawa State College of Education Gumel. Two objectives, two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research design employed was ex-post-facto survey design. The population of the study was level two hundred students of School of Arts and Social Sciences 2019/2020 session comprising of 572 students. From the population, 150 students were sampled. and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used as an instrument for data collection. The instrument was developed by Sarason and Spielberger. It has internal consistency reliability estimates (test-retest) of 0.88 and a temporal stability coefficient of 0.75.The data was collected and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test independent sample. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference in the influence of  anxiety on the test performance among education students in Jigawa State College of Education Gumel and there is no significant gender difference in the influence of anxiety on test performance of education students in the Jigawa State College of Eduacation Gumel. Among the recommendations of the study are: lectures should simplify their teaching by using good methods of teaching, use of good examples and illustrations, this will reduce the level of test anxiety of the students. Students should work hard, be committed to their study and prepare well for the test as a mechanism of reducing test anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Test Performance,  Level II Students, College of Education, Test Anxiety Scale.




Influence Of Indigenous Education On National Integration And Moral Upright Among Senior Secondary School Students In Niger State, Nigeria


*Munir Mustapha; **Awwal Ibrahim; & *Hanifah Rabiu

*Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria **Department of Educational Foundations and Curriculum, Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.



This study was titled “Influence of Indigenous Education on National Integration and Moral Upright among Senior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria”. The objectives were to determine the influence of indigenous education on national integration and assess the influence of indigenous education on moral upright among senior secondary school students in Niger State, Nigeria. The research questions were in line with the objectives. Descriptive survey design was used. The population was 7855 with 584 sample size. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Twenty-six self-design structured-items questionnaire was used. Reliability of the instrument was ascertained through a pilot study. This was done using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and the result got was 0.85 which implies the instrument was reliable. Mean was the statistical tool for data analysis. Findings were that indigenous education instills national consciousness, religious tolerance patriotism, honesty, hard work, decent dressing, humility, justice and discipline among students of secondary school in Niger State. It was recommended that facilities should be provided to enhance effective and quality and learning of indigenous education to promote honesty, hard work, decent dressing, humility, justice and discipline among students of secondary school in Niger State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Influence, Indigenous Education, National Integration and Moral Upright




Relationship between Secondary School Students’ Perception of Teachers’ Attitude towards Teaching and Performance in Mathematics in Bwari, F.C.T, Abuja


Ibrahim, Mukaila Oluwasegun; Hassan, A. A. PhD; & Mal. Alfa, A.A

Department of Science Education, School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between students’ perception of teachers’ attitude to teaching and students’ performance in Mathematics. The study adopted a Correlational research design on a sample of 340 Senior Secondary School Two (SSS2) students randomly drawn from a population of 2736 SSS2 students in F.C.T, Abuja. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated toguide the study. Aself- design questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by test and measurement experts. The reliability of the instrument determined by Cronbach’s alpha (α) coefficient was 0.81, indicating the instrument was reliable for data collection. Mean and Standard Deviation scores were used to answer the research questions.The formulated hypotheses were answered using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Point Biserial Correlation. Findings from the study revealed students’ perception of their teachers’ attitude to teaching of Mathematics was positive and a positive significant relationship was found between students’ perception of teachers’ attitude to teaching and students’ performance in Mathematics.However, on the relationship between gender and students’ perception of teachers’ attitude to teaching,no significant relationship was established. Based on these findings, it was recommended that students should participate actively in the evaluation process since their perceptions about their teachers’ attitude to work will help teachers access their; effectiveness regularly, adjust their methodology and enhance their productivity. Knowing students’ perception of their teachers’ attitude to teaching will also help the teachers to ascertain the importance of building and maintaining healthyrelationship with the students, which will enable the teachers create a conducive environment where learning Mathematics can become fun for students.

Keywords: Students’ perception, Teachers’ attitude, Performance, Mathematics  




Educational Level of Parents on Students’ Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Abia State


Enyinna Nneka Onyedikachim; & Prof. Jessica Ezekiel-Hart

Department of Educational Foundations, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria



This study was conducted to examine the influence and impact of parents’ educational level on students’ academic achievement at the secondary level of education. Numerous researches have been conducted around the world on this aspect but not in Abia State. Even the research that had been done worldwide focused on the socio-economic status of the parents which includes income, education, and occupation as factors influencing children’s academic success.  The concepts of education, academic performance and its influence were examined. The paper recommends that parents should utilize their high educational level by participating, assisting, and being directly involved in their children’s homework, education and activities both at school and at home. Parents of low educational status should as much as possible integrate their relatives, friends and neighbors (privileged to be educated) into the academic upbringing of their children at home. Teachers and administrators should provide feedback to parents concerning the progress of   their children. Concerned agencies should initiate programmes to upgrade the literacy of the parents which will eventually affect their children positively.

