AFRICAN SCHOLAR JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH (AJASR)
VOL. 29 NO. 6 JUNE, 2023.
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Effective Management of Public Organization in Nigeria: A Pragmatic Approach
Shanka, Buba Otuemhobe; & Adebola, Alade
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.
The current level of ineffectiveness of public organizations in Nigeria dampens on the support and trust for the government of the day. The general public perceives the so-called public organizations as caricature and self-image of inactiveness and poor performances. This is because the basic amenities that are supposed to be serving people in one way or the other are in state of coma- electricity supply, education, water, health care, good road among others. In order to change the narrative of performances and service delivery in public organizations, this paper advocates for effective management of public organizations through the use of human relation theory so as to address perennial problems hampering on efficiency and effectiveness of public organizations. In line with scholars and researchers in the field of public management and administration, the paper suggests a pragmatic approach to the management of public organizations in Nigeria. Stressing further that changes in its approach will go in long way to inject workable ideas, policies and programmes for enhancement of service delivery. To this end, the paper concludes that integration of skills of human relation theory will enable the managers of public organizations to improve on their performances and render optimal services to the public. It is therefore recommended that government and managers of public organizations should look into issues affecting workers, such as timely payment of salaries and other benefits, provision of welfare, regular promotion and room for advancement, and above all key into the skills of human relation theory so as to ensure good public service delivery in Nigeria.
Keywords: Public, management, organization, governance, pragmatic approach
Africa, the Bible, and the Spirit in Nollywood Scripts
Gesila Nneka Uzukwu
Department of Philosophy & Religious Studies, Nasarawa State University Keffi Nigeria
Recent studies in African religions have established the precarious character of the Bible in the daily engagements of most African people. These dominant studies have suggested the defining religious obsession of the African people with different Christian motifs clearly sourced from the Bible. Unfortunately, the cinematic importance and use of the Bible in directing the plots of African stories in Nollywood scripts have not been given the needed attention. Departing from these studies, the present paper examines the problematic use of the Bible in the plot, conversations and motifs of Nollywood scripting. Within this present discourse, the paper analyses the cultural appropriation of the Bible in the different cinematic representations of Nollywood stories, and the significance of this practice in the mapping of the religious/spiritual dynamism of the African people.
Keywords: Nollywood, Bible, Christian, Cinematic, Scripting
Role of Leadership Style and Demographic Characteristics as Determinants of Workers’ Commitment amongst Commercial Bank Workers in Business District, Abuja, Nigeria
*Akeem A. Kenku (Ph.D); & **Idowu M. Ogunkuade (Ph.D)
*Department of Psychology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. **Nigerian Copyright Commission, Hqrts, Abuja, Nigeria
This study examined role of leadership style and demographic characteristics as determinants of workers’ commitment amongst commercial bank workers in Business District, Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design, of which one hundred (100) employees which consists fifty-four (54%) male and forty-six (46%) female employees were sampled from three divisions of first bank plc in Abuja, using convenient sampling techniques and employed a structured questionnaire as a means of data collection. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using t-test for independent measures. The result shows that employees with higher scores on transformational leadership style experienced more of commitment than employees with lower scores on transformational leadership style, (t (98) =1.79, p<.05). Furthermore, result revealed that there is insignificant gender difference on workers commitment (t (98) = -1.7; p>.05). Finally, the result demonstrates an insignificant age difference on workers’ commitment (t (98) = .08; p>.05). The study, therefore, concluded that leadership style influences workers’ commitment, while demographic characteristics are insignificant of commitment. Study recommended that management should adopt fully the people’s oriented style of management and manage workers demographic characteristics to enhance workers commitment in the organization.
Keywords: Leadership style, workers commitment, first bank, demographic characteristics
Relationship between Collective Bargaining and Conflict Resolution (A Case Study of Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria)
*Ayodele, Oloruntoba Churchill; & **Adeleke, Sharifat Temitayo
*Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Business Administration and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. **Registry Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State
Effective collective bargaining in an organization has been an important role for the human resources department to effectively plan, control, design, discharge responsibilities and authorities to various employees in order to reach or meet the organizational goals and objectives. Hence, the present study examined three major collective bargaining variables (integrative and distributive) as antecedents of conflict resolution. The population comprised 694 staff of Federal Polytechnic, Bida of Niger State; as a result, the sample size determined is 254. A well- structured self-administered questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection and was administered to 254 respondents out of which 245 were retrieved and appropriately filled. Reliability of the research instrument was calculated and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.868. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis. From the hypotheses tested, the result indicated that there is a relationship between integrative bargaining and conflict resolution in Federal Polytechnic, Bida of Niger State. Findings also revealed that distributive bargaining has positive relationship with conflict resolution in Federal, Bida of Niger State. The study concluded that all the relationships between collective bargaining and conflict resolution were significant resulting in the rejection of all the two null hypotheses, H01 to H02 and accepted all the alternate hypotheses. Furthermore this study also recommended that collective bargaining should be allowed in all establishments in order to forestall industrial conflict and enhance peace and harmony. Finally the study also suggested that future studies should focus on other sectors apart from tertiary institutions.
