African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science (AJHSS) Vol. 17 No.6


VOL. 17 NO.6 MARCH, 2020 ISSN: 2110–2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Newspaper coverage of oil-related environmental rights issues in the Niger Delta


Samuel K. Oredipe, Christie J. Omego & Christopher J. Ochonogor

Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



Nigerian newspapers as veritable mass media platformshave over the years contributed immensely to the development of the society. There is however, a general belief that the newspapers have not lived to expectations to draw attention of key stakeholders like government and oil companies to the environmental rights issues in the Niger Delta region. The objective of this study is to look at the coverage provided by the Nigerian newspapers to highlight oil-related environmental rights issues in the Niger Delta. The study was anchored on the agenda setting and social responsibility theories. Content analysis and survey were adopted for this study.The studyobserved that the people have continued to agitate for their rights to life, rights to a safe environment, protection of the ecosystem, appropriate mitigation and compensation, sustainable development, provision of basic amenities and peace for quality living. The study concluded that Nigerian newspapers have not given adequate coverage to environmental rights issues facing the people. It also clearly noted that the newspapers have a great role to play in the on-going advocacy campaign to ensure a friendly and safe environment as well as bring succor to millions of people in the Niger Delta.

Keywords: Newspaper, Journalism, Environmental rights issues, Development, Niger Delta.




Understanding and Curbing Menace of Theft and Mutilation of Library Materials: A Case Study of College of Health Technology, Pankshin Library in Plateau State, Nigeria.


*Jacob, Emmanuel Eneojo & Nsok, Lucky Dashuwar

*Library and Information Science Unit, Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos.



This study was on Understanding and curbing menace of theft and mutilation of library materials: A case study of College of Health Technology, Pankshin Library in Plateau State, Nigeria. Three (3) research objectives were formulate to guide the study, which are:  to identify the causes of Theft and Mutilation of Library Materials, to find out the means through which Library Materials are being stolen, to identify the policies put in place by Library Management to protect its Information Resources against Theft and Mutilation. The population of the study was 20, which includes 7 library staff, 5 security staff and 8 temporary staff. The researcher used the entire population as sample for the study. The instrument used for the collection of data for the study was Questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. The findings indicated that highest cause of theft and mutilation of library materials in College of Health Technology Pankshin was Selfishness on the part of library users. This was followed by Lack of concern for the need of others, financial constraint and high cost of learning materials, Scarcity of library materials, Lack of photocopying services and Non-familiarity with library services, among others. The highest means through which library materials are been stolen in College of Health Technology, Pankshin Library includes hiding under cloth and inside pocket and Throwing books out  through window, among others. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the management should improve Library facilities especially security equipments, and Library staff should be properly trained so as to prevent theft and mutilation. Photocopying services for scarce Library materials should also be made available for Library users.

Keywords: Theft, Library, Mutilation, Library materials, College of Health Technology, Pankshin




The Significance of Political Theory in Contemporary Political Discourse: Nature, Functions and Dynamics


Dr. Muhammad Daiyabu Hassan and Abdulrahman Dangana Lukman

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



Being regarded as the hardcore of political science discipline, this paper explored the significance of political theory in contemporary political discourse taken into cognizance its traditional and contemporary dimension. While the method used in the study is content analysis of predominantly secondary sources, the paper adopted the Systems Analysis to the study of Political Theory. Findings revealed that traditional political theory focuses on the history of political thought from the ancient Greek theorists to the present by looking at different historical, philosophical, institutional and legal aspects of politics. Contemporary political theory on the other hand focuses on developing the concepts and language as well as posting the relationships and defending the methodology that allows for testing claims about how political world turns. It reflects upon political phenomenon, processes and institutions and on actual political behaviour by subjecting it to philosophical or ethical criterion. Thus, political theory performs three main functions which include the description of political phenomenon, social criticism, and reconstruction of the political system through postulation of ideas and opinion. It concerned mainly with the fundamental problems of the state such as the rights and duties of citizens, the relationship between the citizens and the state, the role of civil society in an organized entity and the like. In other words, it focuses mainly with prescribing what is right and wrong, good and evil, the nature of an ideal state (justice and political stability), and the purpose of the universe or human life as well as evaluating the desirability of political actions or state of affairs.

