African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 24 No. 2


VOL. 24 NO. 2 MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2910-1083



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Analysis of the Effects of Corruption and Electricity Access on Economic Growth in Nigeria


Samaila Adamu1; & Rilwanu Mohammed2

1Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2School of General Studies, Economics Program, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria



The study is on the analysis of the effects of corruption and electricity access on economic growth in Nigeria covering 2002Q1 to 2018Q4 time series data. The unit root properties of the series were tested using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF), Philips Perron (PP) and Zivot-Andrews breakpoint unit root test. Chow test revealed presence of structural break in 2015 which was taken care of by the introduction of dummy variables and interaction terms. The results from Autoregressive Distributed lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) cointegrating regression revealed that control of corruption and access to electricity have positive and statistically significant long run effects on economic growth in Nigeria, but the short run ARDL results indicated that electricity access and corruption control harm economic growth in Nigeria over the study period, with slow speed of adjustment to long run equilibrium of 2.63% quarterly. This study concludes that corruption is sand in the wheels of Nigeria’s economic prosperity and therefore recommends continued effort in control of corruption and increase in electricity supply for more economic growth among others.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Corruption, Electricity, Time series, Chow test.



Advocacy Communication and Environmental Preservation: An Appraisal of the Activities of Charcoal and Timber Merchants in Logo and Kwande Local Government Areas of Benue State


*Dr. Alakali, Terfa Titus; **Dr. Alu Francis Akwougu; ***Dr. Joseph Dzerkaan Fanafa

*Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University Makurdi, Benue State, **Federal Radio Cooperation of Nigeria, Abuja Headquarters, Abuja Nigeria. ***Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi Benue State



The study, “Advocacy Communication and Environmental Preservation: An Appraisal of the activities of Charcoal and Timber merchants in Logo and Kwande Local Government Areas of Benue State assessed the impact of advocacy journalism can be effective environmental preservation in the two Local Governments Areas under study. The work is anchored on the Coalition Theory and Development-Change Model while survey design is adopted to obtain the relevant information for the study. Utilizing questionnaire and focused group discussion, 272 questionnaires were administered and 252 collected, while 6 focused group discussion sessions were held across different locations in the study areas. Statistics gathered from the respondents under the study areas   shows that 100 % of the respondent indicates that if consistent advocacy journalism/communication is sustained and properly monitored and utilized can be useful in discouraging disforestation activities in the study areas. The study therefore. recommends amongst others, that advocacy journalism be constantly sustained and utilized as one of the measures of tackling deforestation which is rapidly threatening the existence of natural resources in the two study areas.

Keywords: Advocacy Communication, Forestry.  Preservation, Charcoal and Timber Merchants




Religion and Politics: A Philosophycal Analysis


Amodu, Salisu Ameh; & Stephen, Emmanuel

Department of Philosophy, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria



The development of social policy related to the central idea of religion politise has received increasing focus in recent years, yet psychology continues to play a relatively minor role in this important domain. In the current paper, one will use an analytic method to relate the religion’s influences on politics as a meaningful structure in a societal system on individual person, community, and societal well-being which are delineated in connection that exist between religion and politics. The challenges facing religion and its contributing to public policy and development These challenges notwithstanding, a number of different pathways in the domains of applied research, community practice, and policy development are delineated through which this research  can help to maximize positive the investigation of the outcome of the exiting bound in the religion and politics in the human  policy making arena.




