African Scholar Journal of Biotechnology and Agricultural Research Vol. 24 No. 1


VOL. 24 NO. 1 MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2177-1998



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Effect of Cowdung Rate on the Fruit Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) in Lapai, Southern Guinea Savanna-Nigeria


1 Gana, M., 2 Garba, Y.  3 Ibrahim , A. and Kajidu, Y.B.

1Department of crop production, University of Maiduguri – Nigeria. 2Department of crop production, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai Niger state. 3Department of crop production, University of Maidugri-Nigeria



This effect of cowdung manure on the growth and fruit yield of okra was evaluated during 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons at Ibrahim Badamsi Babangida University, Teaching and Research Farm located on latitude 90 2’N and longitude 60 34’E the equator, with average temperature of 23-34.40 c, minimum rainfall of 107.3 mm in southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to investigate the effect of cowdung manure one the fruit yield and yield component of okra. Cowdung manure rates were (10, 20:30) t/ha and one level of NPK 10: 20: 30 fertilizer and control (No NPK, no manure). All these were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with five treatments and three replications. Data collected of growth and yield parameters were analysed using general linear model and treatment means were separated using Duncan’s multiple Range Test. Application of cowdung manure at 30.0 t/ha produced the tallest plant (66.2cm) which was significantly different from the rest treatments, plant height decreases with decreased rates of manure, hence the shortest okra plant height was recorded in the control. NPK treatment produced the largest leaf area (2.12m2/plant) compare to other treatments. Fruit length and number of fruit per plant were similar among plants treated with 20.0 and 30.0 t/ha. Similarly fresh fruit yield was similar among the plants treated with 20.0 and 30.0 t/ha in both seasons. It is therefore concluded that 20.0 and 30.0 t/ha cowdung manure may be adequate to meet the okra nutritional need particularly in study area.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, fertilizer, fresh fruit yield, cowdung manure




Fertilizer Use and its Impact on Productivity of Maize Farms in Kogi State


Ajakaiye, Olatunbosun Bolashade

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kogi State University, Anyigba. [Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic, Itakpe.]



Fertilizer use and its impact on the productivity of maize based farms were investigated in Kogi State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 120 maize farmers from three Local Government Areas namely; Lokoja, Idah and Adavi. Using well structured questionnaire, purposive selection and random sampling methods were used in stage one and two respectively. Data for the study was analyzed with descriptive statistics and instrumental variables approach using the Cobb – Douglass function and the two stage least squares (2SLS) regression. The result showed that quantity of labor, number of extension visit, farm size and distance of farm from fertilizer input were significant. The key factors which influenced the fertilizer use on maize output include; quantity of agro-chemicals used, quantity of seeds used, farm labor and quantity of fertilizer used. A summary of the marginal effects of the regressions showed that variables under 2SLS model exerted greater impact on maize output than under the OLS model in the study area. The study concludes that the quantity of fertilizer used by farmers in the study areas influenced maize output positively. Policies aimed at encouraging farmer’s access to fertilizer input, extension services, Agro services centers, amendment of land tenure policy and improved farming technology were recommended for improved maize productivity.

Keywords: Fertilizer use, maize farms, instrumental variables, productivity, Cobb – Douglass function, 2SLS model, OLS model.




Determinants of Household Egg Consumption Pattern in Wase Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria


1Joseph, M; & 1Tarki, S .K.

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State.



The study analyses the egg consumption pattern of households in Wase Local Government Area of plateau States, Nigeria. The data were obtained through administration of questionnaire on 108 respondents. The data were analysed through the combination of descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The study result showed that 77% were male.  The average Age of the respondents in the study area was 36 years,while average household size was 9 with 74% married. The mean value of the years of schooling was 11 years. Average income earned by the respondents in the study area was 26.20, with weekly consumption of 61.1%. The result further reveals thathousehold income, Age, occupation and marital status were significant determinants of household expenditure on egg consumption.

Keyword: Determinants, Egg, household, consumption




Comparative Assessment of Some Vegetation Indices in Mapping Vegetation Biomass


Ogunlade Simeon. O.; Odesola Oluwagbotemi. O.; & Abutu Sahadat.A.

