African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 17 No.2


VOL. 17 NO.2 MARCH, 2020 ISSN: 2010–1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


An Integrated Approach to Reducing Design Errors in Nigerian Construction for Sustainale Development


Zakariya B.H1, Nasiru M.2, Mukhtar M.M3

1 Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 2,3 Department of Quantity Survey, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.



(Reason and Hobbs, 2003), define error as the failure of planned actions to achieve their desiredgoals, where this occurs without some unforeseeable or chance intervention. Design error is a deviation from a drawing or specification, also including omissions and ambiguities, the rate of occurrence of design errors on building projects is becoming alarming by the day, this have had several adverse effect on the construction industry such as cost overrun, in extreme cases and prolonged delay in the completion time of construction project which will prevent building projects to achieve sustainability in development through increasing the final cost on construction project.  Although design error in construction project seems somewhat inevitable, the aim of this research is to determine the factors that will reduce design errors on construction projects in. Sixty five professionals in Bauchi state of Nigeria were issued well-structured, the data were collected and analyzed using descriptive method of statistics (tables and chats), relative important index (RII) Proper implementation of design management,  introduction of multidisciplinary design team during the design stage, Proper implementation of procurement strategies at the design stage should be adopted by both clients and professionals so as to reduce the rate of errors, omission and ambiguity.

Keywords; Design errors, Sustainaility and construction industry.




Motivational Factors Influencing Women Entrepreneurs’ Performance in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State


*Akinyele Samuel Taiwo **Akinyele Esther Feyisayo & ***Osotimehin  Comfort Abosede

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, College of Management Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University, Faith City,  Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria ***Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, College of Management Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria



This study focused on examining the influence of motivational factors on the performance of women entrepreneurs in Abeokuta. A sample size of 110 respondents was used in the study which was determined by using yards formula. The overall objective was to determine the motivational factors influencing women entrepreneurs’ performance. Research questions were derived, alongside with four hypotheses that was formulated and tested; descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analyses. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (S.P.S.S) was used for the regression which was adopted to test the four hypotheses that were set. The study reveals that there is significance between motivational factors and women entrepreneurs’ performance. The researchers concluded by recommending; there ought to be a transparent way put in place by the government for women to access government funds. This is to limit the many enormous procedures and time spent in trying to get these funds. When the procedure is made to take a shorter time to access funds there will be more women involvement in Entrepreneurial ventures,  there should be an introduction of vocational trainings to women to enhance their skills in business management. This can be done on weekly basis or weekends so as to equip the women with knowledge of basic business skills like the maintenance of records and balance sheets so as to manage their finances in a good waythere should also be programs put in place by various organizations to encourage women in various professions to engage in entrepreneurial ventures. With these programs in place the women will see the advantage of their engagements in business enterprises.

Keyword:  Women Entrepreneurs’, Motivational Factors, Performance, Government,Funds, Skills




Prevalence of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Diarrhoiec Stool of Children (0-5) Years Attending Selected Hospitals in Niger State Nigeria.


1Muhammad, I. L., 2Olonitola, O. S., 2Ameh, J. B., 3Olayinka, B. O. and Suleiman, A. L.

1Department of Microbiology, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, University, Lapai. 2Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida.



Diarrhoea remains a common complaint among children attending various hospitals in Niger State for medical attention. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of E. coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic stool of children (0-5) years attending various hospitals in Niger state from February to October, 2014. The hospitals included Etsu Umaru Sanda General Hospital Bida, General Hospital, Minna and General Hospital, Kontagora. A total of 480 samples were collected from diarrhoeal cases. The samples were analyzed using MacConkey and Eosin Methylene blue agar. The isolates were Gram-stained, identified and serotyped using biochemical tests and E. coli strain kits. Out of the 480 patients sampled, 255 (53.13%) were males and 225 (46.87%) were females. The presences of Escherichia coli were observed in 81 (16.88%) samples, while 399 (83.12%) were E. coli negative. Different strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrhoeic stool included Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 16 (19.75%), Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 13 (16.05%), Enteroinvasive E. coli 8 (9.88%), Enteropathogenic E. coli 27 (33.33%) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli 17 (20.99%). Statistical analysis revealed that age, source of water, feeding habit , area of domicile, occupation and educational status of parents are statistically significant (P<0.05), while gender is statistically in significant (P>0.05).