Climate Change Impact on Livelihood Strategies and Environmental Sustainability and Planning in Cross River State, Nigeria


Francis Damachi A

Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



There have been growing awareness that the earth’s climate is changing at an alarming rate with several source of livelihood becoming vulnerable to the impacts of the change. It is against this background that this study analysed the impact of climate change on farming and fishing livelihood in Cross-River State with the aim of determining the perception of farmers and fishers about climate change the level of their livelihood vulnerability to its impact. The study adopted cross sectional household survey and multi-staged sampling techniques to sampled 400 (200 farmers and 200 fishers) respondents from three LGAs and eight communities. Data for the study was obtained through the use of questionnaire and structure interviews and were analysed using statistical tools of frequencies, means, percentages, and standard deviation as well as two types of livelihood vulnerability index rating. The sampled respondents had good perception of climate change with majority (72.75%) relating it to increasing daily temperature. Among the perceived impact of climate change on framing livelihood in the study area, decreased quantity and quality of crop yield with mean values of 3.75 was perceived to be of the highest effect of climate change by the sampled farmers while for fishing livelihood, it was increasing difficulty of access/increasing distance to fishing ground (3.72). The most favoured on-farm adaptation strategy by farmers was changing of planting time (82.5%) and livelihood diversification for off-farm livelihood diversification (95%) while fishers also preferred to diversify their livelihood sources to non-fishery activities (75.5%). Both farming and fishing livelihood were found to be moderately vulnerable to climate change impact with overall livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) of 0.392 and 0.390 as well as -0.086 and -0.089 (for IPPC-LVI approach) respectively. Despite exposure to natural disaster (flood) and climate variability, social network remained the most important causal factor that explained farming and fishing livelihood vulnerability in the region by impacting negatively on adaptive capacity due to poor interpersonal relationship among the aquatic resources and farmers. It was recommended that; both farmers and fishers in the study area are advised to collaborate with one another, form associations or join existing relevant one as this would help them adapt to or cope with the impact of climate change on their livelihood through giving of all forms of assistance and sharing of information which will enhance their adaptive capacity.

Keywords: Climate, Change, Environmental, Planning, Sustainability




Assessment of Skills and Competencies Offered By Built Environment Graduates in Construction Firms in Abuja


*Umar, A. S., Shittu, A. A And Adamu, I. I.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



This study assessed the skills and competencies offered by built-environment graduates in construction firms in Abuja with the view of bridging the gap between academic knowledge and professional practice. Data was collected from 159 construction companies listed in the Abuja business directory using structured questionnaires with a response rate of 91.8%. A random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The analysis of the data was carried out with the use of percentage and mean item score. The study identified 10 drivers of the development of skills and competencies for built environment graduates in the construction firms in Abuja, of which individual resources are the most significant. Findings from the study also revealed that financial difficulty and rapid technology advancement are the most significant barriers to the development of skills and competencies for built environment graduates, while verbal and written communication (basic skills) and entrepreneurial and managerial competencies are also significant barriers. It was, however, concluded that the skills and competencies of built-environment graduates in construction firms in Abuja can significantly bridge the gap between academic knowledge and professional practise and enhance their level of employability, provided certain strategies are effectively implemented. Major recommendations from the study were that academic institutions offering built environment courses should ensure that their curriculums are relevant with respect to industrial needs; graduates need to change their attitudes and personalities to be competitive; and the government must be committed to assisting with employability skills training.

Keywords: Built Environment, Construction Firms, Competencies, Graduates, Skills.




Causes and Effects of Deforestation on the Socio-Economic Livelihood of the People of Jenkwe, Obi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria


Mohammed Alkali1, David Sarkinbaka Nelson2 and Ayuba Isah Alheri3

1Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



This study examined the causes and effects of deforestation on the socio-economic loverhood of the people of Jenkwe development area of Obi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study made use of primary data collected from the study area using structured questionnaire distributed among 150 respondents across sampled parts of the study area. The study also made use of secondary data collected from the Nasarawa State Ministry of Agriculture, Nasarawa State Ministry Land and Urban Development. The study made use of Microsoft Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistical package version 26 for the analysis of field data and to produce results on tables and charts. More so, the data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The result showed that agricultural activities related to population growth in the study area is the topmost cause of deforestation. The study further revealed that quite a number of the population are aware of the effects of deforestation and its impact in the area. Hypothetically, based on the result of the study, it can be inferred that there is a significant relationship between the effects of deforestation and the socio-economic life of the people; also, a significant difference in the occurrence of deforestation across of the study area. The study, therefore, inferred that the relationship between the effects of deforestation and the socio-economic livelihood of the people of Jenkwe development area, is significant; also that the occurrence of deforestation across the study Jenkwe development area is significant; and concluded that effects of deforestation on the socio-economic livelihood of the people of Jenkwe could be strongly attributed to the growing rate of agricultural expansion, wood extraction for domestic fuel or charcoal, and increasing built-up. The study recommends that environmental education should be accorded to the people of the study area on the dire consequences of deforestation on people and the society at large, also, farmers in the community should be trained in other alternative livelihood approaches.