Keywords: integrative bargaining, distributive bargaining, collective bargaining, conflict resolution
Charisma, Sexuality and Governance: A Case of Queen Amina of Zaria and Catherine the Great of Russia
Kayode O. Omotade, PhD; & Adeola Oluwafemi
Department of European Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Contemporary discourses on feminism have focused largely on violence and varying degrees of abuse meted out on women by their male counterparts in the matrimonies and the society at large. Of course, the role of women in the society has been scholarly debated with varying discussions bordering on religious, political, legal, economic and social concernments. Despite the availability of copious researches on the place of women in the society, the landmark endeavours of women are frequently sidelined in the society. It is on that basis that this study is carried out. This study examines charisma, sexuality and governance in pre-colonial Nigeria and imperial Russia with focus on Queen Amina of Zaria (Zazzau), Nigeria and Empress Catherine the Great of Russia. The study uses both primary and secondary data. Interviews provided by respondents form the primary source of data collection. Also, data were sourced from published books and articles in learned journals. Data were subjected to content analysis. Interpretive design was used. The study upholds Feminism as its theoretical framework. This theory explains the varying views of the female folks in relation to their male counterparts in the society. It further strengthened our discourse bordering on Queen Amina of Zaria and Empress Catherine the Great. The study uncovered Queen Amina and Empress Catherine as great leaders in their respective domains. Despite the fact that they lived in societies that had been predominantly ruled by male, they distinguished themselves amidst all odds to be saddled with the responsibility of ruling their people.
Keywords: Sexuality, Queen Amina, Catherine the Great, Nigeria, Zazzau, Russia
A study of the Impacts of Ageism in the Society
Godwin Agaba Ochube
Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Ageism is a form of discrimination that targets individuals based on their age. This study examines the various forms of ageism, its causes, impacts, and measures to curtail it. Through personal experiences and observations, it discusses how ageism affects people of different ages and how it perpetuates stereotypes and biases in society. The study also explores the importance of challenging ageism, promoting inclusivity, and building intergenerational relationships to foster social cohesion and positive change.
Keywords: Discrimination, Age, Ageism, Culture, Prejudice, Gender, Institution.
New Media Perception and Framing of Domestic Violence against Men in Nigeria
Omolayo Olusola Jegede; Rebecca Agboola Olorunpomi; Aderonke A. Adebowale; & Phebean Monijesu Ayantuga
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Veronica Adeleke School of Social Sciences, Babcock University
Domestic Violence has become a menace in Nigerian society which needs critical attention. The problem of violence against women and men in Nigeria has not been given adequate attention both at the individual and government levels because it is not a topic discussed freely or openly until the emergence of the new media. Contrary to the general assumption that women are the only victims of domestic violence, men are also victims of domestic violence even though they will not come out publicly to share it. Many factors are liable for this shortage of public discussion of domestic violence, especially against men; the chief of which is fear of stigmatisation. The media also have not helped in disseminating enough information on the possible effects of domestic violence on victims and how to handle it. This has further empowered silence among male victims. This study, therefore, analysed the social media framing of domestic violence against men by reviewing and analysing cases of domestic violence among intimate partners on social platforms (Facebook, Twitter and YouTube) as well as the perception and framing of men in such reported cases. It also examined the influence of this framing on the perception of the audience on the issue as well as how to handle it. The researcher found that the following themes were used in framing domestic violence against Nigerian men; ignorance, blame, silence due to the desire to save marriage, weakness and patriarchy. The research also found that the audience significantly perceived men negatively even when they are the victims. The research therefore recommended that social media should be used better on reporting cases of domestic violence against men. This is especially important as new media platforms are often consulted first before other mass media.
Keywords: domestic violence, frames, men, new media, perception, Nigeria
Psychosocial Variables Predisposing Lateness to School among Secondary School Student in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State.
*Onolemhemhen, P.E. Ph.D; & **Akpede Mabel Ph.d.
*Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, Amborse Alli University, Ekpoma, -Edo State. **Institute of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma –Edo State.