Remote Sensing Section, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria



Changes in vegetation patterns are inevitable in our dynamic environment. The detection and analysis of these changes are necessary to the assessment and monitoring of natural resources for the purpose of environmental resource management and decision making. This study has to do with the comparative performance of some vegetation indices in mapping vegetation biomass. Landsat image 1986TM was sub mapped and processed using the combined technologies of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS). Four vegetation indices NDVI, NRVI, RVI and EVI were calculated and used to perform a vegetation biomass mapping. ILWIS Academic 3.2 and Microsoft Excel were used for the image processing and preparation of charts for analysis respectively. The result given in a brief summary showed that NDVI performed better in vegetation extent biomass mapping while EVI performed better in vegetation vigour biomass mapping. RVI presented a rather ‘deviant’ performance. The optimisation of these indices in their peculiarities as found in this study, a further research into their behaviour and inclusively  the use of other imageries and software were recommended.

Keywords: Vegetation indices, Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System, Biomass, Mapping




Information Sources, Risk Perception and Response to the Usage of Pesticides among Irrigational Farmers along the Bank of River Ngadda, Maiduguri – Borno State


1Mathias Nzitiri Bwala; 2Philip Gana Malgwi; 3Abdulrahman Bukar Usman; 4Usman Musa Yusuf; & 5Paul Mada Kambasaya

1National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Borno State Office, Nigeria. 2Department of Library and Information Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3FHI360, Maiduguri Office, Borno State, Nigeria. 4Department of Applied Biology, Kaduna State Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 5Centre for Disaster and Risk Management, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Risk perception is a factor of available information, socio – economic background, educational background, location, duration and frequency of occurrence of the risk, and previous experience from the risk. Irrigational farmers along the bank of river Ngadda were faced with risk associated with the handling (usage and application) of pesticides and as such the study was aimed at assessing the information sources, risk perception and response to the usage of pesticides among irritational farmers along the bank of river Ngadda, Maiduguri – Borno State. The study adopted a quantitative method using a descriptive survey design where questionnaires were developed and administered to some selected irrigational farmers (1 farmer per farmland) along the bank of River Ngadda. 202 questionnaires were retrieved and used for the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. The result indicates that the majority of the irrigational farmers were within the age bracket 26 – 45 years 121 (59.90%), male 198 (98.02%), obtained secondary education 101 (50.00%), married 103 (50.99%) and grows leafy vegetable 88 (43.56%), DD – Force 94 (46.54%) is the most commonly used pesticides, majority of the respondents were informed and enlightened about the risk associated with pesticides usage and handling by their friends and family 137 (67.83%)only 18.81% (38) were found to read labels, fliers and other printed information from the pesticide’s manufacturers, 98.02% (198) respondents perceived pesticides to cause stomach upset, diarrheal 189 (93.56%). The study further reveals that the commonest respond to the perceived risk associated with pesticides usage, handling and application is the avoidance of eating and drinking 99.51% (201) during applying/spraying pesticides on fields, followed by proper disposal of empty containers 98.52% (199). The study recommended government and NGOs to embark on enlightenment campaign to irrigational farmers on pesticide risk associated with aquatic pollution, biodiversity loss and ecosystem disruption and systematic monitoring of pesticides residue in irrigated farm products, aquatic biodiversity and soil sediment.

Keywords: Pesticides; Irrigation; River Ngadda; Risk Perception; Information Sources




Design and Development of a Robotic Vehicle for Spraying Liquid Fertilizer and Pesticides for Agriculture


Aliyu Buba Dahiru1; Kabiru Muhammed Halidu2; & Ateequ Mustafa salihi3

1,2,3Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



Agriculture is a very resource-intensive and labor-intensive enterprise. As a result, farmers are increasingly relying on technology and automation to help them deal with the problem. Agricultural robots, on the other hand, are far too intricate, slow, and expensive to be made publicly available. As a result, the agricultural sector continues to lag behind in terms of adopting new technologies. The creation of a low-cost agricultural robot for spraying fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture fields, as well as general crop monitoring, is detailed in this research study. The implemented system includes a four-wheeled robot with a mobile base, a spraying mechanism, a wireless controller for directing the robot’s movement, and a camera for monitoring crop health and growth as well as detecting pests in the agricultural field. Tests on the system system show that, while the robot’s productivity in terms of crop coverage is slightly lower than a human worker, the labor cost savings afforded by the agricultural robot prototype are much greater because it operates entirely autonomously, requiring the operator to only control the robot when placing it at the start of the crop path. Furthermore, the implemented system saves resources and reduces the contamination of subsurface water sources caused by the leeching process, allowing precision agriculture to be achieved. Finally, the developed system’s long battery life ensures that the fertilizer and pesticide spraying process will not be hampered by longer operation times or lower efficiency.