Keywords: Political Theory, Political Philosophy, Political Science, Systems Analysis and Political Discourse.




Boko Haram and Forced Migration: A Focus on the Northeast and Lake Chad Basin


*Prof. Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony **Mike Boni Bazza, PhD ***Omojola Immaculata Olu, PhD

*Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State **Department of History and International Relations, Veritas University Abuja (The Catholic University of Nigeria) ***Department of Business Administration and Management, Villanova Polytechnic, Imesi Ile, Osun State



This paper first and foremost, examines the emergence of Boko Haram as a religious organization which later transformed to mysterious militant group, the causative factors of Boko Haram and its impact on forced migration vis-à-vis Nigerian National Development. Secondly, the paper seeks to examine the nature, structure, growth, and consequences of the crisis. Although, forced migration both in and into Nigeria has several causes such as environmental degradation, natural disasters, inter/intra communal and inter-ethnic boundary conflicts, disagreements over land between natives and settlers, electoral violence, as well as violent conflicts. However, the most devastating armed conflict that has led to forced migration of people of the northeastern part of Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin in recent times is the Boko Haram uprising. Reports have shown that, over two million people were forced to move out from their original homes as a result of the crisis. Thirdly, the paper highlights the impacts of the Boko Haram crisis on the plight of the displaced people in terms of their living conditions, food and nutrition, health, security and education. Such highlights are captured in its findings in the area of economic, political and social impacts of Boko Haram and forced migration. The paper concludes by offering some recommendations with a view of improving the situation and even asking the government to formulate a policy towards providing a solution to this crisis. The methodology applied in this research paper is qualitative in nature and has adopted descriptive analysis, whereby, it heavily relied on secondary sources in which data was collected from journals, seminar papers, articles and so on. 

Keywords: Boko Haram, Migration, Northeast, Lake Chad Basin, Religious Organization, Security




Working Capital Management in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry


Ollor, Helen Y. and George, Boma

Hospitality Management and Tourism Department, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt.



This is to examine some of the important components of Working Capital Management as well as significant aspects of Working Capital Management needed to be considered. There are important ratios need to maintain to play a win-win business game. These ratios are the heart of any company where investors, analysts or shareholders relied on. This study will show how the business success could be dependent heavily on the ability of Financial Managers to effectively manage the components of Working Capital. So as, when private sector companies especially Hospitality and Tourism firm administrators implement proper Working Capital Management, effective performance will be promoted. In order to forestall shut down of business operations to meet up challenges of precarious liquidity situation and crisis which might arise in the Hospitality and Tourism firms; financing and investing policies should be effectively implemented in order to promote performance. This concluded that there should be need for regular monitoring of financial decision implementation by the firms audit unit also Managers of the Hospitality firms should engage adequate Working Capital, to enhance effective performance.

Keywords: Working, Capital, Management, Hospitality and Tourism.




Peace Movement in Afghanistan: Emerging Conflict or Peace initiative


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, PhD

Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)



The Afghan peace process refers to both the proposals and negotiations in a bid to end the ongoing war in Afghanistan. Although sporadic efforts have taken place since the war began in 2001, negotiations and the peace movement intensified in 2018 amid talks between the Taliban, which is the main insurgent group fighting against the Afghan government and American troops; and the United States, of which 20,000 soldiers maintain a presence within the country to support the Afghan government. Most of the talks have taken place in Doha, the capital of Qatar. It is expected that a mutual agreement between the Taliban and the United States would be followed by a phased American withdrawal and the start of intra-Afghan peace talks. Besides the United States, Afghanistan’s neighbors Pakistan, China and India, as well as Russia, play a part in facilitating the peace process. On February 25, 2019, peace talks began between the Taliban and the United States in Qatar, with Taliban co-founder Abdul Ghani Baradar notably present US special envoy Zalmay Khalilzad reported that this round of negotiations was “more productive than they have been in the past” and that a draft version of a peace agreement had been agreed upon. The deal involved the withdrawal of US and international troops from Afghanistan and the Taliban not allowing other jihadist groups to operate within the country. The Taliban also reported that progress was being made in the negotiations. Pakistan plays a central role in an attempt to end the war. The paper has reviewed relevant secondary literatures to investigate the problem of conflict in Afghanistan since 2001. This paper was of the view that the content of peace agreement between the Taliban, Afghanistan government and US government has been violated that led continue attacks lunched by Taliban group to various US security formation and Afghanistan government. The paper was of the view that for peace to be sustain  in Afghanistan , justice ,fair play must be respected among the conflicting parties US government must value the culture, tradition and looking at the Taliban group demand and works with Afghanistan government to bring peace and end conflict in the Afghanistan.

