African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 21 No. 2


VOL. 21 NO. 2 JUNE, 2021 ISSN: 2010–1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Ethics and Moral Education as a Way for Zaar Community Development


*Samson, I. M; & **Wadam, Z. S

*Department of Religion and Philosophy, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. **Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



Morals and ethics are closely related in meaning. The term moral comes from the Latin word “moralis” and ethics comes from the Greek word “ethos” both terms meant custom or way of life Barclay (1971). According to Joseph (2011), there are tendency of using the term morals and morality to refer to the conduct itself and ethics and ethical to refer to the study of moral conduct or the system or code that is followed. Ethics and moral are code of thinking and behavior sounded by personal cultural grades of what is right though right varies with circumstances and culture. Inculcating ethical and moral education in the heart of people in the community will reshape the people thinking and thought that can lead to community development. The paper focus on ethics and moral education as a way for Zaar (Sayawa) community development. It aimed at providing a means through which Zaar (Sayawa) people can inculcate ethical and moral education in the mind of its people among which are: through family; peers; religious institutions; schools; and mass media. The researcher uses sociological analytical method to guide the research. Based on the discussion, the researcher made some recommendations among which are: parents must see installing moral and ethical values in the mind of their children as their sole responsibility; there should be trained group of mentors mostly people of matured both in chronological and mental age from the society who should be in places that young people gather to correct and mentor their behaviors; radio/TV show talk particularly children/youths programs and all related communication areas should carry programs that will promote good moral and ethical education in the mind of the children and youths; there should be character molding courses at both level of education in schools; and lastly, religious leaders should be encourage to reinforce their teaching which will promote ethical and moral education in the mind of its followers.

Keywords: Ethics, Moral, Education, Zaar (Sayawa), Community, Development.




Exploring the Contributions of Sociology towards Attaining Agricultural Sustainability


Ake Modupe1; Ake Susan2; Rasak Bamidele3; Ogunlade Peter4; Asamu Festus5; Oye Olubukoye6; & Ganiu Rasaq Omokeji7

1, Department of Political Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State 2Department of Mass Communication, Baze University, Abuja FCT. 3, 4, 5, 6 Department of Sociology, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State. 7Department of Sociology, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State



Sustainability is the principal component of state-funded college study activities and development associations. Some improvement, be that as it may, is the prevailing worldview of traditional farming. Farming discoveries are water, soil and air pollution, normal asset debasement and biodiversity misfortune. Considering these emergencies and the push to discover an exit plan, this paper, in light of the assessment of present-day literature, asserted that we should change from a technocratic approach to a social arrangement framework so as to support sustainable agriculture. Agriculture ought to be viewed as an act of human instinct. Hence, the reason for this audit paper is to research sociology’s commitment to achieving agricultural sustainability. The exploration shows that agricultural sustainability can never again disregard human measurement and social segments at the centre of agricultural development. Albeit rustic and normal sciences are basic, sociology needs to assume its job in inquiring about the human viewpoints that are basic to understanding and sustainability in agriculture. The commitments of sociology to sustainable agriculture incorporate investigating the ideal models used to decipher sustainability, progressing sociological models to clarify mentalities and practices, and illuminating policymakers about the social effects regarding assessing sustainable agricultural approaches. To understand the objectives of this study, a qualitative methodology and a secondary method of data collection were additionally utilized. This approach depends on an impressive volume of related literature.

Keywords: Sociology, Sustainable agriculture, agricultural improvement, climate change, Cultural Norms




#Endsars Military Intervention in Lagos: A Discourse Analysis of CNN’s Narrative of the October 20, 2020 Lekki Toll Gate Protest Attack


Patricia E. Ernest-Onuiri PhD; Margaret Solo-Anaeto PhD; Omolayo O. Jegede PhD

Department of Mass Communication,Veronica Adeleke School of Social Sciences (VASSS), Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state.



In October 2020, Nigerian youths across the country took to the streets to participate in the #EndSARS protest occasioned by police brutality. The protest which was a demonstration of civil activism was short-lived following military intervention at Lekki, Toll Gate, Lagos. The Nigerian government and its military denied the attack. Weeks following, Cable News Network (CNN) released a report based on social media footages of eyewitness which the government condemned and referred to as “fake news”. This study sought to determine the subject and framing structure of the Lekki, Toll Gate military intervention as depicted by CNN. The study was hinged on Framing theory and discourse analysis approach. CNN’s report was purposively sampled from Instagram. The thematic method was adopted in the discussion of findings which identified subjects such as: killing of protesters, police involvement, counter evidence on governments denial of the killings, and the violation of human right to peaceful protest. Human interest and conflict type of frame; wording the narrative in a manner to arouse empathy, and the critical direction of framing was utilized to elucidate on the inconsistencies of government and its military’s narrative.