Keywords: Precision agriculture; longer operation; agricultural robot; fertilizer; pesticide; subsurface water




Effects of Dichlorvos Pesticide on Micro-Flora of Two Soil Types in New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria


1Adigun J. O.; 2Olaniran, O. A.; & 2Adelasoye, K. A.

2Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.



Soil contamination from pesticide is now a global issue that needs immediate attention. Cases of pesticide spillage and drift have been reported by many researchers to contaminate the soil thus causing impact on shift in the diversity of microbial community. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Dichlorvos pesticide on the microflora of the two soil types (clay and sandy soil). Serial dilution technique was employed up to 103 using nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar and sabourand agar plates. The isolation of both bacterial and fungal organism was made before treating the soil types with the pesticide, Dichlorvos, and after treating the soil types with the pesticides. The experiment was carried out at the Government Day Secondary School Farm and Government Technical College Farm in New Bussa, Niger State for sand and clay soil respectively. The experimental design used was Complete Randomized Design fitted into factorial experiment, using three pesticides and two types of soil. Soil sample were taken according to the treatment designed, analyzed for bacteria and fungi isolation, identification and determination of population present in the clay and sand soil after exposure to the pesticide. Data collected were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA), means was later separated using DMRT at 5% probability level. The result obtained from the research showed that, the fungal organism isolated were Aspergillus species, Syncophatastrum species, Penicillum species and Mucor species. The populations of both bacteria and fungi were higher in plot sprayed with chlorpyrifo than control plot where no pesticide was applied. The population of both bacteria and fungi were higher in clay (98.27 x 106 and 83.37 x 104 respectively at 3 weeks after spraying (WAS)) than sand (79.13 x 10 6 and 65.03 x 104 respectively) soil. The population of fungi in the sampled soil was lower than that of the bacteria before and after exposure. It can be concluded from this research work that, the population of bacteria and fungi decrease as the week increase after exposure to dichlorvos. Then care must be exercised, so that the microbial population will not be affected by the addition of this pesticide.

Keywords: Soil contamination, dichlorvos, Microflora, microbial, pesticide




An Investigation on the Impacts of Different Forms of Diet on the Performance Characteristics of Broiler Chickens


Mohammed Shu’aibu Shinkafi1; Abubakar Bello Anka2; Musa Mabu Isa 3; and Abubakar Yusuf Kakagida4

1Directorate of Animal Health and Livestock Development, Zamfara State. 2Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Gusau Zamfara State Office, Nigeria. 3Yobe State University, Desert research Monitoring and Control Centre, Damaturu Nigeria. 4Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria



The study was conducted to determine the effects of different forms of diet on performance of broiler chickens. 225 day old broiler chicks were allotted to 3 different treatment groups. Each group was divided into 5 replication with 15 birds each, in a Completely Randomized Design. The chicks were raised in deep litter system throughout the period of experiment.  All data generated were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The results for starter phase showed significant differences (P<0.05) in body weight gain and feed conversion ratio across the dietary treatment. No significance differences (P>0.05) was observed for feed intake and mortality. But higher water intake for birds on mash and pellet groups was observed.  For finisher phase all the parameters were not significant (P>0.05) with exception of feed conversion ratio which reflected better in mash and pellet groups compared to crumbs group. It could be concluded from the study that mash could give better performance at starter phase and feeding mash or pellet forms at finisher could give better performance. It was recommended that, feeding mash form of feed for the starter phase and mash or pellet forms at finisher phase should be adopted for optimum performance.

Keywords: Performance, Chicks, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality and Mash




Analysis Of Rice Farmers’ Participation In Contract Farming In Benue State Of Nigeria


1Yisa, K, M., 2Tsado, J. H., 2Mohammed, I., 2Muhammed, H. U., 3Pelemo, J. J. 3Beida, A. S.

1Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Kuru, Jos. 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology Minna. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic Lokoja (Itakpe Campus)



This study analysed Rice Farmers’ Participation in Contract Farming in Benue State of Nigeria. Sample sizes of 137 rice farmers were selected using multi-stage sampling method. Structured questionnaire complimented with interview scheduled were used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as (frequency, percentages and mean). The findings revealed that 83.9% were males with mean age of 45 years. The mean house size and farming experience were 9 persons and 25.5 years respectively. Further findings revealed that rice farmers in the study area had high level of participation in application of fertilizer ( =2.99), land preparation ( =2.92) and use of herbicide in contracting farming ( =2.89). The most perceived benefits accruable by participants in rice contract farming were contract farming help farmers in diversification of agricultural enterprise ( =4.92), contract farming improved farmers well-being/livelihood status ( =4.88) and contract farming enhance participant adequate training on contract farming techniques ( =4.87). It is recommended that contract farmers should be trained and visited by extension agents in order to correct the problem associated with low literacy level in the study area. Lastly, rice contract farmers should be properly monitored by the contracting firms in order to reduce diversion of input in the study area.

KEYWORDS: Rice, Farmer, Participation Contract, Farming




Effects of Supplementing Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with Three Different Types of Protein Sources on the Performance and Economic Analysis of Grass Cutter Production in Mubi Environment Adamawa State


Midiga R.; & Shua J. N.

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, PMB, 35 Mubi, Nigeria



A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with three different protein sources on the performance and economic analysis of Grasscutter production in Mubi environment. Twelve (2) growing Grasscutters of an average weight of 850g were used in a completely randomized design of four treatments replicated three times (3 grass cutters per treatment). The diets used were Coconut meal/ maize bran- I, Cottonseed cake/maize bran – II, Soyabean waste/maize bran – III and the control – IV. Data were taken on initial live weight (ILW), final live weight (FLW), daily weight gain (DWG), total weight gain (TWG), daily concentrate intake (DCI), total concentrate intake TCI), daily basal feed intake (DBFI), total basal feed intake (TBFI) and feed conversion ratio. Results showed that; ILW was not significantly different, FLW was significantly (P<0.01) different among the treatments. However, DWG, DCI, TCI, DBFI, TBFI and FCR were significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Result of financial implication of supplementing elephant grass indicated that; grass cutter fed supplement grows better and economically viable especially those fed SBW/MB. It is concluded that, performance of growing grass cutter supplemented with concentrate diets were superior to performance of un-supplemented animals.  The indication is that, supplement diet contains right amount of nutrients and offering low cost to gain ratio. Therefore SBW/MB can be recommended for supplementing elephant grass in grass cutter farming in Mubi environment based on their growth performance.

Keyword: Elephant grass, Grass cutter, Soyabean waste, cotton seed cake, Coconut meal, Maize bran, Performance




Rheological Modification of Donkwa (Ground Cake Snacks) Using Food Gel


1Hussaini M. S.; 2Olorunsogo S. T.; & 1Abubakar, Y.

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.65, Minna, Niger State



Donkwa is a common snack that is commonly taken in the northern part of Nigeria and it is prepared from roasted groundnut (peanut) mixed with roasted cereal (maize) flour and spiced with ginger and pepper, and sugar are added to taste. The mixture were pounded and moulded into balls that can be eaten without further processing. The need to optimize donkwa to meet the daily nutrient need of the malnourished were made by improvement of  the textural and /or pasting properties of donkwa using food gels. The compositional effects of major ingredients on donkwa textural properties were also determined.  Samples of groundnut, maize, and sorghum were obtained locally from Kure modern market, minna, Niger state.  The groundnut were cleaned, sorted and roasted. The maize were cleaned, sorted and ground into powdered and sieved.  The sorghum were cleaned, sorted and soaked in cleaned water for 24hours.  The wet sorghum was milled to paste and 4litres of water were added to the paste and allowed to settled and sieved. The pastes were sun dried, and used as gelling agent (Binder). The roasted groundnut were mixed with the maize powder and milled to paste for the three ratio (G80-M20, G70-M30, G60-M40) with varied proportion of binder (food gel), 2%, 4%, and 6% respectively. These specified ratio of groundnut paste,(x1) maize powder(x2) and binder(x3) were mixed accordingly. The  mixture were constituted differently into a number of experimental treatments with 0.000053g of Sugar, 0.0000025g of Salt, and 0.0000012g of pepper as ingredients proportion for each run. The mixture were allowed to cool and settle, and moulded into various shapes and sizes. A three variables three levels factorial design matrix (N=33) were used to analysed the sensory data. The results were subjected to data analysis using SPSS 16.0, 2010 version. Analysis of variance was used to check if there were significant differences between the treatments and Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple range test (SNK) was used to separate means that were significantly different. The results showed that out of the 27 experimental treatments, treatment 2 with 70% groundnut, 20% maize and 2% binder gave the highest qualities in terms of adhesiveness, firmness, chewiness, textural hardness and cohesiveness. Therefore, it was recommended as the best formulation for high quality donkwa preparation.

