African Scholar Journal of Arts and Sociological Research Vol. 24 No. 6


VOL. 24 NO. 6 MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2910-2080



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Security Implications for 2003 Darfur Conflict on Darfurese


Okereke, Emmanuel Ugochukwu; & Agbai Eke Agbai

Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State.



The backing of the Janjaweed by the government of Omar al-Bashir against the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and Justice and Equity Movement further changed the character of Darfur conflict by moving it entirely from struggle over resource distribution to ethnic conflict. The aim of the paper was to analyse the implications for the 2003 Darfur conflict on security of the people of Darfur. Data for the paper were collected from textbooks, journals, and internet materials and analysed using content analysis. Findings showed that the emergence of deteriorating economy in 2012 and 2013brought about intensified fighting between diverse Arab tribes over land as well as resources in the Central, North and South Darfur. Nearly 300,000 people were displaced within the first five months of 2013 only, the figure which outweighs the number recorded from 2010 to 2012. About 200,000 refugees fled the region to neighbouring Chad alone. Also, about 350,000 people in the region died as a result of starvation, violence, and diseases. From 2003 to 2005, more than 2,000 villages were destroyed, while about 500,000 people were killed. The means of livelihood of the people were equally destroyed as the farmers were disconnected from their means of livelihood, a situation that led to malnutrition and hunger. Unfortunately, conflict resolution and management techniques adopted in resolving the conflicts at national level did not take care of the root causes of the conflict which is located at Contradictions. It was recommended, among other things, that the government of Sudan should urgently address the issue of marginalisation of non-Arabs in resource distribution in the country.

Keywords: Security, Security Implications, Conflict, Darfur Conflict, Ethnicity, Religion




Interrogating the Justification of Nigeria Land Borders Closure within Ecowas Trade Liberalisation Scheme (ETLS) Framework


Aro, Olaide Ismail; & Prof. Eteete Michael Adam

School of Law and Security Studies, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State.



The dream of the leaders of the West African States (WAS) of integrating the region economically led to the establishment of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The dream also led to the adoption of the ECOWAS trade liberalization scheme (ETLS) as the mechanism for banning tariff barriers (TB) and non-tariff barriers (NTB). Despite the economic integration agenda of the ECOWAS, Nigeria; one of the member states closed all her land borders which served as the trade ban on the movement of products across the land borders with the exclusion of the sea and air borders. Premised on this, the paper focused on interrogating the justification of Nigeria land borders closure with the ETLS. The study adopted qualitative method of data collection and analysis and relied heavily on documents, descriptions and observations. The documents are extant literature from journal articles, official documents, workshop and seminar papers, newspapers, magazines and internet sources.

KEYWORDS: Borders Closure, Economic Integration, Originating Products, Regional Integration, Tariff Barriers, Non-Tariff Barriers, Trade Liberalization,




The Jewish Harvest Legislation Of The Holiness Code And Its Significance To Economic Empowerment Of The Less-Privileged In African Society/ Gombe State, Nigeria


Yusuf Dambura Lakama

Department of Religious Studies, Gombe State University



Scholarly works have been produced on economic management by scholars using various approaches. But this study is an attempt to consider the Ancient Israelite Harvest Legislation in which the needy in society were treated; a significant event which African Society (Gombe state as a home front) could adopt in her treatment of the Less-privileged in society. The Less-privileged in society are common in the State; hence this research examines the factors responsible for the situation of this group of persons in society with the aim of identifying their conceptions and treatment. The research focuses on the Harvest Legislation of the Holiness Code, the conceptions and treatment of the less-privileged and their empowerment. The work made use of electronic/ library sources and empiricism/ oral interview with the less-privileged in Gombe; as a means of data collection. The approach adopted for analyses is the descriptive approach which describes and analyzes facts concerning the conceptions and treatment of the less-privileged in society. The literature reviewed and interaction with certain less-privileged persons in Gombe revealed that there were many widows, orphans, aged and the poor in Ancient Israel who were not given much attention; so also in African Society (Gombe State) there are such less-privileged persons who include the blind, the crippled, aged, widows, the fatherless and the orphans that are not given much attention. The study recommends that there are ample ways of empowering such group of persons by the Government of Gombe State to alleviate their deplorable situation. The Ancient Near East legislation of provision for such people and the Harvest Legislation in Ancient Israel are methods worth emulation by African society/Gombe…