Keywords: #EndSARS, Civil activism, Cable News Network (CNN), Framing, Military intervention




Constraints to Housing Finance and Policy Formulation for Rural Dwellers in Plateau State, Nigeria.


Dr D. Gwatau; Arc Anumah J. J.; Arc Benjamin G. K.; Arc Oko J. O.;

Department of Architecture, University of Jos, Plateau State.



This study was carried out to determine the impact of the Nigerian housing policy in housing delivery and also in addressing affordability challenges of households in accessing housing finance in the Southern Senatorial Zone of Plateau State. The paper focuses on policy implementation and why it had failed to deliver affordable housing to the growing population. Structured questionnaires were administered to heads of households using the systematic sampling method. This involves the selection of every 11th building in each ward of the six Local Government Areas which were stratified for the study. A total of 450 questionnaires were administered to the respondents to obtain information on the socio-economic and housing situation of the respondents. The study revealed that the housing policy has failed to address issues of affordability and access to housing finance for the low-income earners. Majority of the respondents are excluded from participating and benefiting from the housing policy because of contraption in policy formulation and their socio-economic profile.  The paper found out that the absence of enabling legislation for the formation of cooperative society which has proved to be effective in housing delivery has limited its influence in reducing the housing deficit in the study area. Available data shows that the number of those contributing to the National Housing Fund (NHF) has been relatively small compared to the network of those who yet to register and not making contributions to be able to access loans. The paper conclude that the most elusive factor inhibiting the delivery of housing in the study area is finance. The paper suggested that if the problem of affordability is to be addressed for the low-income group, then there is need for serious policy re-engineering in housing inputs such as land, building materials and infrastructure which has potential to stimulate housing development in the study area.

Keywords: Housing policy, finance, low-income earners, affordability, housing inputs.




Factors Influencing Undergraduate Students Choice of Agricultural Education as a Career in North-East Nigerian Universities


*Laraba, Ibrahim; *Babawuro, Shuaibu; & **Maidala Aminu

*Department of Vocational and Technology Education Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi State **Faculty of Animal Production Federal University Gasua Yobe state



The design for the study was a descriptive survey design the area of the study covered four federal universities in North Eastern Nigeria.460 students were randomly selected from four federal universities, the sample consist of 210 students using krejcie and Morgan table. Both content and construct validity of the instrument was by three expert on the field of Agricultural Education, pilot study was conducted with the reliability coefficient 0f 0.728. A questionnaire designed on the basis of 5 linkert type scale on the factors influencing choice of career based on opportunity influence and personality influence of the students was administered by the research and also with the help of research assistance. Their responses were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation and regression analysis at p=0.005 level of significant .conclusively all the factors affect the students in determine their choice of career.

Keywords. Agriculture, Career, Factors, Opportunity, Personality.




Intelligence Gathering on Kidnapping Incidence along Abuja – Kaduna Express Road of Nigeria Using Geospatial Technologies


Abdullahi, Suleiman Dangana; & Prof. Aishetu Abdulkadir

Geography Department, Federal University Of Technology, Minna



Of late, Nigeria has been posed to all forms of insecurities which threatens the existence of the entire nation. Of the several crimes being perpetrated, is the act of kidnapping. The crime of kidnapping for ransom has become so rampant in various parts of the country particularly on the highways. This has seen the abduction of several travelers on the highways. Most particularly, is the Abuja- Kaduna highway, which has witnessed incessant kidnappings that has claimed several lives. Fortunately, kidnapping being a spatial crime enables the application of GIS and remote sensing to effectively collect, manage and analyze kidnapping information with respect to the geographical features around the highway to determine feature classes that attract or detract kidnapping. However, an adequate GIS and remote sensing training skill in our armed forces, shall aid security agencies in strategic mission planning and positioning of personnel to prone areas. On the basis of the aforementioned, the research was framed to involve mapping the major land use and land cover (LULC), the divisional police stations, the potential kidnapping hotspots and outlining the spatial relationship among LULC information and kidnapping activities in the study area. Satellite imagery of the study area, landsat8 of 30m resolution and the base map for the study area were obtained from the United States Geological Surveys (USGS). Coordinates of the kidnapping hotspots and divisional police stations were obtained from the field survey using Global Positioning System (GPS). The base map was overlaid on the satellite imagery and a 10km buffer was carried out on both sides of the highway. The areas of reference along the highway were areas with divisional police stations, namely Kaduna toll-gate, Rijana, Kateri, Jere. Tafa and Sabon Wuse. The image of the 10 km buffer was classified into tree cover areas, grassland, croplands, built-up areas, and water body. Kidnapping hotspots, divisional police stations and kernel density maps were produced. The study revealed that the Kateri area which was the highest in vegetation cover (tree cover and grassland), but less in built up, had the highest case of kidnappings along the highway. Whereas, the Kaduna City Toll-gate, Jere, Tafa and Sabon Wuse areas which had more of their area, covered with crop lands and  built-up, reported less cases of kidnappings. The research concluded that areas along the highway with very thick and large vegetation cover, sharp bends and bridges are attractors of kidnapping activities while areas along the highway with more built-up distracts kidnapping. However the presence of the divisional police stations in the areas could not be justified to be a hindrance to kidnapping along the highway. The study recommended a joint collaboration in the operations of security agencies and outfits.