Keywords:  rheological, modification, donkwa, foodgels.




Soil Testing and Soil Productivity Index Mapping


Muazu Mamman Omeiza

Agricultural Technology Department, Kogi State Polytechnic Itakpe



A study was conducted to test soil samples using LandPKS at different depth across slopes and topography in the kogi agricultural development project ADP sites in lokoja the state capital of kogi state, Nigeria. A point across slope was selected from the study site situated behind the ADP building and characterized features of soils such as soil Texture,soil colour and land slopes were observed.Data generated were collected,tabulated and analysed by the Land Potential Knowledge System( LandPKS) whose various interface and results were used in determining soil productivity of that site and its reperesentation on the map using Soil mapping units or geographical information system GIS was shown on the platform.The study concludes that since soil testing is key during the pre-planting operations its result will go a long way in correcting land deficiencies by making recommendations for companies to provide fertilizers to be supplied in the right proportions for maximum productivity and sustainability.

Keywords: LandPKS, Land Potential Knowledge System, Lokoja, Soil testing, GPS and Soil Mapping




Socio-Economic Determinants of Poverty among Small Scale Maize Farmers of Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State


*Alim, Semiyu Abdulrazaq; **Yoroki, Joy Tarila; & **Adamu Ambi, Aisha

*Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna. **Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, College of Business and Management Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna



The study analyzes the socio-economic determinants of poverty among small scale maize farmers in Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, determine the socio-economic factors that influence poverty level of the maize farmers in the study area, determine the level of profitability among the maize farmers in the study area, describe the determinants of poverty among maize farmers in the study area and to describe the constraints faced by the maize farmers in the study area. The local government area was purposely selected while the respondents were randomly selected. Information was obtained from a total of 33 maize farmers. The data for analysis were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. Results revealed that the mean age of the farmers was 40 years. The results of the gross margin analysis revealed that the maize farmers earned a gross margin of N21,636.82/ha. The result of the poverty status among maize farmers revealed that 20 respondents representing 60.6 percent strongly agree that households that have non-farm sources of income tend to easily get out of poverty than households that do not have other sources of income outside the farm. It was therefore recommended that, the farmers should form or join a cooperative Association, Extension services be provided by relevant agency, and also the farmers should engage in other non-farm economic activities. These will improve production capacity and reduce poverty among the small scale Farmers.

Keywords: Socio Economic, Determinants, Poverty, Small Scale, Farmers




Review on the Potential Effect of Climate Change in Agricultural Production


*Saje, A. B.; & **Chekene, M. B.

*Department of Agricultural Technology, Yobe State College of Agriculture Gujba, Nigeria. **Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Nigeria



Climate change is caused by many factors but before discussing these, it is necessary to understand the meaning of Climate Change and its implications for different sectors of the economy.The occurrence of CC has intensified in recent years due to human activities. Human actions such as gas flaring, agriculture, deforestation, transportation, electricity production, dumping of waste, and construction of residential buildings have contributed to the rise in greenhouse gas emission into the air, thus causing a rise in temperature in the global climate – global warming.

Keywords:  Review, Potential, Effect, Climate, Change.