Keywords: Prevalence, Diarrhoea, Escherichia coli, Strains




Politics of Middle East and the Killing of General Soleimani Qassem


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, PhD

Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



What happened on January 3, 2020 appeared to be a dramatic departure from this low-level confrontation in Iran global politics, not only in terms of the nature of the operation, but also with respect to its attendant political discourse. It is the first time that the US has targeted an Iranian official of this stature. In addition, the US claimed responsibility for the operation with threatening language demanding that Iran abstain from targeting US interests. Many associated this shift with the attempt by PMF elements to attack the US embassy in Baghdad on December 31, 2019 which brought back the painful memories of the storming of the US embassy in Tehran in 1979 and the American consulate in Benghazi in 2012. However, it seems to be the views of many researchers that the American decision to escalate preceded this. It can be traced back to the US air strike on December 29 against five of the bases and Headquarters of the Kataib Hezbollah, one of the most important Iraqi Shia armed factions loyal to Iran which lead to killing of at least 25 militiamen and wounding more than 55 peoples. The air strike was a response to the December 27, 2019 rocket attack on the K-1 Iraqi military base near Kirkuk, which killed an American contractor and injured several American military personnel. The US air strike was devastating and led to a large number of causalities. It was different from previous attacks on PMF bases in terms of the sheer level of destruction it caused. The paper  has a  findings that Kata’ib Hezbollah, a Shi’ite   Muslim Militia which has link to Iran denied any responsibility for the attacks and the unilateral U.S airstrikes were condemned by the Iraqi Government, Iraqi Armed Forces personnel, and culminated in the U.S embassy in Baghdad being attacked by Iraqi militiamen and their supporters on 31 December, 2019. This in turn led to U.S. airstrike near Baghdad International Airport on 3 January, 2020, killing General Qasem Soleimani and Iraqi militia commander Abu Mahdi Al-muhandis.

Keywords: US Air Strike, Military Strategy, Armed Forces Personnel and Political Interest




Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Agronomic Performance of Irrigated Tomatoes (Lycopersicom Lycopersicom) in Sahelian Savanna of Nigeria


A. Bassi & T. Akanbi

Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri – Nigeria.



A field experiment were conducted at Teaching and Research Farm Faculty Agriculture University of Maiduguri, during 2018 and 2019 dry season, to investigate the effect of poultry manure on growth and yield component of irrigated tomatoes. The field was layout in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times with poultry manure rates allocated to each plot as treatments;  0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 kg t/ha respectively. Growth and yield parameters collected include; plant heights, number of leaf, number of branches per plant, number of fruit per plant, fruit weight per plant, fresh plant weight per/ha, dry plant weight per/ha, leaf area(cm). Results showed that poultry manure applied at the rate of 1.5t/ha and 2.5t/ha produced the greater growth and development and yield component. Farmers in the Sahelian zone can adopt application of poultry manure at rate of 1.5t/ha as it produce the optimum tomato yield, cheap and affordable in production cost.

Keywords: Poultry, Manure,  Rates, Growth




Effect of Varying Hervesting Periods on Proximate Composition of Three Fodder Plant Types Produced During Dry Season in Sokoto, Nigeria


Na Allah, Y. and Usman, Y. A.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria.



This study evaluated the effect of harvesting periods on proximate composition of fresh maize stalks, Potato leaves and farm weeds produced during dry season in Sokoto, Nigeria. Representative samples of the fodder plants were collected during the months of April, May and June for maize stalks and farm weeds, and May, June and July for Potato leaves, from the Kwalkwalawa village market and were evaluated for percentage dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF) and Nitrogen free extract (NFE), using the A.O.A.C. procedures. Data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System and the mean values were separated using the least significant difference (LSD) test. Results showed that proximate composition of all the three fodder types differed significantly (P<0.05) with the harvesting periods. The percent DM, CF and Ash contents were generally low (P>0.05) during the early period of April and increased with age of the plants. Conversely, the percent CP, EE and NFE contents were generally higher (P<0.05) during the early harvesting period (April) and decreased with age of the plants. It was concluded that the three fodder plants harvested early in April contained higher CP, EE and NFE and should be harvested during the month of April for better nutrients contents and utilization by animals during dry season in the study area.