Keywords: Peace agreement, violent conflict, terrorism and United State of American troop




Towards a Theology of Migration


Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony

Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State



As theology has been changed or molded by contexts and new circumstances of God’s people, the question looming at the horizon of this research is: what has theology to say within the context of migration, which is a phenomenon that cannot be ignored? This piece will therefore go through the teachings of the Fathers of the Church, the Magisterium and Scripture to see what God is saying about the particular context of migrants, refugees and displaced persons of our time, and in this way, recast the migration issue theologically.

Keywords: Theology, Migration, Trends, Dynamics, Church Fathers, Vatican Council II




Theological Models of Youth in Christus Vivit


Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony

Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State.



This piece carves it niche by focusing on the theological models of youth in the document Christus Vivit. This would include a study of the Scripture, the Old and New Testaments as already contained in the document, a study of the Christological model of youth, focusing on the relationships of the life of Christ with youthfulness, a mariological model, which deals with the relations of Mary, the Mother of Christ with youth, and lastly, the ecclesiological model of youth, which speaks of the relations between the Church and the youth. The purpose of this study to provide a theological basis for further study of the youth, and more importantly, to show in a theological way, the fundamental place that the youth occupy in the heart of Christ and His Church.

Keywords: Theology. Models, Migration, Tradition, Magisterium, Scripture, Christus Vivit




Public Relations for Effective Service Delivery: Kenneth Dike Library University of Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria


Felicia Johh and Zainab Abba Halliru

University Library, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi State



The aim of the study was to find out the public relations practices for effective service delivery in Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. It focused on how public relation can be used to improve the services of the library user and library staff. It was achieved through the following objectives; to examine public relation practices for service delivery, determine public relation effectiveness, to find out public relation challenges and suggest possible solution to the current public relations practices on service delivery in Kenneth Dike Library. A descriptive case study design was used to allow for in depth investigation and better understanding of the public relation service delivery to the users. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect information on the public relation practices and service delivery. The target population of the study comprises of students and library staffs. The sample size comprises of 218 which represented 2% of the entire population from the thirteen faculties of Kenneth Dike Library. Stratified Random Sampling technique was used to select a sample size from the population. The study structured questionnaires and unstructured interview to collect data for the study. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data at 5% level of significance. Regression analysis was used to establish the strength of the relationship. The study concluded that public relation practice should plan and sustained to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization/institution/firm and the public. It is clear that a public relation division is crucial in any organization including the library, any activity done in the library either directly or indirectly can be viewed as a public relation activity as long as it appears to promote the public image of the library. The study recommended that library authority should focus on proper staff straining to improve the professionalism in the library. Librarians must themselves take initiatives to improve interpersonal relationships with library users. Personal relationships and collaboration (including welcoming publicity in education programs) are a crucial matter towards the development of public relation.   

Keyword: Public Relation, Library, Library Service, Service Delivery




An Analysis of the Constitutional Implication of South-West Regional Security Initiative: Amotekun


*Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, Ph.D **Musa Mohammed Bello (Ph.D inview)

*Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) **Institute of Governance and Development Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



It was on 9th  January, 2020 the South-west states, namely Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti, has  launched a security formation to tackle the problem of insecurity within the region which led to reverted reaction from the Federal Government through the office of the Attorney General and many political analyst described the movement  as an illegal regional security formation that has peculiar  Yaruba /Christian agenda which  contradict the provision of the Nigeria constitution that vested the issue of security as an exclusive List to be undertaken Federal Government. The security collaboration, tagged Operation Amotekun, is expected to complement the efforts of the regular police force in the area of combating kidnapping, armed robbery, as well as herdsmen and farmers contentions. The decision by the governors of the South-west states to create Operation Amotekun was reached in Ibadan in June 2019, at the regional security summit in Ibadan. The summit was a reaction to the worsening security situation in the region. In spite of its laudable aspirations, Amotekun appears to be on a collision course with the status quo. The paper has these questions to ask, how will the security outfit be operated and what would be its operational guidelines and its command structure. Who gives the orders and to whom would they be answerable to? Besides the pending questions, is Amotekun a subtle realization of state or regional police being vehemently advocated by leaders of the region? The paper has the finding that the establishment of Amotekun was either misperceive or contradict the constitution of Nigeria on the issue of security provision in the country. The paper has suggested that negotiation and further discussion need to be engage between Federal Government and the South West Governors to find a right legal position of Amotekun in Nigeria security structure to avoid constitutional friction and crisis that may tore the peaceful understanding of the peoples in the North and Western Regions.