The study examined psychosocial factors predisposing lateness to school among secondary school students in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether academic stress, depression or emotional stability is responsible for lateness to school among secondary school students. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study covered three thousand, two hundred and seventy two (3272) Senior Secondary School students in 16 secondary schools in Esan West Local Government. A sample of one hundred and sixty three (163) secondary school students was used for the study. The instrument used was a questionnaire titled: Psychosocial Factor to Lateness Survey Questionnaire (PFLSQ). The reliability of the instrument was done using Cronbach reliability technique. Mean (X ̅) and standard deviation (S.D) was used to analyze the research question. The result showed that academic stress, depression and emotional instability predispose lateness to school among secondary school students in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. It was recommended that schools should operate a strict and functional punctuality policy whereby every student, teacher or any other staff of the school that resumes after a particular scheduled time will not be allowed into the school premises.
Keywords: psychological factors, predisposing lateness, stress, tardiness.
Patriarchy and Sexual Objectification in A & P by John Updike and Mariah by Che Husnah Azhari
Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu
The following essay will examine two short stories – A & P by John Updike and Mariah by Che Husna Azhari. The concept of male gaze by Laura Mulvey will be used to analyze the two short stories. The two short stories are different in terms of their setting. A & P by Updike was set in a small town in the United States of America where sexual revolution and feminism are becoming more pronounced while, Mariah by Azhari was set in a small town in South East Asia specifically, in the Muslim dominated Kelantan region of Malaysia. In Kelantan there is a strict Islamic code for dressing and women’s roles are cut out for them by societal and religious norms. In A & P the male character, Sammy is a nineteen year old youth and the three female characters are all young girls. In Mariah the main character is a married man and an Imam. The female character, Mariah is a matured widow. Both Sammy and the Imam were involved in the act of gazing at the physical bodies of the women that attracted them. Both of them were erotically attracted to the objects of their gaze. The two stories highlighted the male objectifying gaze. They also underscored the inherent male subjectivities towards women. The core thesis in the stories is that women are consistently treated as sexual objects by men who are being supported by the norms of patriarchy.
Keywords: Erotic, Objectification, Pleasure, Psychological, Sexual, Voyeurism.
Building a Virile African Society through Irony: A Case Study of Aminata Sow Fall’s The Beggars’ Strike
Adelowo Abimbola Dapo
Department of English, School of Languages, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State.
It can never be gain – said that in any given society there would definitely be the haves and the have-nots. In fact, the groups of people in any society consist of working class, the middle class and the upper class and that each class has its roles for the wellbeing of that very society. The novel under study portrays life in an Islamic/Muslim country called Senegal. The writer engages irony to sensitize her society to shun cruelty towards certain categories of people in the society that is vastly dancing to the tunes of fleeting western values. The paper, scrutinizing the primary text, aspires to appraise the literary work with a view to showing how she uses irony to impact and teach her society memorable lessons. The paper concludes by giving tangible suggestions not only to African leaders but leaders in other nations of the world.
Female Writers in Modern African Literature a Study of Seff Attas Everything Good Will Come and Akachi Adimora Ezeigbos Roses and Bullets
Okoro Henry Okechukwu
Department of languages, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra state
This study examines the works of two female writers in modern African literature: Sefi Atta’s “Everything Good Will Come” and Akachi Adimora Ezeigbo’s “Roses and Bullets.” Through a close analysis of the novels, this study explores how the authors portray the experiences of women in Nigeria, the challenges they face, and the strategies they use to overcome them. However, this research work exposes the various cases and conditions noted to the African women in their different societies in Africa. This study becomes a yardstick through which these African female writers like Sefi Atta and AkachiAdimora-Ezeigbo project the lives of those women in Africa who are under such unfavourable conditions. Through the events and actions of their characters, they picture African women as they censure in a world of realism. Through the lenses of feminism, the said cultures and traditions humiliated the African women in both Everything GoodWill Come and Roses and bullets. Conclusively, this research work is based on the previous facts raised by other researchers to bring to light the evils of African traditions and their effects on women using feministic approach as its theoretical frame work. The study also highlights how the authors use their writing to challenge patriarchal norms and highlight the resilience of women in African societies.
Development of a Text-To-Speech Sythesis System
Oladejo Rachel Adefunke
Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa Ogun State
Text-to-speech synthesis or recognition, sometimes known as TTS, is a technique that turns any input text into intelligent and natural-sounding speech. The conversion of text to speech is a very helpful hardware and software technique used in numerous applications, including voice monitoring systems for the blind, online browsers, mobile phones, Desktops, and laptops, among others. It facilitates the automatic transformation of a text into speech that most nearly matches a native speaker of the target language reading that text. The TTS system receives text as input, analyzes it using a computer algorithm known as the TTS engine, pre-processes it, and then uses some mathematical models to synthesize voice. Typically, the output of the TTS engine is sound data in an audio format. There are two primary stages to the text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis process. The first is text analysis, in which the source text is converted into a phonetic or other linguistic representation; the second is speech waveform generation, in which the output is created using this phonetic and prosodic data. Common names for these two stages are high-level synthesis and low-level synthesis.
Keyword: Text-to-Speech, synthesis, text analysis