Keywords: Holiness code, Harvest legislation, Less-privileged, Empowerment, Conceptions Treatment, 




Kano River Irrigation Project (Krip) And The Promotion Of Capitalist Agricultural Production


Nura Shuaibu Safi

Department of Political Science, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State



This paper was designed to examine the ongoing transformation in the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) vis-à-vis the promotion of capitalist agricultural production project area. Lewis dual sector model was adopted as a theoretical frame of this research. The model assumes the existence of dual sector in the LDCs, namely; subsistence and capitalist sector. While the motive of production in the former is subsistence-driven, exchange and profit making are that of the latter, and profits and rents are the major sources of savings and investments.

Keywords; Transformation, capitalist, agricultural production




Social Media Influence And The Endsars Protests


Adekunle Ajisebiyawo, PhD

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Igbinedion University Okada.



This paper examines the “#EndSARS” protest movement and the role played by use of social media sites such as Facebook and twitter for coordination and mass. The #EndSars protest is led purely by youths, fuelled by social media, and organized without a formal leadership structure. In the previous years of the political history of Nigeria, the ongoing protests are the sort of environment that would have inspired a military coup. The #5for5 demands of the #EndSars protest resulted in an immediate concession from the government, however the implementation of their demands remains to be seen. The style of the #EndSars protest may inspire copycat youth-led, social media-fuelled, and leaderless protests across West Africa, ushering in a new type of protests in the region. The paper concluded that with the increasing use and spread of the internet in the country the platform of social media will increasingly be used to put pressure on government to address more public issues.

Keywords: Protest, #EndSARS, Social Media, Nigeria, Activism, Youth, Information




L’Anticléricalisme dans l’œuvre de Beti


Ijah Gideon Akase

Department of French, Nasarawa State University, Keffi




Le sermon du Révérend Père Kolmann sur la parabole du Bon Samaritain dans Ville Cruelle (10)  révèle un aboutissement inévitable de la complicité de l’Eglise catholique avec l’administration coloniale. Ce sermon qui visa à prolonger l’action de la police et à mettre ainsi la morale chrétienne au service du système colonial, traduit le procès que Beti dresse de l’entreprise d’évangélisation en Afrique. C’est la tendance du clergé à exercer abusivement son influence dans le domaine temporel qui est l’objet de notre étude dans le but de montrer qu’à travers une technique satirique, Beti dénonce la collusion de l’institution chrétienne avec l’administration coloniale pour l’exploitation et l’oppression des Noirs.




Awareness and Knowledge of Social Media Campaigns of Cervical Cancer Messages among Female Undergraduates: A Review of Literature


Olusegun Ojomo, PhD & Hannah Deebari Ukangwa

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria



Cervical cancer is one of the challenges of public health worldwide and a noticeable cancer among women. If the increasing mortality rate is not curtailed, it poses a burden on the health and wealth of the economy and this could lead to a breakdown of the economy. This disease is very common in the developing countries which include Nigeria because of a high prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) which is the main cause of cervical cancer and lack of cervical cancer screening. In cases where screening programmes are available, lack of awareness and poor knowledge has led to non-utilization of the programme. Therefore the aim of this study is to appraise relevant literature in order to understand the current knowledge and awareness of women about cervical cancer and to identify gaps that needs to be filled and reduce mortality rate of cervical cancer. The media has been a very useful tool in spreading information about cervical cancer and creating awareness about screening but unfortunately screening uptake is still very low and people still lack vital knowledge about the disease. Since health is very important in the issues of life, more efforts will be put in place to reach more people. Consequently, there is still need to look out for more channels through which awareness and knowledge about cervical could be created and shared and social media is a better option.