Keywords: Constitutional Friction, Insecurity, Regionalism and Bad Governance 




Nepalese Political Turmoil as Setting in M. K. Limbu’s Fragile Mountains


Bello Usman

Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu



The present paper aims to examine the political crisis and its effects – both positive and negative – on the people of Nepal in the novel Fragile Mountains by M. K. Limbu. Limbu believes that the political turmoil is positive in the sense that Nepal cannot continue to remain in the iron grip of those who stand in the path of change in a country that has remained stagnant for centuries. He also believes that the turmoil has a negative effect on both the traditions and culture of the people. The Feudalist Quasi-democratic government in Kathmandu and the Maoist rebels are however, not good for the country. Their ideologies are destructive and anti-people. The essay will make use of two concepts – Power and Ideology – both drawn from the theory of New Historicism. It is quite significant to highlight the relationship between literature and history in Fragile Mountains. Here, Limbu provides an insight through his narrative of the often hidden aspects of Nepalese history during the Maoist rebellion on how ordinary poor and unrepresented Nepalese such as the Limbu people were fundamentally affected by the two political gladiators. There are very few critical studies on the novel Fragile Mountains. Thus, it is important to properly situate how the political turmoil has affected the rural people who live in the Eastern Mountains of Nepal and in essence, provide valuable literature on an epoch in Nepalese history that has been hidden from official records.

Keywords: Eastern Nepalese Mountains, Feudal, Insurgency, Maoist, Nepal, Quasi-democratic




The Roles of Gender Equality in Democratic Governance


Aina, OlajideFunmi1Obomanu, Felicia Ihuoma2 Temple, Oluchi Edith3

General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic Ukana



The issue of gender equality has gained worldwide or global attention. There is a growing awareness among people generally of the need to balance and in fact give an adequate recognition to our female counterparts in democratic governance. Women are supposedly not to be seen or heard in certain respect despite global awareness and the need for equality among citizens. The position appears to have been accepted especially amongst the uneducated women who accepted their roles as dictated by the culture of the land. This important phenomenon is yet to be given adequate attention by scholars, as most works concentrated more on the impact of modernity without really looking at the imminent adverse effects in determining the position of women in democratic governance. This paper discusses the roles of gender equality in democratic governance. It justifies the practices that tend to inhibit gender balance in democratic governance among women. The paper exposes the barbaric practices of gender inequality in Nigeria with its Negative effects on our democratic governance. The paper went further to uncover the challenges of attaining gender equality and the way forward. In conclusion, it stated that no culture is static and that the dynamism in culture and cultural related issues must be brought to bear in determining relationship between both sexes considering the fact that sex does not determine wisdom, potentials for greatness nor good leadership.

Keywords: Roles, Gender, Equality, Democratic, Governance.




Impact of Terrorism on Global Economic Growth and Development


*Usman Adamu Ibrahim **Adamu Saleh

*Basic Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



The aim of this study is to examine the impacts of terrorism on economic growth and development experienced worldwide. More precisely these terrorist incidents and its impacts on economic growth and economic development in most countries are classified according to income groups. The article presents the general causes of terrorism and its impact on different sectors. During the past decades, the world has witnessed nearly twenty thousand terrorist incidents. Due to the increasing global scope of terrorism it has been raised important questions about its economic impact in countries around the world. While it was noted that terrorist incidents have a significant negative impact on tourism, investment, and trade and capital formation.

Keywords: terrorism; economic impact; counter-terrorism, economic development and growth.