Response of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.)  to Different Fertilizer Levels and Spacing Patterns in Bauchi State, Nigeria


Gambo, M1, Haruna, Y1. Chimdi, G., Gaya, B.H., Gambo, N1., Isah, Y2 And Ibrahim, Y3.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Bauchi State Ministry of Education. 3Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



This research was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 rainy seasons. The objective was to find out the impact of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing patterns on the growth and yield of groundnut in the study area. Four levels of phosphorus fertilizer were used namely P1: 0kg P2O5 ha-1, P2: 30kg P2O5 ha-1, P3: 60kg P2O5 ha-1, and P4: 90kg P2O5 ha-1.Three spacing patterns were also used (S1: Spacing of 60cm x 20cm, S2: Spacing of 60cm x 25cm and S3: Spacing of 60cm x 30cm. This gave a 4×3 treatment combination and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three time. The result obtained revealed that there was no significant difference in the various spacing patterns used except at 8 WAP. However, a significant difference was observed with the levels of phosphorus fertilizer. There was a marked difference on the growth and yield parameters being measured with 90kg P2O5 ha-1, recording higher values while the control had the lowest values. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that farmers should adopt the use of 90kg/ha P2O5 and spacing of 20cm x 60cm in the study area.

Keywords: Response, Phosphorus fertilizer, Spacing, Groundnut.




Assessment and Mapping of Salt Affected Soils in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP)


Garba, N.1, Mohammed, D.2, and   Muhammad, R. S.3

Department of Agricultural & Bio – Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



The research was carried out during the 2018/2019 dry season to assess and map out salts affected soils in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP). Random sampling technique was adopted where three (3) soil samples from each of the forty (40) functional sectors in KRIP were collected at depth 35cm (being the active root zone depth of most of the crops grown in the area) using an auger and polythene bags. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory and solutions were filtered for soil salinity analysis. The soil pH was determined using a glass electrode pH meter, the ESP was determined using ammonium acetate (NH4OAC) method whereas Electrical Conductivity (EC) of the soil extraction by the use of conductivity meter. The textural class was also determined using the bouyoucous hydrometer analysis. Using the results from the laboratory analysis, geostatistical analysis by interpolation (kriging technique) were carried out to produce the spatial variability maps of the soils in the entire area. Mapping was done in terms of soil chemical parameters including; ECe, SAR, ESP and pH. The maps showed that Ece values spread across all the sectors  in both the western and eastern commands with no definite pattern of spread, hence, indicating that the soils in KRIP are predominantly slightly to moderately saline. There is also an even distribution of SAR over the two (2) command areas with pockets of isolated cases.  Generally, there is a low sodium hazard of the water used in KRIP. In addition, there is a moderate to high ESP values which depicts a wide spread of sodicity problem in the entire area. This situation may have been brought as a result of rising water table due to continuous production. Also, the pH map of the area showed a wide range of pH values evenly distributed across the two (2) command areas.

KEYWORDS: Salts, Interpolation, Kriging, Mapping, Geostatistical




Assessing the impacts of selected colours of plastic mulch on the growth and yield of squash (Cucurbita) in a derived savannah soil


Adeyolanu, Adebayo Stephen

The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria



Although water is one of the most abundant natural resources in the country, farmers face water scarcity and water-related hazards as they experience unpredictable rainfall patterns, long dry seasons, and increased frequency of extreme floods. Efforts to improve water use management and efficiencies for crop growth need to be a high priority for farmers. This study determines the effects of selected colours of plastic mulch as soil water conservation measures on the growth and yield of squash in a derived savannah soils using the some growth and yield indicating parameters. The study was carried out in a screen house situated at Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department of The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo State in South Western Nigeria. The study area is a derived savannah region. The mulching operations were done using plant residues of dried sun flower shrubs as the control experiment while coloured polythene of selected different colours were used for plastic mulching. The selected colours are white, black and blue. Each mulching operations were replicated thrice to give a total of twelve treatments. the mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level in the number of leaves between control and black mulch and also between control and white mulch at 2 WAP while there is no significant difference between the parameters for all the treatments at 4 WAP. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level in the plant heights between control and blue mulch at 6WAP and at 8 WAP, there are also significant differences in the plant heights between control and black mulch and also between control and white mulch. The mean difference is also significant for the number of leaves between control and black mulch and also between control and blue mulch. The yield per stand from the study gave a peak value of 3,517 tons/ha of yield for control experiment while blue coloured plastic mulch gave a least value of 186 tons/ha at maximum spacing of 120cm and 2 seeds per stand, a peak value of 495 tons/ha of yield for control experiment and least value of 26 tons/ha of yield for the blue coloured plastic mulch at minimum spacing. On general assessment, growth parameters were best for control experiment (traditional way of mulching with plant residues) from sprouting and seedling stages up till the fruiting stage with the yield inclusive.