Keywords: Kidnapping, GIS, Remote Sensing, Kidnapping hotspots, Kaduna highway




Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMES) in Nigeria: A Critical Literature Review


Ayozie, Daniel Ogechukwu (Ph.D); Iliya Bawa (Ph.D); & Adebayo Theresa

Department of Business Admonition, Federal University Lokoja, P.M.B 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria Post Code 260101 or P.O.Box 129 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria Postcode 2610101



Businesses in Nigeria have been classified as Small, Medium and Large. In both the developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving economic and employment problems. It is also a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment generation. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the economy, hence all the levels of government at different times have polices which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the set of standards which a firm subscribes to, in order to make its impact on the society. CSR has the potential to contribute to the economic, social and total well-being of Nigeria and Nigerians. Corporate social responsibility argues that corporations make more long terms profits by operating within a community, while critics argue that CSR distracts from the economic role of business. It is the intelligent and objective concern for the welfare of the society, that restrains individuals and corporate behaviour from destructive activities, no matter how immediately profitable. SMEs because of their limited and informal structure, activities, and size are also limited in their corporate social responsibilities to their immediate society. Not minding their limited size(s) SmEs are bound to contribute to the development of their immediate communities in Nigeria, so as to have their impacts felt. This paper is, a literature review it evaluates the development of SMEs in Nigeria. The definition and explanation of terms of SMEs and CSR, Principles and areas of CSR for SMEs in Nigeria, Government roles, past and present towards the development of SMEs and recommends amongst many other things that’s SMEs not minding their limited and informal sizes must impact positively on the environment in which they operate in Nigeria, as they also benefit profitably from the Nigeria society. Finally, it looks at the SMEs contribution to Nigeria National Development, not minding their Limited financial capacity and informal and unregistered nature of operation.

Keywords: Small and Medium Scale enterprise (SMEs), Corporate Society Responsibility (CSR), Small Scale Industry, employment generation, profit.




Assessment and Modelling of Flash Flood Risk from Extreme Rainfall and Soil Permeability in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria


*Johnson, D.V; *Gobo, A.E; *Ngerebara, O.D.; & **Ekaka-a, E.N.

*Institute of Geosciences and Environmental Management, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



A GIS –Based Assessment and Modelling of Flash flood risk from extreme rainfall and soil permeability in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria was carried out. Rainfall data from January, 1981 to December, 2016 were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) in Port Harcourt together with Rainfall estimates for 2016 from University of California Centre for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS). Soil samples (48) were collected from different parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), Moisture content and Permeability. A GIS framework was set up with Environmental System Research Institute (ESRI) Arc GIS as the primary analysis software. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from the Shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). Initial data inputs for the model were rainfall intensity and soil permeability other useful data were calculated and generated by the DEM. The first step was the geo-referencing of the satellite imagery and registering of the result to the universal transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system zone 32N. Then supervised classification was performed on the imagery in order to obtain the different land use classes. Elevation values were calculated from the SRTM DEMs from which surface slope was calculated. The drainage density was also calculated from draining network and basin information. The Model files and hydrologic parameters were then prepared from Arc Hydro and HEC-GeoHMS tools. All data were integrated in a GIS environment using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) method to calculate Flash flood areas and produce a Risk Map. Analysis of the rainfall data with Descriptive statistics, showed that 1983 had the lowest rainfall of 1632mm while 2007 had the highest rainfall value of 2790.9mm. Monthly average rainfall from 1981 to 2016 ranged from 136mm to 232.58mm. Although due to climate change, highest values of rainfall may be recorded in any other month, July and September each year were the rainiest months in the study area with each of them recording about 16% of total rainfall. A further analysis showed that January had 1% of rainfall, February 2%, March 5%, April 7%, May 11%, June 13%, August 13%, October 11%, November 4% and December 1%. The PSD showed a high percentage of Sand, between 62% and 89.88%, Silt between 1.28% and 10.44% and Clay between 7.84% and 30.12%. The Moisture content ranged from low to average of 1.95% to 38.65% and the permeability ranged from very low to low of 0.7 to 3.7 (cm/sec.) x 10-3. The soil texture showed fine grains sand, silt and clay of mainly loamy sand (LS) and sandy soil (SS) with low infiltration rates thereby allowing for serious run-off. Result obtained is in conformity with previous studies that different areas of Port Harcourt Metropolis show different susceptibility to flood, and in this case flash flood, ranging from low, medium, high, to very high. There is need, therefore for constant monitoring of the environment by the Governments at all levels in order to construct suitable drainages, desilt receiving drainages, rivers and creeks, plant trees to reduce land use, monitor and avoid developments in flood plains or low lying areas, educate the populace on the need for proper refuse disposal habits, create awareness on how to live with flash flood, and also mitigate effect of flash flood on the populace.