Keywords: Proximate composition, harvesting time, maize stalk, Potato leaves, farm weeds, Kwalkwalawa.




Re-Engineering African Socio-Economic Development through Rural Transport Services Optimization


1Fasina, S. O., 2Akanmu, A. A., 1Salisu, U. O., 3Sanni, S. M. and 4Adedeji, E. O.

1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 3Transport and Logistics Services, Ibadan 4Nigeria Customs Service, Oyo/Osun Command, Ibadan



Rural areas are of utmost importance to the socio-economic and industrial growth of any developing economy. The need to re-engineering African development through rural transport services optimization becomes indispensable to checkmate increasing depopulation of rural areas and increase socio-economic sustainability. It is on this basis that this study appraised rural transport services in Oyo State. The paper examined residents’ socio-economic profile, trip characterization, routes and vehicles’ characteristics used for rural transport services in addition to the quality of transport services towards evolving mechanisms to foster socio-economic development of the state within the national context. 120 copies of questionnaires were administered through systematic random sampling for residents in Oyedeji, Lagun and Akitiko in Lagelu Local Government Area of Oyo State. Both descriptive and inferential (Mean Weighted Value and Regression) statistics were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that over 60% of the residents engaged in agricultural related activities and mostly rely on para-transit means, particularly motorcycles (67%) for mobility. Unfortunately, most of the bituminous rural-urban roads are in poor condition (62.5%). The regression analysis result shows that the performance of rural transport service significantly influences the socio-economic variable (income) (p=0.000 < 0.05). The study concludes that rural-urban trip pattern is usually restricted to less than 5km daily movement and that, desired attentions are not being accorded to rural transport infrastructural facilities considering the overall quagmire characterized by passenger and freight movements. The study recommended improvements in the quality of both inter rural and rural-urban road networks; and regularization of the use of motorcycle for public movement.

Keywords:  Rural area, commuters, rural transport, transport service and Oyo State




Justice in Yoruba Culture


*Omojola Immaculata Olu, PhD & **Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony

*Department of Business Administration and Management, Villanova Polytechnic, Imesi Ile, Osun State **Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State



The issue of justice in Yoruba culture is as old as Yoruba race herself.  This paper recognized the fact that without justice, no culture will survive because it will be dominated by those powerful ones who will forcefully deal with the less privileged. Issue of justice as very important in African culture was established. Understanding of Yoruba culture was explained to drive home the fact that they have a system that is just in itself where kings, chiefs and baales– family heads are in charge of settling disputes to bring about justice and harmony on regular basis. However, in case there are stubborn ones who want to prove difficult or in situation of doubt, Yoruba culture down the history has been exercising justice through their laid down laws or traditions and taboos that they teach from generation to generation without questioning. Nevertheless, covenant/ oath taking and intervention of the gods are used to bring about justice when the laws and taboos have failed them.

Keywords- Justice and Yoruba Culture




An Overview on the Anatomy and Physiology of Male one Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Reproductive System


*1 A. Bello  and  2 M.A Umaru

1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2Department of veterinary medicine, surgery and Theriogenology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 3Department of Veterinary Pathology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.



Available literature  and current research on the  Anatomy  and physiology of the reproductive system  of dromedary camel in Nigeria  is observed to assess the current performance and productive potential of this species. The origins, distribution and classification of camel breeds are briefly discussed. The reproductive anatomy and physiology is described, and is followed by an account of breeding behaviour and performance, with special attention to fertility. A brief account on the biometry, gross anatomy,histology, morphometry and physiology in relation to reproductive performance  of the one humped camel is discuss. The camel’s ability to produce milk and meat is assessed in detail, together with its suitability for transport and other purposes, such as ploughing, milling and the production of hides and skins. Management and socio-economic factors are also briefly discussed. Finally, the information presented is summarized to served as an aid in teaching and as a base-line to farmers in inproving the standard of the West African specie. There is need  for future research on the above mention specie in reproduction and husbandry in Nigeria.

Keywords: Anatomy, Physiology, Camel,Male,  Reproductive system.