Keywords: Deforestation, Forest, Socio-economic, Livelihood, Farming.




Capital Market, Economic Growth and Industrialization in Nigeria (2000 – 2016)


*Chigbo Geraldine Ngozi; **Agbo Nneka Helen: & ***Agbo Clement Anyanwu

*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office. **Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office. ***Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Enugu State Office.



The study is on Capital market, Economic growth and industrialization in Nigeria between 2000 and 2016. The main objective of the study is to examine how industrialization can be achieved through the capital market contribution to economic growth in Nigeria. The significant role of the capital market in securing long term capital for investment purposes thereby laying a solid foundation for genuine industrialization in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Although, there has been gross neglect of this aspect of capital formation for long-term investment fund over the years. The study model has the gross domestic product (GDP) as its dependent variable and market capitalization as the independent variable. It made use of secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria, Bureau of Statistics and the Nigerian Stock Market. With the aid of the ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique, the result obtained revealed that there is a positive but not statistically significant relationship between market capitalization and economic growth in Nigeria over the period of study implying that not much of financing has gone into spurring the industrial growth of the Nigerian economy through the capital market. Therefore, the study recommended that the Nigerian economic planners especially the policy makers should avail the economy the opportunities of long term investment fund available at the stable of the Nigerian Stock Market to broaden and deepen the industrial base of the Nation’s economy so as to attain genuine industrialization.

Keywords: Capital Market, Capital Formation, Economic growth, Industrialization, Economy, Economic Planners and Regression Technique.




Causes of Delays in Nigeria Road Construction Projects: A Case Study of Lagos-Ibadan Expressway


Toriola-Coker O L1*, Omokungbe O1, Ayodele-Oja S2, Yekini A1, Alakija T3,

1School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 2School of Environmental, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 3School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.



This study aims to to determine the main causes of delayin road construction and to offer possible solutions in sustaining it for a long-term. Using quantitative methodology approach, this study adopts online data collection strategies through questionnaire with road construction experts in Nigeria that have worked for at least 10 years. The study identifies 17 factors that encapsulate the causes of delay in construction industry and respondents involved are 27 Contractors, 23 Consultants, 16 Quantity Surveyor, 8 Architects and 20 Others from the construction industry making it 94 in total. The survey results indicate that the five top factors causing road construction delays are: Clients’ Financial difficulties; Cash Flow during construction; Political Influence; Government regulations; and Inclement or Bad weatherResults of the study have huge implications for policymakers and project companies by encouraging the early take-off of project and completion in due date in order to encourage future participation in infrastructure development.

Keywords: Causes of Delay; Road Construction Projects; Experts; Lagos-Ibadan Expressway; Nigeria




Analysis of Domestic Waste Management Practices among House-Holds in Saminaka Town, Kaduna State, Nigeria


1Zakari Faruq; 2Abdulazeez Mohammed Jajere; & 3Abubakar Ikra Baballo

1Ministry of Education, Kaduna State, Government Secondary School Lere, Lere Local Government, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria



Poor management of domestic waste has resulted in indiscriminate accumulation of waste on open lands, causing a nuisance to the environment. The study looked at household waste management practices in Saminaka Town, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study used survey research, which included interviews and structured questionnaires. The sample size was formed by systematically selecting 382 respondents from the population. For the analysis, a descriptive statistic was used. Findings of the study shows that organic waste, which is mostly putrescible, was the most common type of waste in the area.58.1 percent of respondents openly dump their waste, 3.9 percent bury it, and 36% burn theirs. The study found that, landfill method was used as a waste management technique by approximately 62 percent of the total population in the area. According to findings of the study, Kaduna Environmental Protection Agency (KEPA) was not carrying out its responsibilities in the study area. Based on the study’s findings, it was recommended that proper waste management in the study area should be encouraged through participation of all stakeholders. The study also recommends, public enlightenment and health education should be encouraged. A self-help approach or project will also aid in waste management and the involvement of traditional and religious leaders. This would reduce the amount of waste physically present in the study area.

Keywords: Analysis, Domestic Waste, Management, Practice, House-Holds




Design and Implementation of Classroom Crowd Monitoring System


Nkeleme, Victor Obinna; Tahir, Aljazuli Abdullahi; & Mohammed, Yakubu

 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.



The classroom provides a setting where students may learn without being distracted by outside factors; yet, most classes have a large number of students. Overcrowding in classes can put the attendees’ health and safety at risk, resulting in harm or injuries. Given the current state of the country (Covid-19 second waves and security concerns), a large number of students in a class can be divided into a variety of streams using an appropriate monitoring system. The goal of this work was to build and deploy a monitoring system that would prevent classroom overcrowding by identifying and counting the number of people at the entrance door. Two major circuit designs achieve this goal: one for counting and the other for identifying. The counting circuit is made up of an HCSR04 ultrasonic sensor, an Arduino nano, an ISD1820 voice recorder module, and a speaker. The identification detection circuit is made up of an RFID reader that reads the RFID transponder on the students’ tags and a PIC16F877A microcontroller that sends signals to the LCD and buzzer. When the venue is filled or an unidentified guest enters the premises, a signal is transmitted to the alerting circuit, informing the person in charge of the entrance to close the door or act accordingly. This entrance closure prevents more people out of the classroom, preventing overcrowding. According to the findings, the system can detect and identify the number of pupils entering a classroom with a defined capacity, preventing invasions and overcrowding.

Keywords: RFID, Controller, Sensor, Detecting, Counting




Under-Industrialization, Corruption and Financial Sector Development in Nigeria


*Imosun Mojisola Adenike; **Joyce O. Binitie; & ***Stella Ifeyinwa Ugwu

*Productivity Capacity Building Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters. **Consultancy and Business Development Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. ***Corporate Affairs and Information Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office



The Nigeria economy in the past few years has witnessed series of renaissance from various factors dampening its supposed long overdue developments. Prominent of the factors is corruption which has been perceived in the literature as a fundamental impediment to the growth process of developing countries like Nigeria. Corruption by extension has been debatably linked to the financial sector on the ground that banks actually expedite the medium through which looters implement their illicit financial dealings.   Nonetheless, far less attention has been noticed to date on the interplay between financial sector, corruption and industrialization process of evolving economy like Nigeria. Hence, the paper seeks to investigate the extent to which corruption inhibits the financial system in enhancing the industrialization process with focus on Nigeria. The paper lends credence on the standpoints that the financial system is inseparable from corruption manifested by the overwhelming incidence of money laundry in the country in recent times. The study employs Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ADRL), ADF unit root test, Granger causality test and Ordinary Least Square methods on time series (secondary) data, covering 1984 to 2014. Findings of the study reveals that both financial system development and corruption exert negative influence on the industrial sector contribution to GDP in Nigeria. While the two independent variables did not granger cause each other, the study concludes that financial sector development and corruption inhibit industrialization process in Nigeria. To surmount the challenges, the continual implementation TSA is seen as pertinent coupled with selective investment in the industrial sector to ensure the growth potentials in that industry is fully exploited and achieved.

Keywords: Industrialization, Corruption, Financial Sector, Development, Economy, Countries and Challenges.




Revitalizing Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria for Sustainable Youths and National Development: Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward


Nicodemus Stephen Gaya

Department of Technical Education, Adamawa State College of Education, Hong – Nigeria.