Keywords: GIS, Modelling, Assessment, Soil permeability, Rainfall, Flash flood, Mitigation, Risk map, DEM




The Economic Importance of Tourism to National Development


Okunola Adafin .A. Olaiya; Michael Ogunyebi Can; & Idowu Oluufunke Bola

Kwara State University, Malete



The tourism industry is economically important and grows rapidly. The World Travel & Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated 6.4 trillion or 6.6% of the nation’s GDP in 2016. It supported 39.5 million jobs, 7.7% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 7.9% from 2013 to 2023. Nigeria’s Tourism offers a potpourri of different cultures, traditions, festivals, and places of interest. There are a lot of options for the tourists. Nigeria is a country with rich cultural and traditional diversity. This aspect is even reflected in its tourism. The different parts of the country offer wide variety of interesting places to visit. This paper examines the importance tourism to national development. Tourism is considered to be an economic bonanza. It is a multi-segment industry. While gauging the positive economic effects of tourism, this paper study its importance to National development, expansion of employment opportunities, rising of tax revenue, generation of foreign exchange and transformation of regional economy. Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact, the industry has significant-indirect and induced impacts.

Keywords: Economic, Importance, Tourism, National, Development




Trans-Border Crime and its Implications on Nigeria’s National Security and Sustainable Development


*Muhammad Mustapha Fagge; **Kabiru Ibrahim Danguguwa; & ***Yunusa Uba Muhammad

*Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, Igbinidion University, Okada, Edo State. **Department of History and International Studies, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano (Yumsuk). ***Planning, Research and Statistics (PRS) Unit, Nigeria Immigration Service, Kano State Command.



Nigeria is one of the relatively secured nations in West African sub-region. In recent times, the threats of trans-border crimes, manifesting in the form of  drug and human trafficking (using the sub region as a transit point), money laundering,  small arms and light weapons smuggling,  illegal oil bunkering, serial bombing, hostage taking, armed robbery, banditry, kidnapping,  trans-national organised criminality and jihadist activities especially the Boko Haram insurgency, etc have been particularly cited. The paper examines the implications of trans-border criminal activities on Nigeria’s national security and sustainable development. The paper in addition to other issues, takes a look at the concept of trans-border crime, national security and sustainable development. This paper relies on secondary sources of data. The paper thus, concludes that Nigeria can achieve sustainable development only through effective border security management and policing. It was recommended among others that: there is need for paradigm shift from manual to e-border control system in order to tackle terrorism and other trans-border criminal activities in Nigeria; security personnel should be trained and re-trained on the modern trends in migration and border management; federal government should include Security Management courses in school curriculum at all levels of education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Trans-Border Crime, National Security and Sustainable Development




Evaluation of the Effect of Depletion of Wetland for sustainability in Obeno LGA, Akwa-Ibom state, Nigeria


Alkali Mohammed1, Iliyasu M. Anzaku2, Ernest E. Ntuk3, Usman S. Lay4

1Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria 2Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 3&4Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria



The study assessed the effects of depletion of wetland for sustainability of Ibeno Local Government of Akwa Ibom State. The specific key objectives of the study were to investigate the respondent perception of wetland status in the study area, to examine the correlation between the wetland resources and per capita income of the respondents, and to examine the factors responsible for wetland depletion in the study area. These objectives were justified on the basis that, the perception of the implications of depleting wetland on rural sustainability is already taking global position, and which this research work has studied. For the purpose of collecting needful data, 160 copies of questionnaire were administered, and 150 were recovered using the systematic random sampling technique after the area had been stratified into three phases in accordance with the area council layout plan. Descriptive statistical techniques such as the simple percentages, table, and bar charts were used to present and analyze data in order to achieve the formulated objectives. Causal Analysis (PPMC) was also used to test the hypothesis. The study revealed the negative implication of wetland depletion and its impact on not just livelihood sustainability but also a collapsing ecosystem. The study further showed that the immediate beneficiaries of wetland resources were aware of the depleted state of marine resources. Upon empirical investigation, it was realized that the community dwellers were dissatisfied with the depleted state of their resources as they could recall loads of species of flora and fauna that are no longer seen within their environment and they now wipe for their lack of unsustainable usage, as well as their unaware state of mind over their depleted resources and its effect on them, their environment and their socio-economic structure that is collapsing by the day. The study however recommended that, the level of establishment of oil companies and their associated activities on the wetland ecosystem should be minimized and regulated, the use of poisonous, toxic and harmful substances should be completely discouraged and heavy penalties be levied on them within the domestic fishing areas, and afforestation, reforestation and wetland ecosystem restoration programmes should be put in place for purpose of sustainable development.