Keywords: plastic, mulching, growth, yield, squash.




Measures for Improving the Income of Cotton Farmers in Kaura Namoda Local Government Area Zamfara State


Christiana Joseph Adah1* and Hussaina O. Tanko2

1Department of Agricultural Business Management, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.2Department of Agricultural Extension Management, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.



Kaura Namoda town growth was due to the arrival of railway from Zaria in 1929, it was the north western terminus of railway from Lagos to Port Harcourt and a major collecting point for peanuts and cotton. Besides these export crops, local traders primarily engaged in sorghum, cowpea, rice, sugarcane, and tobacco production. It has a population of 281,267 (2006) population censuses and has an area of 868km2 the study was conducted to I. Encourage farmers in cotton production so as to increase their income, II Assist on the proper way of disposing their products acquaint farmers with vital information in marketing of cotton, III. Help farmer to market their product directly to the textile industries and not through agent (Middle men). IV Identify the problem in cotton farming in the study area and suggest solutions to the problems. V.A Total sample size of seventy (70) was selected for the study divided in three villages. Primary data was collected from cotton farmers in the study area through a structured interview schedule administered   on respondent. Data was analyzed using arithmetic mean. Percentages and descriptive statistics. The major conclusions drawn from this study were data presented regarding number of hectares cultivated shows that 23(33%) of the respondent cultivated between 10 –15 ha of land. A total of 25 (36%) cultivated between 7- 10 ha. Similarly, 15(21%) each cultivated between 3-6 ha and less than 2 ha of land respectively. Marketing of cotton produce in the study area shows that 19(27.19) of the respondent sale their product directly to consumers. Why majority of the respondent 34(48.6%) sale through middle men and 17(24.3%) sell to textile industries. Estimated profit after Marketing revealed that 21(31%) had no profit. While 25(35.7%) realized higher profit. On the basis of the above conclusions the following recommendations are made. Government should encourage cotton production by providing subsidies on input and incentives for cotton lint’s and a seed, suitable government policy is necessary that will boast cotton cultivation, trade and ensure that cotton farmers are making profit. There is need for cotton farmers to increase their acreage so as to create job opportunities for the youth. Farmers should regularly contact extension workers in the area so as to obtain better advice on how to improve cotton production in the area. Capacity building is necessary and empowered of all cotton processing and packing of bales by ginneries that is acceptable to local & Global Market.

Keywords: cotton, middle men, marketing, respondent, farmers.




Coping Strategies Adopted by Farmers Living with HIV/AIDS in Jibia and Bindawa Local Government Areas of Katsina State


Adekanmbi, Olukemi Olabisi

Department of Agricultural Science Education, Federal College of Education, P.M.B 2041, Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria.



The main objective of this study was to determine the surviving strategies adopted by people living with HIV/AIDS in Jibia and Bindawa local government areas of Katsina state, Nigeria. The sample size (192) was randomly and proportionately selected at 10% of the population respectively. The population covers a period of 6 years (2007 – 2012) and was obtained from the local government general hospitals and relevant non-governmental organizations. Structured questionnaire was used and administered by trained enumerators, supervised by the researcher to collect relevant data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance coupled with simple percentage were employed to analyse the data. The common strategies adopted by the respondents in coping with HIV/AIDS in Bindawa includes: sales of family assets, crops, labor; withdrawal of children from school and substitute expensive meals with 16.2%, 14.6% and 13.5% respectively. In Jibia the common strategies includes: substitute expensive meals, sales of family assets and live on less intake of preferred food with 24.4%, 14.6% and 12.0% in that order. The respondents suggested that free education for their wards, accessibility and availability of treatment drugs, access to credit/loan, job creation and enlightenment programmes among others as mean of managing their conditions. It is recommended that poverty reduction strategies or measures need to be taken seriously and given priority among rural people, direct support for HIV/AIDs infected farmers such as credit facilities and inputs need to be provided promptly at highly subsidized rates and also, there is the need to draw up legislation that can protect the land rights of women and children.

Keywords: Coping, Surviving, Strategies, HIV/AIDS, Farmers,



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