Keywords: Educational level, parental education level, achievement, influence of parents, secondary education




Student-Teachers Competence and Attitudes towards ICT: A Case Study in a Nigerian Polytechnic


Abdullahi, A. M.1; Nasir, T.2; Muhammad, A. M.1; & Muhammad, A. S., PhD3

1Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Political Science and Defence Studies, School of Postgraduates Studies, Nigeria Defence Academy, Kaduna 2Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Administration, School of Postgraduate studies, Maryam Abacha American University, Maradi, Niger Republic, 3Department of Primary Health Care Education, College of Technical and Vocational Education Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.



The present study was conducted to investigate the competence and attitudes of B.(Technology) student-teachers towards ICT in a Nigerian Polytechnic. Seven research questions and null hypotheses were constructed to guide the investigation. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 participants. The instrument for data collection was an adapted structured questionnaire used in similar research.  The tool consists of 35-items structured on a five-point Likert rating format classified into five sub-scales. The reliability of the instrument was determined using the Cronbach alpha technique yielded.95. The data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The research results reveals positive attitude towards ICT among the students .Similarly, the competence levels of student-teachers in the use of ICT were high. Research findings reveal no significant differences between male and female student-teachers as it relates to their ICT attitudes and competencies. With these results, recommendations were made, including translating these positive attitudes and high competence into practice. Applying these theoretical concepts into practice during teaching-learning will help promote the effective integration of ICT throughout the curriculum implementation by student-teachers.

Keywords: Attitudes, Competence, ICT, teaching-learning, student teachers




Impact of Learning Environment on the Students’ Academic Performance in Rural Secondary Schools in Jalingo Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria


*Melaiye, O. Rufus (PhD); **Iorshaer, M.J.; **Cephas, Z.K.; **Kuru, M.J.; **Bulba, I.B.; ***Chuboh, Jonah Victor.; ****Galadima, Anthony Ishaku.; & *****Sylvanus, Ibrahim

*Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo. **Peacock College of Education, Jalingo. ***Agric. Dept. College of Education, Zing. ****Taraba State Teaching Service Board, Jalingo *****Finance Dept. Ardo-Kola Local Govt. Council, Sunkani, Taraba State



A learning environment is defined as having appropriate facilities, well managed classroom available school-based health support facilities and a clear fair disciplinary policy. These are the hall mark of academic, disciplinary and physical environment of schools with an or produce effects on the actions, behaviour, opinion, etc of others; the actions or process of producing effects on person or things. Students academic performance represents performance outcome that indicate the extent to which a person is accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities on instructional environments especially in school, college and university. Ten (10) secondary schools were selected from rural communities in Jalingo local government, where twenty (20) respondents were engaged in the study. For the data collected, percentage, t-test and ANOVA statistical methods were used for the analysis of data collected. The distribution of respondents based on the variables of age, school type, physical facilities and educational qualification and experience. The result derived from the analysis revealed that learning environment has impact on students’ academic performance as perceived by teachers in Jalingo local government area. The four (4) null hypothesis that were formulated on their significant relationship with the students’ academic performance, all revealed that, there was significant relationship between learning environment and the students’ academic performance. Based on these findings, it was recommended that Taraba State Government should shoulder the responsibility of motivational facilities such as school libraries, laboratories, sport facilities, instructional materials/books, etc, which can enhance teaching and learning process. it was also recommended that, teachers should be motivated to create a good social, psychological and physical climate in the classroom, schools counsellors should reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. It is believed that if the government of Taraba State improves in these areas, it will bring about better performance on the students in their academic pursuit.

Keywords: Learning, Environment, Academic performance




An Overview of the Accounts of Insurgency and Banditry in Nigeria: Helon Habilas the Chibok Girls and Philip Ukanah’s in God’s Name as Case Study


Adelowo Abimbola Dapo

English Department, School of Languages, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State



This paper examines the issue of insurgency and banditry in Nigeria. It carries Out a survey of the comprehensive accounts as presented by two acclaimed/veteran novelists, writers  and  journalists – Helon Habila  and Philip Ukanah in their novels. The paper opines  that  insurgency  and banditry,  if not  nipped  in  the  bud,  could  shipwreck  Nigeria,  and  that  these  two  evils  are  potential  harbingers  of  doom,  capable of  destroying  Nigeria.  This  paper concludes  by  recommending that among  others,  literary  artists,  government agencies, government and non – governmental organizations should be awake to the  reality  of  the  time, literary writers would  do well  to  begin,  in  earnest  to write and publish didactic prose-fiction works, theater experts should also begin to write and  produce  films  that  would  re-orientate  youths and the budding generation, such that literature as a field of scholarship would not be studied for academic purpose alone but would be seen as a veritable tool to re-engineer the society.