To meet with rapid technological advancement and the challenges in this global era, Nigeria, being a developing nation needs to strive very well. Vocational and Technical Education has fundamental support or is the backbone for the national development of most nations because of its impact or effect on productivity, human resources and economic development. Developed or highly industrialized nations have recognized Vocational and Technical Education as the transformational and developmental legend for a nation’s technological advancement, economic accomplishment or achievement and development in general. Despite its contribution to national development in general, Nigeria has not given Vocational and Technical Education the desired attention. Apart from explaining the concept of Vocational and Technical Education and outlining its objectives, this paper tends to critically examined some of the issues, challenges and the way forward in revitalizing Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria for sustainable youths and National development. It also explained the relevance of youth in general, and depict or show in a tabular form, some attainable Vocational and Technical Education investments for sustainable Youth and National Development. Recommendations about ways of enhancing the teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education with great curiosity or interest were also proposed. 

Keywords. Revitalizing, Vocational, Technical, Sustainable, Development.




Budget and National Development: Problems and Prospect


Tijani Suleman Olatunji; & Bawa Hassan

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State



Budget in Nigeria has continued to spring up a lot of controversies concerning the modality for its preparation and administration as a result of the continuous change in government and the consequential change in policy and ideology. Nigeria’s yearly budget has continued to climb as a consequence of high earnings from crude oil disposal and production, while public amenities such as decent roads, power, health, education, and communication are in high demand. Consequently, there is a pressing need to ensure appropriate level of economic development in the country as a whole. It’s worth noting that government spending has been rising for the past three decades. The secondary source of data collection was used where the exploratory research design was adopted. Budgeting has been marred with different problems which include; corruption and mismanagement, skilled manpower, lack of civil society participation, finance among others. Government in an attempt to achieve macro-economic goals and objectives of price stability, economic growth, stable and full employment, infrastructural development as well as balance of payments equilibrium, initiates several types of budget such as balanced, surplus, deficit, development as well as supplementary budget. The study recommends that government should ensure the strict adherence to due process in the implementation of its annual budget. In addition, the government should ensure adequate capital and recurrent expenditure implementation in the country, particularly in areas of economic and socio-community services




Development of a Sugarcane Juice Extractor for Small Scale Industries


Lawal I. Atiku, Aminu O. Yusuf, and Abubakar J. Abdullahi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



In recent times, many tones of fruits have been wasted in the past and many more are likely to be wasted if unchecked, the need for producing machine that is capable of extracting juice from fruits without wastage and maintaining the quality and colour of juice is very obvious.  Mechanical power is the most essential need in the areas of sugar cane plant process and preparation. The milling of sugarcane is a unit operation that crucial for making sugarcane juice available for various applications. The currently available sugarcane juice extractors require high energy and sophisticated mills, driven mechanically. These are out of the reach of small scale and rural farmers that are presently involved in processing of cane juice into ethanol, brown sugar and other related products in Nigeria. The development of a small scale sugarcane juice extractor was therefore to meet the needs of the small scale farmers who cannot afford the high capacity and complex cane crushers. This research explained the designed and constructed of a simple mechanical device for extraction of sugarcane juice. The performance of the machine were evaluated. The output capacities of 10.50, 12.00 and 14.25 kg/ hr were obtained at operating speeds of 0.25, 0.3 and 0.36 m/s. The extraction efficiency of the machine ranged between 40 and 61 % at operating speeds of 0.25 and 0.36 m/s. It was observed that this optimum performance of the machine cannot be sustained over a long processing period due to the bluntness development of the perforated grating drum over time.