Effects of Fertilizer Rates on Growth Performance of Congo Grass (Brachiaria Ruzisiensis) Grown During Rainy Season in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.


Babale, D.M1., Amos,S., Sukamkari., B.Y2., Sunyasemeni, E1. and J. Biyasa1.

1Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. 2Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



Effects of fertilizer rates on growth and yield of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzisiensis) grown during rainy season in Mubi, Adamawa State was investigated. Experimental treatments consisting of fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) application rates of 0, 30, 40 and 50 Kg/ha designated as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively at equal spacing and replicated three times in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD were studied. Parameters determined were average number of leaves, average plants heights, number of tillers, biomass and dry matter yields. Results of the research revealed significant (p<0.05) difference on average plants heights, average number of tillers, biomass and dry matter yields with no significant (p>0.05) difference between treatments for average number of leaves. Average plants heights, number of tillers, biomass and dry matter yields increased with increase in fertilizer rate. The highest level of fertilizer application Treatment (T4) produced best level of performance for all the parameters determined. Based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzisiensis) be given as high as 50Kg/ha of NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer during growing season.

Keywords: Growth rates, Congo grass, Fertilizer rates, Mubi region.




Development of Geodetic Vertical Control Network Computational Algorithms for Effective and Sustainable Environment


Zakari, Danladi & Adamu Makama Pindiga

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria



This research is aimed at developing geodetic vertical control network computational algorithms for affective and sustainable environment. The objectives of this research include; establishment of geodetic vertical control stations, formation of matrices and development of computational algorithms. Two bench marks were used as reference datum for connection. The reduced level of the bench mark was collected from the Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi as shown in Table 1. Eight (8) geodetic vertical control stations were established and their respective coordinate were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The geodetic vertical control network is shown in Figure 1. The horizontal and vertical controls are recorded in Table 2. The height difference was deduced from the observed reduced level which was used in the formation of the matrices. The computational algorithms were developed for parametric and condition equation model as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively. The results generated from these algorithms indicated that, it is the fastest and less rigorous procedure of least square adjustment of large geodetic vertical control network. The result obtained using these computational algorithms are shown in Table 4. It is recommended that surveyors/engineers should be conversant with the procedure of using programmable calculators, android phones and computers in order to facilitate precise and accurate results, when discharging their responsibilities for effective management of environment.

Keywords: Computational algorithm, Vertical control point, Bench mark, Adjustment and Model




Development-Oriented Foreign Exchange Management Policies for Industrial Growth In Nigeria


*Ugwuoke Augustine Chika, **Ikeh Nnaemeka Kingsley & ***Ebeogu Onyeka Ebuka

*National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Dept, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office ***National Productivity Centre, Rivers State Office



In Nigeria, anecdotal evidence suggests that exchange rate stability especially during a recess economy is crucial for speeding up industrial output growth. Against this backdrop, this paper addresses two questions:  (i) whether the current exchange rate policy can help to attain the quest for industrial output growth? (ii) What is the causal relationship between exchange rate, Inflation, investment and industrial output in Nigeria? Unlike many studies, this paper considered the Johansen cointegration techniques, Vector Error Correction (VCEM) model appropriate since all series were stationary at first difference. The paper insisted that an exchange rate policy that would gradually push the rate towards its equilibrium position must be encouraged. It equally recommends proactive exchange rate policies that promote stability and induce speed of industrial output growth, as well as encouraging non tradable activities in the domestic economy. 

Keywords: Exchange rate, Industrialization, Export, Inflation, population




The Effect of Process Parameter on Melting Temperature with Mechanical Properties of Ti-6al-4v Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing


Woli, T. O., Ibrahim, L. A., Ogundele, S. O, Sanni, M. K. and Yakubu, O. H.

Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B 420, Kwara State



The effect of process parameters comprising laser power, scan speed, hatch space, laser pattern, along with heat treatment as a post-process, in relation to hardness was analysed. The relation of measured factors with each other was also studied and related mechanisms were discussed in depth. The original contribution in this paper is in producing a large and precise data set and the comparison with mechanical properties. Another contribution is related to the analysis of process parameters in relation to hardness and explaining them by rheological phenomena. The results showed an interesting similarity between hardness and density which is highly related to the formation of the melting pool and porosities within the process.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Hardness, Selective laser melting, scan speed, porosities




Student – Lecturers Relationships towards Sustainable Academic Development of Student in Taraba State University, Jalingo


Usman Abdullahi Sani

Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State



The paper investigates correlations between responses of both lecturers and student in lecturers-student social and instructional relationship towards educational development in Taraba State University, Jalingo A well-structured questionnaire was administered to lecturers and final year student of Taraba State University. 100 copies were distributed to the student and 50 to the lecturers. 58 copies of students were filled and returned while 42 were received from lecturers. Data were presented and analysed by descriptive statistics, chi-square and correlation analysis using SPSS version 22. The analysis reveals that there is an association between responses of lecturers and student to social relationships on the other hand there is no association between student and lecturers in instructional relationship. In conclusion, the research shows that the social relationship between lecturers and student of Taraba State and instructionally the study shows that there is a weak correlation between their responses. Which shows that academically lecturers are

Keyword: Student-Lecturer’s social and instructional relationship, Taraba State University




Bad Leadership and Insecurity in Nigeria: Threat to National Development


Ogunode, Philips Olatunde, Abereola, Samuel Niyi & Olowe, Temitope Sunday

Department Of Marketing, the Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 5331, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.



The development of any nation is not majorly determined by the abundance of natural and mineral resources within her possession. It is therefore not a contradiction for a nation to be well-endowed with both natural and human resources, yet, the nation may suffer setbacks in term of development. It is not a gain saying that Nigeria is greatly endowed with resources but bankrupt of visionary and selfless leadership. What is the missing link between the resources abundant in Nigeria and development? This study examined the effect of bad leadership and insecurity on national development. Specifically, it examined the relationships between bad leadership and national development and the relationships between insecurity and national development. Descriptive survey research design was adopted while the population of the study consists of employees of two major institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Federal polytechnic, Ado – Ekiti and Federal University, Oye-Ekiti). Stratified random sampling was used to select 120 respondents from the aforementioned institutions. The research instrument was the questionnaire while the research data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Research findings reveal that the duo of bad leadership and insecurity witnessed in Nigeria since the return to democracy in 1999 have hampered on the development of the nation. It was therefore recommended that eligible voters in Nigeria should assess the credibility and integrity of people seeking public offices for an upward of ten years before they are voted into office.

Keywords: Leadership, Bad Leadership, security, National Security, National Development.




The context of poverty in Borno State and it’s challenges to socio-development


Adam Muhammad El-Hamees

Department of General Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



Poverty is a worldwide phenomenon and has attracted much attention in recent years. Poverty is perceived as a threat to the existence of human kind, unequal distribution of global wealth has exacerbated the problem of poverty in the developing countries. It is estimated that one third of the world population live in chronic poverty. Poverty has become so endemic that the great majority of the citizens have lost hope and faith and have started considering their conditions as a given, unchangeable act of providence since the more they individually struggle to redeem themselves from it, the more they plunge deeper into its abyss. Nigerian citizens are daily faced with many paradoxes and contradictions. The most traumatizing and obvious of these contradictions is their abject and squalor amidst to the tremendous amount of wealth they witness been displayed by members of the power elite. The objective of this paper is to examine the challenge of poverty in Northeastern Nigeria Particularly Borno State and attempt to proper solution to the lingering crises. Both primary and secondary data constitute the main sources for the study.

Key words: Poverty, challenges of poverty, North-Eastern Nigeria




Insecurity and Terrorism in Nigeria: Implications for National Development.


Jabir Muhammad and Muktar Usman Liman

Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria



Poverty and its myriad astronomical trends, perspective and dimensions cannot be overemphasized while locating it within the context of national security. This work therefore explored the symbiotic relationship between poverty and national security in Nigeria. The work posited that the issue of poverty is essentially a multi-faceted phenomenon of bad leadership and governance, dependent and unproductive economy as well as poor patronage of Nigeria’s indigenous technology. Using the secondary method of data collection and analysis, this work poised that developmental processes in Nigeria that could lead to poverty eradication with its attendant consequences on national security were unconventionally derailed at an alarming rate such that it snowballed and restricted the contested spaces and chances for expansion in Nigeria’s national security. Poverty and national security flaws metamorphosed in such a way that the poor masses as a means to register their discontent took arms against the state which manifest itself in various forms; the Niger Delta and the Boko Haram insurgencies among others. From the foregoing trends and developments of poverty and national security in Nigeria, the work concluded by recommending for a transformational leadership as a framework for a better Nigeria.