Keywords:    Insurgency, Banditry, Safety, Kidnapping, Boko-haram




The Relationship between Autocratic Leadership,   Emotional Intelligence and Staff Performance in Colleges of Education in Adamawa State, Nigeria


Hafsatu Nuhu; Adati Elkanah Chahari; and Haruna Danjuma

Department of General Studies, School of General Education, Federal College of Education.



This paper examined the effect of autocratic leadership and emotional intelligence of the staff members of colleges in Nigeria. The study utilized completed questionnaires by the staff members who were randomly selected from the Federal College of Education, Yola and Adamawa State College of Education, Hong, Nigeria. Statistical techniques employed in this study were descriptive statistics and inferential statistics like Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Independent T-Test, and One-Way Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the information in the other sections of the questionnaire. One Way Analysis of Variance (One way ANOVA) were used to determine the relationship between leadership styles, demographic information and emotional intelligence of staff in the Colleges of Education using [SPSS] Version 21. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between autocratic leadership style leaders’ emotional intelligence and members’ performance in Colleges of education in Adamawa State. Therefore, in order to improve staff output and efficacy, there is a need for leaders to assume the above leadership style so that they will understand their staffs’ emotions and improve staff motivation in the place of work.

Keyword: Leadership, Autocratic, Emotional Intelligence, Staff Performance




Factors that Influence Students’ Choice of Physics and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria


Ayuba, Ibrahim Umar

Natural Science Department, College Of Education Billiri, Gombe State, Nigeria



This study investigated the factors that influence students’ choice of physics and academic achievement among undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. The research design for the study was a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was the entire physics education students (100-400 Level) of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria during the 2011/2012 Academic Session. The total number of the students was 167 involving One Hundred and Nineteen (119) Male students and Fourty Eight (48) Female students. The entire population of the students was used for the study which gives an equal opportunity for all the students to be selected. A two section (A & B) structured questionnaire comprising of 15 items was constructed by the researcher to gather the required data. The instrument had undergone both validity and reliability test. The validity test was done by two (2) science education experts in Institute of education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and the corrections made were implemented. The reliability coefficient obtained was 0.75 through a test re-test method. Research questions raised were answered using the analysed data from frequency tables, simple percentages, bar chart and pie charts. The research findings revealed that both family background and gender have influence on students’ choice of physics and academic achievement. It is recommended among others that science education department lecturers should frequently organise science symposiums in order to attract the interest of more students towards science based courses like physics.

Keywords: Influence, Choice, Academic Achievement, Physics, Student




Sample and Sampling Procedure in Research for Tertiary Institutions


Na’Iya K. H1; Aminu Z. G1; Rabiu S. R1; Nalado T. K2; & Abubakar B. T3

1Federal College of Education Katsina; 2Katsina State Ministry of Education; 3National Board of Arabic and Islamic Studies



Most research books/works are not detailed in comprehensive coverage of sampling procedure. As a result, students/teachers’ researchers are not expose to the concept and techniques that could assist in doing quality work and good sampling choice. The paper attempt to give descriptive and explanatory guidelines on the best way to undertake sample procedure. Definition of population sample and process of sample selection given, sampling techniques and sampling type (probability and non-probability) were given. Simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, cluster and multi stage sample were also discussed with illustration in probability sample, while non-probability samples of convenience, purposive, with illustrations, quota samples and snow ball/chain/ referral samples were equally discussed. Other non-probability sample of volunteer, captive, accidental sampling was also briefly discussed. All the procedure for sample taking were also discussed. 

Keywords; population, sampling, research, techniques, procedure




The Impact of Girl Child Education in our Society Gender Influence on Girl Child Education

L’impact De L’éducation Des Filles Et Des Enfants Dans Notre Société: Le Cas Du Nigeria


Babatude Olawumi Ayodele

French Department,  School of Languages, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.




La situation des femmes dans le monde aujourd´hui n´est pas toujours enviable. Leur participation à la vie politique, leur accès à l´éducation de base, à la formation, à la santé et aux postes de responsabilité ainsi qu´à l´exercice de leurs droits sont freinés par des considérations socioculturelles, religieuses, politiques et économiques présents dans beaucoup de pays dans le monde. Aujourd’hui, l’éducation de l‘enfant mais surtout celle de la jeune fille est devenue une des préoccupations essentielles. La famille est une instance clé de la socialisation primaire de tout individu. Cette socialisation primaire débute dans l’enfance et se poursuit à l’adolescence. Ce travail examine l’impact de l’éducation des jeunes filles sur le plan politique, socioculturel et économique pour sortir les filles du cercle de la pauvreté et les conduire vers une meilleure qualité de vie individuelle et collective ainsi leur permettre de contribuer au développement du pays.