Macroeconomic Factors and the Productivity of Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria


*Dr (Mrs) Titilola Oshati, *Ajunwa Felix Ogechi & **Moshood Abdulrahim

*Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters, Abuja **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters, Abuja



The achievement of sustainable economic growth in furtherance of economic development is the major aim of policy makers in various countries as this affects positively on the citizenry. This paper examined the impact of the changes in the macroeconomic factors on the productivity of the manufacturing sector in Nigeria from 1986 to 2015. Secondary data was extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria 2015 Statistical Bulletin on the various variables of interest which included Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment rate, inflation rate, exchange rate, interest rate and manufacturing output. A preliminary evaluation of the data was conducted using both descriptive statistics and stationarity evaluation. The test indicated that all the variables are not normal. The occurrence of mixed order integration at level and first difference necessitated the deployment of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique as the estimation tool. The Generalized least Squares regression was deployed based on the result of the Hausman test which pointed to the direction of long-run connection amongst the variables. The follow-up check of short-run error correction mechanism discovered a 45 present disequilibrium adjustment. The result findings revealed that inflation and exchange rate contributed positively to manufacturing output in the long run. The influence of the rates of interest rate and unemployment were also positive in the short run but had negative impact in the long run. Also, the relationship between manufacturing output and GDP was positively and significant at 1 percent level. The results showed that manufacturing was a veritable engine of economic growth. In order to check the validity and robustness of the estimation model, the Ramsey RESET test; Cross dependence test; Autocorrelation test and Heteroscedasticity tests were conducted. The tests showed no presence of serial correlation but of heteroscedasticity which although makes the model inefficient but estimator is still unbiased. The study recommended the harmonization of both fiscal and monetary policies for the attainment of macroeconomic stability.

Keywords: exchange rate, Gross Domestic Product, inflation rate, interest rate, manufacturing productivity, Unemployment rate.




The Relevance of Traditional Rulers in Political Socio-Economic Development in Local Government in Nigerian


Tijani, Suleman Olatunji & Damisah Maryanne Omokhefue

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State.



The study aims at examining the nature of the continued relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian politics. In spite of the negative impacts of colonialism and westernization on the institutions in pre-colonial period, traditional rulers occupied important position of political authority in African kingdom. The traditional rulers have served as important adjuncts in the administration of post-colonial government in both Nigeria and Africa. Towards the last years of colonial rule, there was a shift from the traditional rulers to the educated elites who eventually succeeded in achieving political independence for the country. This research is of the view that traditional rulers as the custodian of the customs and traditions of their respective areas should be given opportunities on a basis of recommending some of their experiences to the service as members of customary courts; also, traditional rulers have to adopt the spirit of yearly dialogue amongst the subjects; the outcome of the yearly dialogue will create necessary relationship towards community development programme.

Keywords: role, traditional rulers, socio-economic, political, development.




A Review of Bauchi State Geo-Tourism Resource Attractions, with Potentials for Hospitality, Recreation and Tourism Development


1Sanusi Abubakar Sadiq 2Idris Abdullahi Mohammed 3Hafsat Mahmud Hussaini 4Amina Bata Zoaka

1,3&4Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



It is a known fact that the experience of a community or region where Geo-Tourism resource attraction is well planned and developed suggests that the areas where these potentials and resources are located, if well packaged and promoted could be harnessed for a sustainable development. While a tourist’s generating destination as a result of factors capable of attracting visitors accordingly increases the inflow of such visitors as well as the socio-cultural interactions, and revenue generation of the areas and community which will revamp and boost the hospitality, recreation and tourism activities of Bauchi state and the country at large. The methodology employed here showcases the carefully selected secondary research method, based on geographical components of hospitality, recreational and tourism resources in the extant literatures. The study area under investigation further discusses issues of immense contribution to Geo-Tourism resource attractions by special attention to preserve, protect and promote our culture and tradition at the identified tourist sites of Land, Water, Climatic, Vegetation and Historical based. Hence, the contribution of this work can never be over estimated as the results and findings were all relevant to professionals and other future possibilities in terms of attainment of Hospitality, Recreation and Tourism potentials in Bauchi state and Nigeria in general. It has been recommended that government and stakeholders should strictly enforce the law that provides enabling environment and logistics for developing geo-tourism resource attractions, with potentials for hospitality, recreation and tourism Bauchi and therefore, Nigeria.

Keywords: Attention, experience, logistics, preserve, sustainability.




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