Keywords: Insecurity, Terrorism, National Development.




The Way Forward: Developing Heritage Tourism in Nasarawa State, Nigeria


*Fimber Stephen Agbu **Fatima Raji

*Department Of Leisure And Tourism Management, School Of Science And Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. **Department Of Hospitality Management, School Of Science And Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.



Nigeria no doubt is endowed with fascinating tourism potentials i.e. natural, historic, towns and highly diversified cultural resource which represents a people’s traditions, beliefs and lifestyles, festivals and ceremonies, vegetation and landscape. This study identified and assessed the heritage tourism potential of Nasarawa State, Nigeria as a way forward for sustainable tourism development in the state. Structured questionnaire, interview guide for key in-formats, documents and personal observation were used for data collection in the area of study target population. Stratified and purposive random sampling techniques were employed in the selected samples. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentages, tables, photographs and maps. The study findings mapped and identified heritage sites in the area of study for development. Also responses from the sampled population of study revealed benefits the local communities stands to reap if the heritage sites were developed among which are income generation from tourism businesses, conservation and protection of both flora and fauna and infrastructural development. However, from the study the researchers identified major problem that hinders heritage tourism development in the area of study, to include; the public lack of awareness, communication on the significance of preservation of these heritage sites, negative human activity due to absences of strong legislations, infrastructural and funding problems. To overcome the identified problems and way forward the study recommends; that Nasarawa State Government should put in place workable institutional framework for tourism development in the State. There should be collaboration between Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and host communities for tourism development. Lastly, funding is the bedrock of any successful development as such government and stakeholders should provide adequate funds and support for this inexhaustible industry.

Keywords: heritage resources, preservation, conservation, tourism, development.  




Creating and Building Biennial Intake and Multi-Grade Models for UBE Sustainability in Areas of Low Population Density in Akwa Ibom State


Ebong, Itoro J Ph.D

School of Primary Education Studies



This paper highlights the models of Biennial-intake and Multi-grade methods towards increasing pupils’ attendance of SUBEB primary schools in areas of Low Population Density in Akwa Ibom State. Education, being an excellent instrument for personal and national development, should not be limited to children in areas with high population density, but low population density areas should be encouraged directly or indirectly using the aforementioned models for enrolment. The paper examined the objectives of Universal Basic Education (UBE), the rationale for recommending the two models and challenges of UBE programme implementation by SUBEB personnel. Suggestions on how government, through SUBEB could increase primary schools enrolment frontiers especially in areas with low population density have been made.

Keywords: Creating, Building, Biennial, Multi-Grade, Sustainability.




Raising the Levels of Population’s Education in Nigeria for Socio-Economic Growth and Sustainability


Umar Muazu Tadama1, Yayirus Garba Ulea2, Olabisi Irene Esho-Thakma3 and Usman Umar Shall4

1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, 2Department of Computer Science Technology, 3Department of Business Administration and Management Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. Adamawa State-Nigeria. 4Departmnet of Islamic Studies, Adamawa State College of Education Hong.



Development is a process of change in the quality of living standard that is underpinned by improvement in the well-being of the people. Adult Technical and vocational education and training has been acknowledged as a veritable strategy of facilitating socio-economic growth and sustainability in Nigeria and around the globe. The paper examine the role of adult technical and vocational education as having a distinct and important role to play in middle-level manpower development, the training and programs were to be offered for adult, technical and vocational training leading to the award of both national and higher national diplomas but not digressing from syllabi dedicated to practical oriented career focused. Similarly, the Nigerian educational strategic plan for raising the level of the population’s education in general and that of the labour force in particular is being adopted to provide equitable tertiary education for all eligible. The strategic plan also seeks to promote manufacturing, commerce, science, technology, applied social science, applied and technical education at the tertiary level by ensuring that tertiary graduates have appropriate broad skills for future study and work relevant to socio-economic growth and sustainability.