Keywords: Crushing, Grater, Juice Extraction, Maceration, Milling, Sugarcane,




Towards Sustainable Development: Exploring the Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Biology Education for Graduates of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria


Christina Tanko Audu (PhD)



The crux of this work is concerned with exploring the entrepreneurial opportunities in Biology education for graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The work touches briefly on the meaning of sustainable development, entrepreneurship and Biology education. It discusses the entrepreneurial opportunities in Biology education which young graduates make take up to earn a living and be self-reliance. The work looks at apiculture, heliculture and poultry which entrepreneurial opportunities in Biology which one can start with little capital. These entrepreneurial opportunities have many comparative advantages over other enterprises.   It was concluded that there are many entrepreneurial opportunities in Biology education which graduates of Nigerian tertiary institutions could undertake and become self-employed. Biology education graduates can therefore utilize the opportunity by applying the knowledge they acquired to start small scale enterprise.  The author recommended that entrepreneurship education should be infused into the Biology education curriculum with the aim of helping graduates of Biology education to take up entrepreneurial opportunities in Biology. It was also recommended that the culture of providing general entrepreneurship education to students should be improved upon to ensure that entrepreneurship education so provided is related to the student’s course of study such that upon graduation, the students could take up entrepreneurial opportunities related to their area of specialization.




Entrepreneurship: A Culture of Innovation to Unlock Sub-Saharan African Sustainable Development


*Johnson Itabita Patience (PhD); & **Agunuwa, Ekokotu Vincent (PhD)

*Business Administration/Management, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara. **Department of Banking & Finance, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe – Oghara



Entrepreneurship is a culture that strives for innovation which has the ability to unlock Sub-Saharan African Sustainable Development. An entrepreneur generates idea which brings about wealth through the process of combining innovativeness with the essential management and organization skill. This research is a cross sectional survey, questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the respondents.  Taro Yamane’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 67 selected businesses in Delta State while chi square was used to analyze the data.  It was discovered that Entrepreneurship attracts innovation, for sustainable growth and Development.  The study therefore concluded that Entrepreneurship is a necessity for entrepreneurial development and sub-Saharan African Sustainable growth and Development.  It was recommended that government should organize a continuous workshop or seminar where formal training will be given to those who cannot afford formal education and also create an avenue where entrepreneurs can access a high quality business advice and financial support.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Wealth, Innovativeness, Organizational skill, Taro Yamane.




Suitability Analysis Of Soil And Water Of Bayara Irrigarion Sites In Bauchi State, Nigeria


Chimdi, G.O.; Haruna, Y.; Gambo, M.; and Abba-Aji, A.A.

Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



A study was conducted to evaluate the water and soil quality in Bayara irrigation sites in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from six different points augered at 0-15cm and 15-30cm depths of the soils. The water samples were collected from five different points. The soil samples were analyzed for the particle size, pH, Organic carbon, Total Nitrogen, available Phosphorus, Exchangeable bases (Ca,Mg, K and Na.), and micronutrients level ( Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu). While the water samples were analyzed for pH, Exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K and Na.) Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved sodium (TDS) exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). All the soils were found to range from sandy to sandy loam with sand dominating the soil separates. Organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were found low. While exchangeable base fall within medium rating. Micro nutrients contents were also found medium in content and the pH of the soils range from slightly acidic to neutral. The water samples were found to contain low SAR (2.3328), normal ESP (18.7%), low electrical conductivity (166.7), low to medium TDS (135.8) and bicarbonate low (2.5) Medium exchangeable bases and neutral PH. Based on the result obtained from the laboratory analysis, the study showed that irrigation water and soil of the study area were found to be of good quality with respect to universally acceptable limits. Therefore, they are safe for irrigation without any probable salinity and alkalinity problem development. However, the low nutrient (N.P. and K) content of the soil samples are hereby recommended for organic matter addition and/or organic manure incorporation for better crop production.