Keywords: Effect, Depletion, Wetland, Sustainability, Resources




Proper Management of Human Ecology for Sustainable Development in Sub-Sahara Region.


Isah Umar Usman

From Federal Polytechnic Bida Niger State, Biologial Science Department.



Over the last 50 years, the world looked at economic status alone as a measure of human development. Human creativity and activity has brought a breathtaking pace of technological innovations and scientific breakthroughs. Due to increased human population, pressure on  natural resources is being increased so as to meet the basic requirements of growing  population. Overexploitation of natural resources has caused many environmental problems. The developmental activities including agriculture have accelerated the process of desertification and also reduction of genetic diversity. Air, water and land pollution became a  great challenge which is intimately connected with the population and ecosystem. Inland water bodies and coastal areas are treated as dumping ground for wastes which is adversely  affecting terrestrial, aquatic and marine life. Unsustainable developments ignores that the human managed systems degrade the natural  resources by consuming non renewable resources and reducing the capacity of natural system  to renew or recycle the resource. Caring for natural resources and promoting their sustainable use is an essential response of the world community to ensure its own survival and well  being. Sustainable development has local and global dimensions. At local level sustainable development implies to increase the productivity of ecosystem by environment preservation. However, at global level the productivity is increased by causing stress on the ecosystem. Sustainable development helps the people of the world to live healthy, fulfilling and economically secure life without causing any damage to the ecosystem as well as without the expanse of resources of the future generation and the planet. Sustainable development can be defined as meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is about leaving the opportunity for a decent life to our children and grand children. Ecologically sustainable development is about keeping ecosystems healthy. It is about interacting with ecosystems in ways that allow them to maintain sufficient functional integrity to continue providing humans and all other creatures in the ecosystem the food, water, shelter and other resources that they need.Subsahara(Nigeria and its neighbors) has not been ecologically sustainable because it failed to maintain the proper balance of forested water sheds essential for a healthy landscape. Nor is it ecologically sustainable development to ex terminate marine animals, destroy forests to obtain cooking fuel or pollute marine ecosystems with a lots of pollutants.

Keywords: Management, Human, Ecology, Sustainable Development, Sub-Sahara Region.




An Examination of the Meaning and Nature of Pledge


*Shekara Peace John; & **Umar Ibrahim Wunti

*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management. **The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of General Studies, Department of General Studies.



This paper examines the reality of customary pledge practices, its advantages and the threat it poses to contractual relationship in Nigeria. It x-rays the concept of pledge, its practice, rights and duties of both the pledge and the pledgor. consequently, the paper identifies inter alia, lack of writing (reducing) the pledge agreement in writing, long term pledge agreement and the legal protection that guarantee redemption even after many generations as a major setback, further, the paper suggests a number of ways through which these challenges can be tackled. These range from discouraging oral pledge agreement, specifying time of redemption denouncing quic quid plata solo codit to allow those millead to recover value for improvements on pledge property

Keywords: Examination, Meaning, Nature, Pledge, Property




Assessment of Economic Relevance of Moringa Oleifera to its Farmers and Marketers in Katsina State


Aisha Danjuma Muhammad1; Muhammad Buhari1; & Ibrahim Adam Tahir2

1Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education, Katsina. 2Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Katsina




This research assessed the economic relevance of Moringa oliefera to the farmers and marketers in Katsina state this was prompted due to inadequate information in terms of the quantity of leaves and seeds produced and the turnover of Moringa in the study area. The research is a survey where twenty-four(24) M.oliefera farmers and sixty-five(75) M.oliefera marketers respectively were randomly sampled within nine(9) local government areas selected from the thirty-four LGAs’.Survey and interview were methods employed for data collection from farmers and marketers in the selected local government Areas. It was found that majority of Moringa farmers and marketers in the study areas are aged and receive no assistance from the government. Just as there is difference between farmers prices and marketers prices of Moringa (t-cal 6.160 >t-tab 6.030  df 8 at 0.05 level of significance),  so also is there a difference between the demand of Moring leaves and seeds in the state(t-cal 11.170 > t-tab 2.306 df 8 at 0.05 level of significance), implying that the business is not only gainful in the state but Moringa leaves are used for nutritional and medicinal purposes in the state. It was recommended that the state government  should not only enlighten the youths on the need for Moringa farming and marketing but as well provide the needed assistance to Moringa farmers and marketers so as not to eliminate the production and marketing of the product in the near future in the state.

Keywords: Moringa oliefera, farms, markets,Katsina and survey.