Keywords: Populations, Young, Adult, Technical, Vocational, Education, Pre-Tertiary-Level, Practical Skills, Labour Force, Economic-Growth, Sustainability.




Numerical Prediction of Fully Suspended Slurry Flow in Horizontal Pipes


*Sibeudu Chiwetalu Emenike & **Ndife Uchenna Victor

*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko **Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko



Turbulent solid–liquid slurry flows in horizontal pipes are encountered in many engineering fields, such as mining, chemical and petroleum. In many applications, turbulence is effective in keeping all the solids suspended, preventing particle accumulation. A two-fluid model for predicting the main features of fully-suspended slurry flows, namely pressure gradient, solid–volume-fraction distribution, and velocity pro file, is presented. The model is robust and numerically stable, and requires relatively low computer time to provide converged steady-state solutions. The novelty of the proposed model and its better performance compared to similar ones resides in the method of accounting for some key physical mechanisms governing these flows, namely turbulent dispersion, interphase friction, and the mechanical contribution to friction. The performance of the model is checked by comparison with experimental data available in the literature over a wide range of operating conditions: pipe diameter between 50 and 150 mm; particle size between 90 and 520 μm; mean delivered solid concentration up to 40% by volume; and slurry superficial velocity between 1 and 7 m/s. The dispersed phase consists of either sand or spherical glass beads.

Keywords: Two-fluid model Slurriesully-suspended flow Two-phase flow.




Effect of Pre-Treatment Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of African Yam Bean Seeds


Amanze L.C1, Ewelike I.C2 and Donaldben N.S3

1,3Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda 2Depaertment of Pre-Science, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda



This research was designed is to evaluate the effects of soaking on the cooking-quality characteristics of African yam bean seeds Seeds at different pre-treatment time, the African yam bean seeds were handpicked to remove unwanted materials, About 40 g weight of dry samples was soaked in 100 ml distilled water for 14 hours at 32oC oC (room temperature) 40 grams of dry samples were soaked in distilled water mixed citric acid solution 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) added to a 100 ml distilled water respectively for 14 hours at 32oC. It has also shown that soaking in citric acids solution for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 hour had greater reduction in the haemagglutinins level of the African yam beans samples. The 14 hour citric acids solution in combination with cooking had positive effect on the African yam bean better than in the other samples. At 1.5% citric acids solution treatment there was an increase in the haemagglutin content which implies that the solution was not favourable to the haemagglutin content of African yam bean seeds. combinations of 0.5% citric acids solution treatment and other processing techniques was observed to reduced the heamagglutin and cooking time

Keywords: Pre-Treatment, Conditions, Characteristics, African Yam, Bean Seeds.




Accessibility of Educational Support Services for Quality Assurance in the Management of Secondary Education in Delta State, Nigeria


*Ezugoh, Theodorah Chinelo **Onuorah, Helen Chinelo (Ph.D) and ***Ohamobi, Ifunanya Nkechi (Ph.D)

*Department of Educational Foundations, School of Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, P.M.B 1044, Asaba, Delta State **Department of Educational Management and Policy, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State ***Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State