Sustainable Technological Skills: The Key for Unlocking Office Technology Management Students’ Potentials in the 21st Century Workplace


Ukonu, Egbe Elizabeth; & Habu, Jingi Umar

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi



This paper delved into sustainable technological skills that will unlock Office Technology and Management (OTM) students’ potential in the 21st century workplace. 21st century workplace invest in technology so employees can efficiently and effectively connect and collaborate. The 21st century workplace is accessible from anywhere, people work together, many businesses are increasingly providing opportunities for employees to work from home or from other places. From the ongoing, computer literacy skills, database management skills, website development skills, digital marketing skills, project management skills and cyber security skills are some of the skills that are required for unlocking OTM students’ potential for the 21st century workplace. Some of the problems that hinder the acquisition of these technological skills are: inadequate or lack of modern facilities and equipment, erratic or Epileptic power supply, inadequate or lack of trained technicians, expensive nature of the modern technologies used for the skill acquisition among others. Reading books, magazines, or website on the technological subjects that one is interested in, asking to be included on technological projects so that one can gain hands-on experience, joining online courses and tutorials about the technology subjects one want to learn, enrolling in workshops and online classes, practicing on one’s own to refine technical skills and taking advantage of any technical training and certification offered by one’s employer are some of the ways to improve the acquisition of one’s technological skills. Based on the above revelations, the following recommendations were made: that stakeholders in the polytechnic sector should make adequate provisions of facilities required for the inculcation of these soft and hard skills for adequate teaching and learning, lecturers should be sent on workshops, conferences to update their knowledge on the latest technologies so as to unlock their students’ potentials in the 21st century work place that is technology driven.

Keywords:  Sustainable, skills, technological skills, office technology and management (OTM)




Prevalence of Soil Salinity and Sodicity and Adopted Remediation Techniques in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP)


Garba, N.1; Mohammed, D.2; & Muhammad, R. S.3

Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



The research was carried out during the 2018/2019 dry season to assess the prevalence of soil salinity and sodicity in Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) and the remediation techniques adopted by farmers in the study area. Random sampling technique was adopted where three (3) soil samples from each of the forty (40) functional sectors in KRIP were collected at depth 35cm (being the active root zone depth of most of the crops grown in the area) using an auger and polythene bags. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory and solutions were filtered for soil salinity analysis. Standard laboratory tests were employed in determining soil chemical parameters which include: soil pH, Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP), Sodium Adsorpton Ratio (SAR) and soil Electrical Conductivity (EC). The textural class was also determined using the bouyoucous hydrometer analysis. The results of the laboratory analysis revealed the prevalence of soil salinity/sodicity in 24 sectors in KRIP. Hence, Three Hundred and Eighty-Five (385) questionnaires were administered to farmers in the affected sectors. The results of the laboratory analysis also show an average pH range of 6.44 to 9.54 which indicates moderately alkaline to slightly alkaline soil reaction. The mean values of ECe and SAR were rated low i.e., 1.18 dS/m to 3.97 dS/m and 0.08 to 1.38 respectively according to FAO and USSL Staff standard, while ESP was rated low to high i.e. 1.73% to 16.66% indicating sodicity problem in many of the affected sectors. This can cause very poor physical properties of soil with a commensurate decrease in nutrient solubility and availability. The result of the questionnaire analysis showed a significant relationship between soil condition and salinity and sodicity at 5% error level. Also, the result indicates that majority of the farmers adopt the local remediation technique with different remediation materials used by the farmers in curbing salinity/sodicity problems on their farms to include: the use of cattle manure, millet chaff, rice bran ash, rice husk ash and rice straw in different combination.

Keywords: Salinity, Sodicity, Prevalence, Standards, Questionnaire




Epistemological Issues in the Reportage of Suicide and Mental Health in Nigeria


Akintayo, Johnson Babafemi PhD; And Abati, Mobolaji Oluwaseun     

Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State.



Suicide is a societal menace that has been on the ascendancy globally in recent years. The patterns of reported cases suggest that there is a causal relationship between suicide reports and acts of suicide. This work therefore explores the epistemological issues in the gathering and reportage of suicide. The paper hinges on the theoretical assumptions of Erving Goffman’s Framing Theory which argues that the media exercises control over the thoughts of media users. The study employs literature review as method of study. Findings from previous studies on the coverage of suicide were juxtaposed against the United Nations guidelines for the reportage of suicide (2019) and it was revealed that there are fundamental flaws in the methods of data gathering and presentation. The examination revealed that many news organizations glorify suicide by their narration and presentation of the facts thus unwittingly promoting the spread of the menace. The study concludes by advocating for greater responsibility in the gathering, processing and presentation of facts on suicide by news organizations. It recommends the United Nations guidelines on suicide reportage as minimum benchmark for practitioners covering suicide.