Citations on Some Traditional Hegemony (Sarakuna) from the Sarkin Musulmi Abubakar Atiku Royal Family and their Domains


Yusuf Sarkingobir 1 Fatima Abubakar G.2

1Department of Biology Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria 2Department of Islamic Studies Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria



Abubakar Atiku was the 4th son of Shehu Danfodiyo of the 19 century West African. Atiku had propelled all he had to the development of Sokoto Caliphate like his full brother Muhammadu Bello. He was with Shehu in thin and thick. He picked up many responsibilities given to him by Sultan Muhammadu Bello to safeguard Sokoto Caliphate.He sired many scions who had also contributed to the Caliphate of Sokoto. His descendants are popularly dubbed as Atikawa. This paper discussed in brief some of the Atikawa who had been on their bonafide thrones and their domains. This had been achieved via literature review and interviews with key informants. Places such as Sokoto, Maiyurno, Gwadabawa, Danchadi, Kontagora, Gada, Illela, Chimmola, Asara, Tangaza, etc and their respective hegemony leanege were stated. Very, Atikawa are diverse and had bonafide right over many places.

Keywords: Atikawa, hegemony, Sokoto Caliphate, Sultan, Abubakar Atiku, District, Gwadabawa




Impact of the National Fadama Projects on the Capacity of the Beneficiaries for Sustainable Livelihoods in Katsina State


*Dr. Sani Maiunguwa; & **Dr. J. O. Adefila

*Geography Department, Isa Kaita College of Education, Pmb 5007, Dutsinma Katsina State, Nigeria. **Geography Department, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.



As one of the many strategies that use agriculture to drive the economy along the path of sustainable growth, the federal government, in partnership with state governments, local governments and peasants, and with the support of the World Bank, initiated the national Fadama programme, the aim of which is to leverage the unique characteristics of the vast wetlands in the country to promote year-round farming in order to sustain the livelihoods of the farmers and boost domestic food supply. The scope of Phases I and II of the Fadama programme from 2000 to 2008 was characterized by a strong emphasis on arable farming. The scope was extended in Phase III to encompass sustainable rural livelihoods by promoting diversification into non-farm economic activities. This study sets out to examine the extent to which the Fadama programme has been able to develop the capacity of smallholder farmers for sustainable livelihoods in Katsina State. The data used for the study were gathered in field surveys using two sets of structured questionnaires amongst sampled groups of beneficiaries and officials of the Fadama programme in the State. The key areas of Fadama intervention to communities include; Asset development, Agricultural inputs, infrastructural development and Capacity building. The achievements of the Project were observed in the improvement of the Beneficiaries’ capacity to diversify within and outside agriculture. Eleven (11) different types of 1900 subprojects were executed to the completion level. However the average monthly income of the Beneficiary FUG members was found to be generally low and varied as most could be said to be within the poverty line. This is because income was found to be constrained by household size which induced family and community responsibilities. Nonetheless improving access to factors of production which Fadama project had made the Beneficiaries to achieve also translate into income improvement, self empowerment, by enabling the poor especially women and landless to become economic agents of change, they made laudable investments to improve their livelihood activities. However, most Beneficiaries are poor farmers and are constantly held back by prices that are too low to be remunerative and too volatile to consider continuous   investments. Climatic variations, diseases and pest, vulnerability in interactions with commercial operators, difficulty in entering remunerative value chains and markets and in freely choosing and appropriating suitable technologies are every day challenges. Thus the study recommends that Fadama effort to diversify the Katsina State’ economy by supporting off-farm activities in villages and rural growth centers need to be accompanied by measures to strengthen the rural-urban linkages. These require that rural growth centers be promoted in the context of rural development. while appropriate measure to create mass purchasing power in urban areas through promotion of labour intensive activities and an enabling environment for small-scale informal activities and cottage industries are crucial for the enhancement of market and income opportunities for producers. This requires provision and or rehabilitation of social and economic infrastructures.

Keywords: National, Fadama, Projects, Capacity, Beneficiaries.




Effect of Creative Accounting and Earnings Management on Financial Reporting


Godiya Jesse Wafinzida, Monica Shadrach & Abubakar Mahmud Bello

Department Of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.



This study examined creative Accounting and earnings management as it affect financial report. The study highlights Creative Accounting methods, impacts of creative accounting on financial reporting, reasons for creative accounting and way of curbing creative accounting. The study emphasized the fact that Accountancy profession and practice are faced with the challenges of living up to expectation in the global world, and often times, the Accounting standards lag behind such growths and development. There is need for more research into the accounting in order to update the accountant, to develop his initiative and innovations to enable him cope with the challenging and growing business world. The concepts of “True and Fair”, and materiality need to be look at as they affect published financial statements.