Keywords: L’éducatiom, La marginilasation, L’influence, La fille et La société




Workshop Writers vs. Prompt Writing: The Effect on Preschool Writing Ability and Attitude towards Writing


Hassan Mohammad Taofik

Early Childhood Care Education Depertment, Federal College of Education Katsina, Katsina State Nigeria



Children in schools are measured for nine weeks on the basis of a writing prompt using a provided rubric. This action research attempted to determine whether the Writer’s use of writer’s workshops and prompts differed in ability and attitudes. Eighteen children (N=18) were randomly split into two classes in a preschool class, and each group was taught writing in a separate form over a five-week span. One group received a persuasive paper using a prompt, and another was instructed to write a persuasive paper with a topic of free choice. A series of t-tests and item analysis were carried out to compare the ability and attitude of the two groups to the writing. The results showed that in the course of the study, both Group A (prompted) and Group B (free choice) experienced a decline in overall attitude regarding writing. Nonetheless, Group A (prompted), suffered a downturn greater than Group B (free choice). It seems that children get a bit more pleasure from picking their subject than being asked what to write during the workshop with the artist. The cumulative grades on the final persuasive writing revealed that children instructed with a guide performed lower than those using free-choice (11.56 > 9.78) The only subcategory where group B (free choice) performed higher than group A (prompted) was in conventions. (Ideas: 4.89>3.56; 2.56 > 2.11; 2.22 > 2.00; Conventions: 1.89 < 2.11). This indicates even that children who write more appreciate the learning phase more. Overall, those kids getting a prompt got higher grades on the Writing Test. When it allows children the ability to compose anything they want, they get a more constructive approach to learning. This study suggests that the writing of free choice and inspired writing have also a role in the classroom. Kids require guidance and specific directions in order to teach a certain style of writing (i.e. persuasive, narration, informational). Nonetheless, if we want to cultivate a lifelong enjoyment of learning, teachers in the classroom ought to set aside opportunities for pre-school children to compose and talk with us on what they want to compose on.

Keywords: writers’ workshop, prompt writing, children attitude towards writing, early childhood education.




English Language Teaching and Learning (ELT) in Senior Secondary Schools in Gashaka Local Government Taraba State, Nigeria


Yakubu Ishaku Ma’aji

General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bali. Taraba State.



This work was conducted to find the problems of teaching and studying the English language as affecting the performance of students academically in Gashaka local government of Taraba State in Nigeria. The participants for the study consisted of hundred (100) respondents. Thirty (30) were teachers, and seventy (70) were students. All selected from three (3) different secondary schools that were used for this study. Some factors such as insufficient English language teachers, instructional facilities, ICT tools, lack of classroom rapport between the teachers and the students among other things were examined to know their effects on the students academic performance of senior secondary school in English language teaching and learning. Questionnaires were developed for both teachers and students. A simple percentage method was employed to analyse the variables. Based on the findings, it was discovered that insufficient English language teachers, lack of instructional facilities, lack of ICT tools for teaching and learning of English language, lack of specialised English language teachers, problem of funding and lack of classroom rapport negatively affects students’ academic performance in English language in some selected senior secondary schools in the study area. Recommendations were made to address these issues. The research recommends that instructors in senior secondary schools need to be regarded as an issue which needs national attention of both the Federal and the Taraba State Governments. A most important solution is, therefore, employing more qualify English language teachers, providing instructional facilities that will aid teaching and learning of English language and providing a programme for teacher training in the study area.

Keywords: Teacher, Student, School, ICT, Instructional facilities, Teacher Training




Repositioning Nigeria’s Teachers Training Institutions for 21st Century: Need for Innovation Instructional Delivery Strategies.


Olorode, Okunade Adelayo

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, School of General Education, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State.



This study conducts a comprehensive assessment of the repositioning of Nigeria’s Teacher training institutions for 21st Century advocating for the use of innovation, instructional delivery strategies. It explains education, the meaning of teacher education, objectives of teacher education, teachers’ training institutions expectation from the nation, the nation expectation from Teachers’ training institution and the status of teacher training institutions. The paper outlines the challenges facing teacher training institutions, what to be done to face the challenges of teacher training institution in Nigeria and strategies for repositioning teachers training institutions. It draws conclusions and some recommendations are made among which is that  government should establish companies and corporations to manufacture and distribute school materials on at subsidized rate to teachers’ training schools.