The current devastating state in the planning and management of secondary education in Delta State which has continued to create a lot of difficulties for quality educational service delivery to be properly harnessed in secondary schools has motivated the researchers to conduct this present study. The Federal Government in the national policy on education attested that for attainment of educational objectives coupled with quality enhancement in the planning and management of the Nigerian education system certain educational support services need to appropriately be established in all education institutions. The poor state in the planning and management of secondary education in Delta State has continued to raise doubts concerning secondary schools’ accessibility to the educational support services that will aid their improvement, development and sustainability. The present study therefore conducts an investigation in order to ascertain the accessibility of educational support services for quality assurance in the management of secondary education in Delta State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study sought to ascertain the extent of schools’ accessibility to quality school library, basic social amenities, guidance and counselling facility, laboratories and workshops facilities, information technology (IT) facilities and education resource centre for quality assurance in the management of secondary education in Delta State. Six research questions guided the study. The study employed the descriptive survey research design. Population of the study comprised 480 principals and 13,286 teachers’ in 480 public secondary schools within the 25 LGAs of Delta State, Nigeria. Sample size of this study constituted 240 principals and 347 teachers’ in 240 public secondary schools from 13 LGAs in Delta State, Nigeria, selected at 50% using the proportionate stratified random and simple random sampling techniques. A 34-item questionnaire titled: “Accessibility of Educational Support Services for Quality Assurance in the Management of Secondary Education Questionnaire (AESSQAMSEQ)”, personally developed by the researchers served as the instrument for data collection. This research instrument was validated by three experts from the Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka. Reliability of the research instrument was determined through a pilot test, thereafter; the scores were collated and computed using Cronbach Alpha statistics which gave an internal consistency reliability value of 0.85, showing that the instrument is reliable. Data were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation in order to answer all the research questions. The findings of the study revealed that the educational support services investigated were not adequately accessible for quality assurance in the management of secondary schools in Delta State. It was further discovered that the extent of secondary schools’ accessibility to all these educational support services were to a low extent. From the findings, it was recommended among others that: the State Governments should manage secondary education in Delta State for quality assurance through adequate funding, policy implementation, resource mobilization, supervision, among others.

Keywords: Accessibility, Educational Support Services, Quality Assurance, Management, Secondary Education




Organizational Reward System and Employee Job Satisfaction in Hotels in Rivers State


Ollor, Helen Y. and Uwakwe, Fabian O.

University of Port Harcourt, Faculty of Management Sciences, Dept. of Hospitality Management and Tourism



This study investigated Organizational Reward System and Employee Job Satisfaction in Hotels in Rivers State. A total of One hundred and Twenty-three (123) Employees were randomly selected from the staff of Five (5) Hotels in Choba and Port Harcourt Areas in Rivers State. The Employees were Seventy-two (72) male and Fifty-one (51) female; their ages ranged from 19 years to 55 years. A total of One hundred and twenty three (123) copies of Questionnaire were distributed. One hundred and twenty (120) copies of the Questionnaire were retrieved which amounted to, 97.5%; while, five copies were not retrieved. One hundred and sixteen (116) copies of the retrieved Questionnaire were accurately completed, representing a response rate of 93.6%,. The sample size was determined mathematically using the Taro Yamane’s formula. Result from the ground mean showed 3.21; which was evident that the respondents accepted financial reward for a Job Well-done Satisfied and helped in motivating them. This implied that most Employees liked the adoption of Financial Reward System. We therefore concluded that Non-Financial Reward System should be used to motivate and enhance Employees’ Performance; happiness of employees would be vital to the survival of the organization and  recommended that Managers should positively motivate, mentor and guide their Employees as these would Motivate them in the discharge of their duties.

Keywords: Organizational Reward, Employees, Job Satisfaction, Hotels, Job Values, Appreciations, Reward Systems, Financial Reward, Motivation




Strategies for Addressing Rapid City-Growth in Nigeria: The Case of Damaturu, Yobe State.


Ikpe Solomon Tar (Ph.D) and Olatunde Bolaji Zakariyyah

Department of Estate Management, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.



City-growth challenges have been increasing in number; magnitude and complexity; without a corresponding management method as they are influenced by local factors. City-growth impacts exceed far into the ecosystems that are usually exempted from urban management policies and are also understudied. This paper analyzes how rapid urban expansion has, in recent decades, exerted adverse consequences on the inner-suburbs, rural land uses and environmental resources in their hinterlands. This investigation employed imageries of 1986 and 2009 for pre and post-classification comparison method, change detection, growth rates and patterns. Questionnaire instrument was adopted to generate data on the challenges of rapid city-growth, management methods as well as intensity of indices and prospects. Socio-economic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, weighted opinion assessment and severity index. The major findings include urban decay, loss of rural resource and land-use, ecosystem fragmentation and conversion to the benefit of urban dwellers. Worse still, the rural residents in whose areas the urban-induced environmental degradation prevails have low access to basic urban services and limited voice in urban planning and development. This paper recommends that the city authorities should expand their environmental management programmes to incorporate the surrounding regions, because if rural environment can enhance economic growth of cities, there should be economic policies that can better the welfare of the rural dwellers.

Keywords: Strategies, Addressing, Rapid City-growth.



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