Keyword; Creative Accounting, Earnings Management and Financial Reporting




Effect of Waste Engine Oil on the Geotechnical Properties of Soil of Abandoned Mechanic Villages


Umar L.; & Adekeye A.W

Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria



The impact of waste engine oil (WEO) contamination on geotechnical engineering properties of soil of abandoned mechanic village was investigated. Laboratory testing of soil samples from Offa metropolitan area was carried out. Tests carried out included Specific gravity, Atterberg properties, Compaction, and particle size distribution. In both uncontaminated and contaminated soils samples, varying percentages of (0%, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12%) of WEO were mixed with lateritic soil as a simulation of the contamination. Results show that the Specific gravity and Plastic Limits (PL) decreased as the content of used engine oil increased. The values of the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) increased as the content of the waste engine oil increased but experienced a decrease at 6% contamination. The MDD values of the WEO contaminated lateritic soil increases from 6-9% WEO content, prior to 6% WEO content, there was no improvement in the MDD. Contaminated soils can be used in engineering works to advantage. Between 6-9% WEO contaminations, the OMC reduced for all the samples. This is as a result of the lubrication ability of the WEO. Any structure to be built near WEO contaminated lateritic soils should be adequately investigated as a result of the large variations in lateritic soil properties at various degrees of contamination. 0 – 3% WEO contamination will need to be investigated further since the result is not consistent with results of previous study.

Keywords: waste engine oil, contamination, properties, lubrication, maximum dry density.




Informing Disciplines, Knowledge, and Practice: A Review of How Theory Sculpts Research


Danjuma Bawa Babale; & Kabiru Lawal

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic Mubi – PMB 35, Adamawa State



Many researchers have over the time identified the role of theory in educational research, humanity, doctoral thesis research, and a host of others. This paper therefore tends to pull such contributions from individual scholars so as to provide a harmonized literature of the role of theory in research. This is achieved through sourcing of peer reviewed journals from recent archives of social sciences and related disciplines where the subject of theory’s role in research is attempted. Some of the issues that were addressed are the constant fuzzy clarification between theoretical frameworks and conceptual framework, and the big picture of how theories inform research. A theory is seen by many researchers as intertwine of concepts, logics, rules, and relations, strategically structured to explore, confirm, explain, and describe phenomena. The difference between theoretical framework and conceptual framework is that the first uses theories, quantitative and qualitative data to model a phenomenon, while the second uses theories and qualitative data as empirical data for understanding concepts in a phenomenon which may lead to a new theory. Theoretical frameworks are frames constructed based on theories or selected theory; they are designed to guide researchers on how to go about their study.

Keywords: Theory, theoretical framework, conceptual framework, research




The Environmental Impact of Graphics on Modern Life


Mamman Obadiah Jatau

Department of Fine and Applied Art, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Federal College of Education Pankshim, Plateau State



Human due to environmental graphic speaks with its environment and communicates with others so that the colors have direct impact on things, places, and many things and will be caused attraction. Lighting traffic signs, post boxes, signs of streets name…. all these things are linked together and fans place in the public view that by coloring can show them more pleasant and beautiful. Environmental graphic makes space and living environment more beautiful, more joyful and gives the urban environment order and coherence. Attention to the environmental graphic by the parties causes to improve the quality and supply of goods to the people that included the most important part of the environment beauty that has been considered in human selection at the first appearance of human life. For example: In a shop that public go there, attention to environment and graphics is placed in the first period assuming if we use bright and cheerful coloring in a public place, the audiences will be relaxing psychologically and environmentally that in choose and buy products is effective but in contrast with this issue, the workload and daily life with colors and inappropriate designs causes to the person to be with stress in his own choice and quality of sale of the store declines over time because the buyer will not be satisfied of choosing the inappropriate goods that has been due to the location adversity and changes his place of purchase.

Keywords: Environmental graphics, Modern life, Cultural advertising, Public relations




Media as a Tool in Fostering the Post-2015 African Development Agenda for Sustainable Development in Sub – Saharan Africa in 21st Century


*Ndijida Mary Anthony; *Omotope Adewumi; and **Usman Ali Guluk

*Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. **Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.



The Post-2015 Development Agenda provides a unique opportunity for Africa to reach consensus on common challenges, priorities and aspirations, and to actively participate in the global debate on how to complete the MDGs and address emerging development issues. Published in March 2014, the Common African Position on the post-2015Development Agenda is the embodiment of that unity. The Position recognizes rising trends such as population growth and the youth bulge, urbanization, climate change and inequalities. It reiterates the importance of prioritizing structural transformation for inclusive and people-centred development in Africa. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio (1992), sustainable development remained elusive for many African countries, with poverty being a major challenge and desertification, deforestation and climate change its main treats. In spite of the fact that the child mortality rate in Sub- Saharan Africa declined five times faster during 2005-2013 than it was 1990-1995, the region still detains the highest rate.  Agenda setting and Media development theories were adopted for the paper and recommends Improving domestic resource mobilization, Natural disaster risk reduction and management , Finance and Partnerships, and the use of media to propelled the implementation of  the post-2015 development agenda for development.