Keywords:  Suicide, Mental Health, World Health Organization, news coverage and Media Framing.




The Role of Tourism Marketing in Unlocking Sub-Sahara Africa Potential for Sustainable Development


Asore E. Patricia (Mrs)

Department Of Marketing Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.



The main objective of the paper is to examine the role of tourism marketing in sustainable development in Sub-Sahara Africa .The  supporting  objectives  are to establish the tourism marketing strategies that will positively impact on tourism development  in Sub –Sahara Africa,  to examine the concept of   sustainable tourism  and its challenges in Sub –Sahara Africa, and to  make known some negative impacts of tourism on the environment.Methodolically,this paper is written from a descriptive perspective. The most important sectors of tourism that bring in a lot of revenue  to individuals and the government are: the travel trade sector, accommodation sector, tourism services sector ,transportation sector , entertainment sector, food and beverage services sector, adventure and outdoor recreation sector, attractions sector and the events sector. The most important tourism marketing strategies are shown to include the following: location marketing, activity marketing, segmentation marketing strategy, mass marketing strategy, niche marketing strategy, and digital marketing, where social media tools are used to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relations. Some negative impacts of  tourism on the environment were examined which include  depletion of natural resources, pollution(air and noise),solid waste and littering, sewage, trampling, and others. Findings show that some challenges faced by sustainable tourism development in sub- Sahara Africa include the following: under- developed tourism infrastructure, poor intra-African air connectivity, absence of strategically-integrated product development and marketing, visa restrictions, poor treasury support to tourism, bad image created for the Africa brand, health and hygiene concerns., unfavorable business environment, low ICT readiness and high ticket taxes and airport charges. These challenges make sub-sahara Africa less likely to attract visitors and travel and tourism investors despite her appealing natural assets. The conclusion is that the proper marketing of these tourism products and services to attract consumers to come and spend their money; and putting the required infrastructure in place, is key to taking most Sub- sahara countries out of the league of less developed countries. It is recommended that, the right kind of marketing and promotion; provision of the necessary services and facilities to cater for tourists; visitor safety and security and maintenance of natural environments that often attract tourists should be put in place   to help   grow the tourism sector. Federal, State, and local governments should re-develop tourist sites and upgrade local festivals, some of which can be turned into money-spinners. There should be a vigorous programme of providing basic amenities in the rural areas. Currently, it is very difficult to travel around the country. Efforts should be doubled to build infrastructure, especially roads linking strategic tourist attractions across the country. The Intra-African Air Connectivity should not be ignored.

Keywords: Tourism Marketing, Sustainability, societal marketing concept, Trampling, culinary experience, Biological diversity, and Economic development.




A Historical Overview of Insecurity as a Threat to Sustainable Development in Some Sub-Saharan Africa States


Shehu Kazzah; Soja Zakka; & Joel Joseph Gajere

Department of History, Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria



The Sub-Sahara African states have been bedevilled with a lot of Insecurity challenges that have hampered their development for so many decades. The seed of these threats were first sawn by the colonial events and the post-colonial politics in Africa, which have metamorphosed into terrorism and some terrorist related movements in the region, resulting to deepening poverty; food and nutritional insufficiency; health and educational crisis; bad governance; violent and intractable conflicts; rising numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons; and environmental bankruptcy among other things. This paper therefore addresses how insecurity has become a common hitch to meaningful and sustainable development in Africa, particularly in some selected states in sub-Saharan Africa. This study is predicated on historical design with a reliance on a well corroborated secondary data which were also thematically and textually analysed to enable us carry out our survey on the subject matter.



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