Keyword; Teacher, Teacher Education, Training, Innovations, Institutional delivery, Strategies 




Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT) Resources by Secondary School Students in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of  Kaduna State


Owamoyo Najeem

Computer Science Department, School of Secondary Educaction-Sciences, Federal College of Education, Zaria. Kaduna State.



The paper examined the use of Information Technology (IT) resources by secondary school students in Sabon Gari, Kaduna state, Nigeria. The research reviewed some related literature; a descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The secondary consists of 300 public and private secondary school students, the school selected consists of (4) secondary schools in Sabon Gari LGA, kaduna State. The schools comprise of two private and two public schools. 320 questionnaires were distributed and 300 representing 80% was returned and analyzed Likert Scale self- designed questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. Data collected were analysed using frequency, scores, percentage scores and sum means values. The study highlights five major factors that affect positively and challenges facing utilization of IT resources in secondary school students. It was also revealed that the students of Kaduna state are aware of the factor responsible for the availability and utilization of IT resources. The study recommends among others, that training on how to use IT skills should be made paramount, In order to increase users awareness and usage in schools as it affect the students academics performance.

Keywords—Information Technology (IT), Utilization, Academic performance




Effects of Collaborative Team and Indigenous Instructional Strategies on Pupils’ Achievements in Mathematics at Basic Educcation Level in South-East Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria for Sustainable Development


*Oyegoke, Deborah Adepeju (Ph. D); *Ubani-Roberts, Florence Oluchi (Ph.D); & **Adubuola, Elizabeth Olaoluwa

*Primary Education Studies Department, School of ECPA Education, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo **Department of Early Childhood Care Education, School of ECPA Education, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo



The design adopted in this study was quasi-experimental design using a pretest-posttest, control group with 3 X 2 factorial matrix. The variables of the study comprised independent variable (instructional strategies operated at three levels), moderating variable (gender operated at two level) and dependent variable (achievement in Mathematics). The population of the study consisted all primary three pupils in the five states (Anambra, Imo, Abia, Enugu and Ebonyi) of South- East geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Sampling was carried out at multi-stage levels. Two states were randomly selected, the primary schools in each of the selected states were clustered according to the local government areas.  One local government areas were randomly chosen from each of the selected states making a total of two local government areas. Three (3) primary schools were randomly chosen from each of the selected local government areas making a total of six (6) primary schools. The selected schools were randomly assigned treatments. The intact classes of the selected primary schools were used for the study. The sample size was one hundred and forty-four pupils (144). Three stimulus treatment packages (Collaborative Team Instructional Package (CTIP), Indigenous Instructional Package (IIP) and Conventional Instructional Package (CIP). Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT with Lawshe’s Content Validity Index 0.85; r = 0.89) was developed by the researchers and served as a response instrument. Data were analysed with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using pretest as covariates. The findings of the study showed that instructional strategies showed a significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Mathematics. Pupils taught with bilingual instruction (F (1, 137) = 123.161, p<0.05) produced better performance than those taught with collaborative team and foreign language instructions. The study concludes that bilingual instruction produced a better performance than collaborative team and convectional instructions. The study recommends that bilingual instructional strategy should be used by Mathematics teachers in Basic schools to produce better achievement in Mathematics.

Keywords: Collaborative team strategy, Indigenous instructional strategy, gender, achievement in Mathematics, Basic Education




Design and Fabrication of a Physiotherapy Manually Driven Washing Machine.


E.O. Popoola, K.G Aribiegbe

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.



Cloth washing is one of the essential parts of the life but it is considered undesirable because of the involvement of efforts, time, energy and cost. Nowadays a wide variety of washing machines are available in the market and there is a tough competence among the manufacturers. Very costly washing machines are equipped with facility of dry cleaning too. All of the washing machines available in the market are electric power driven and basic principle of their operation depends upon creation of the turbulent flow of detergent around the dirty clothes. Drying of the clothes is based upon rotation of wet clothes at very high rpm so that water droplets can be separated out due to centrifugal action. In our country where approximately 70% population is living with very poor economic status, those people cannot have a washing machine because of cost constraints and unavailability of electricity due to any reason. The present work is an attempt to develop a concept to make a cloth washing mechanism which can meet out the requirements of above mentioned 70% population of the nation. Working principle of this concept is no more different from available similar type of machine with a difference driving mechanism of the machine. The objective of bringing down the initial cost and operating cost of washing machine is almost achieved in present work within the limitation of work as mentioned.

Keywords: Effort, Energy, Time, Cost, Washing machine, Electric power motor.




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