Keywords: Post 2015development agenda, sustainable, development, media




Electricity Supply and Sustainable Development in Nigeria


Mosobalaje Risikat Olaitan; & Ajiteru Temilade Oluwamayokun

Department of Economics, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



This study sets out to empirically investigate the impact of electricity supply on sustainable development in Nigeria, using econometrics model (Multiple Regression) and annual time series data from 1981 to 2017. Some statistical tools are employed to explore the relationship between these variables. The study examines stochastic characteristics of each time series by testing their stationarity using Augumented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test. The findings revealed that Electricity supply has significant impact on sustainable development. The multiple regression performs on the model revealed that all the variables (R2) accounted for 94% variations in the Gross Domestic Product growth rate (GDPgr) of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government should boost the supply of electricity by revisit the electricity enacts to prevent illegal tapping and exhortation of the citizens by the Power Generating Firms.

Keyword: Electricity, Supply, Sustainable, Development, Nigeria.




Efficacy of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development in Nigeria: It’s Benefit on Religious Growth.


Kuchaks, Dorcas Peter

Department of Christian Religious Studies, School of Secondary Arts and Social Sciences, Federal College of Education Zaria



This paper highlight the efficacy of using renewable energy in sustainable development in Nigeria and address how it benefits Religious Growth. Increase in national population, rise in industrial activities and global climatic changes among other factors have given rise to high energy demand in our homes and industries. Fossil fuel can no longer meet the energy requirements due to their scarcity and rising cost. Consequently, the need to have an alternative energy source in Nigeria is a priority issue. An Exploratory research design was used. It benefit religious growth: when there is availability of power in rural areas, when jobs are created, and when there is social and economic development. It was recommended that: More investment on renewable energy, renewable energy should be taken as alternative source of income, intensive study on the technology of converting renewable energy for end us, and grand should be given to developing countries to effectively use the available renewable energy within their reach

Keywords: Green-fuel, fossil, geothermal, biomass, and Religious growth.




Design and Development of Solar Powered Herbarium Cabinet from Locally Sourced Material. “Delving into Issues and Resources for Sub-Saharan African Growth in The Millennium Era”.


Wadai J.1, Musa T.2 and Samaila Yerima Sule3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, PMB 35, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, PMB 35, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



The paper address the challenges faced by the floristic and taxonomic sector in Nigeria by design and developing a solar powered herbarium cabinet. The principle of vapor compression refrigeration cycle is utilized in designing the cooling system. Heat loss in the herbarium cabinet was insignificant during operational analysis. The desired ‘paste control’ conditions of temperature up to -18oc, and 50% relative humidity was 94% achieved when the herbarium cabinet was cooled to -17oc, and 62% relative humidity after six hours cooling period at full capacity. Thus, the heritage of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, algae, and fungi would be redeemed from extinction when Institutions, Government at all levels and Private researchers embraces the use of the reliably affordable solar powered herbarium cabinet.

Keywords: solar power, herbarium cabinet, indigenous lost plant, locally sourced material




Beacon Technology on Retail Business Model, Roles, Merit and Demerits


Ofualagba Mamuyovwi Helen

Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnics Otefe, Oghara, Delta State.



A Beacon is commonly a little Bluetooth Low Energy (BTLE, Bluetooth 4.0) gadget that can be controlled by a coin cell, batteries or through an outer power supply. These devices are small to the point that you can wear them in your handbag or keep them with your pack of keys. There are great deals of potential outcomes and this paper clarifies one such circumstance. Besides, with Beacon you can accomplish more than just track things. Beacon Technology is a Bluetooth enabled device which is based on Bluetooth Low Energy Technology. Beacon is expertise in identifying proximity and can be used in business areas for various information. The data which beacons transmit will be in the form of packets and relevant Smartphone can take up the data which is transmitted. In the proposed system the customer will receive the notifications and services provided by the vendor when he passes near the store/mall, thus providing the customized advertisement service to the user. This paper review beacon technology in the aspects of its roles, merit and demerit.

Keywords: Beacon, Bluetooth,   Ble, Information, Media, Identification, and Technology.




Impact of Incentive and Motivation in Enhancing Workers Performance in Construction Industries


Muhammad Lawal Yahaya

Department of Building Technology, College of Environmental Studies, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina State, Nigeria.



This work examines the Impact of incentive and motivation in enhancing workers performance in construction industries, a case study of construction industries in Katsina state, Nigeria. The research objective and question were formulated to guide this work, descriptive research design was adopted and the five construction industries in Katsina were randomly selected for this research work and appropriate question were distributed to 100 Built Environment Professionals in the construction industries. According to the results it shows that there are importance of motivation and incentives ofconstruction workers in construction industry and also there are factors that influence and challenges the motivation and incentive of construction of workers in construction industries in Nigeria. Thus it was recommended that increase in salary; promotion, overtime and holiday with pay should be used as motivators for increase in performance of construction workers and Promotion should be done regularly and should be based on performance of workers. Training and workshop organised by the professional bodies is also recommended.

Keywords: Incentive, Motivation, Construction Industry.


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