Keywords: Social Media, Cervical Cancer, Awareness, Knowledge, Undergraduates




The Conception of Personhood and Community in Africa


Amodu, Salisu Ameh; & Fatima Mohammed

Department of Philosophy, Prince Abubakar Audu University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria



It is not the case that ‘personhood’ and community could always be used or express in the same context as dual aspect of existence acting in one entity. In African philosophy, those concepts are deemed as ideas that are related but considerably different in some aspects. While the concept of a personhood in Africa is discussed from a broad range, but the idea of community is only sometimes in connection with the notion settlement, this is because the conception of personhood in Africa is always attached to existence. Evidence of this is found in the life, living and society of the African communal setting. However, the relationships between these concepts are so complex. This article does not discuss the usual subject of the clash of rights between the individual and the community. However, it offers to show the conceptual relationship that exists between personhood and community in Africa. An analytic method will be applied to this work in other to help create a wide range analysis of the relationship that thus exist between personhood and community in African worldview, which will also take an over view of some aspects of the arguments for communitarianism and socialism that have over clouded the trend’s in African worldview.

Keywords: personhood, community, communitarianism, socialism and communal setting.




Democratic Governance, Inter- Ethnic Co-Existence and Farmers – Herders Conflict in Ibarapa Local Government Oyo State in South West Nigeria


1Ajayi Johnson K, 2Ahmed Jeleel Abioye 3Popoola Emmanuel K., 4Olakunle M.K & 5Egbedina Peter O.

1-4Department of Public Administration. The Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 5Department of Local Government Studies. The Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria.



One major problem confronting world peace today is the manifestation of conflicts in different dimensions across the globe, from Europe to America, Asia to Africa. Conflicts are common phenomena and have been seen in different ways by different scholars.  Violent conflicts between herdsmen and farmers have, for a long time, been a common feature of economic livelihood in West Africa with consequences on human, socio-economic animal lives, properties, peaceful coexistence, and orderliness. This paper therefore examines the nature of conflict between farmers and herders in south west Nigeria, identify the main triggers of conflicts between farmers and herders in south west Nigeria. It also examines how farmers and herders conflicts affects inter-ethnic peaceful co-existence in south west Nigeria. This research work adopted the ethnography method of qualitative research with the use of focus group and interview methods respectively in Oyo. The paper find out that the conflicts also have a strong potential to spread to other neighbouring countries in West Africa, but the Federal Government in Nigeria and the  international community has remained silent on the possibility of the conflict spreading. The paper concludes that the sporadic and on-going violent conflict between herdsmen and farmers in rural communities in Nigeria is a serious threat to human security and development in the country. The paper recommended that the international community and civil society organizations should pay attention to on-going herdsmen and farmers conflict, which has the potential to spread throughout West Africa. The current approach by the Nigerian government has not adequately addressed the situation. There is a possibility that the problem could lead to serious food crises and refugee problems in the region if quick action is not taken to provide adequate security for people in rural communities across Nigeria.  

Keywords: Democratic Governance, Inter- Ethnic, Co-Existence, Farmers Herders, Conflict.




The Role of Public Administrators in Public Policy Making: Practice and Prospects in Nigeria


Tijani Suleman Olatunji; & Damisah Maryanne .O.

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State



This paper ascertains the role of public administrators in public policy making. Descriptive method was adopted in the study. The citizenry, who are the major benefactor of public policy has been sidelined during the policy making process making the entire process faulty and defaulting the modus operandi of the exercise. Unarguably, public policy is a major tool of development at any governmental level and needs to be given adequate attention. Diverse actors involved in public policy making include the governmental actors (legislative, judiciary, executive, bureaucrat) and the nongovernmental actors (political parties, interest group and citizenry). Public administrators ensure the stability of political atmosphere in the country. With their neutrality in the political spheres, they ensure the seamless implementation of government policies without bias or favor, thereby, stabilizing the system. Amongst the problems facing public policy implementation are; deviation from personnel regulation, human resources inadequacy and poor funding. These challenges can be solved by allocating more funds to the public policy sector, ensuring decentralized governance and improved maintenance culture. Public policy being a vital instrument used by public administrations to bring into fulfillment the programs and policies of government in power, decisive and deliberate efforts should be made to ensure the actualization of its goals in entirely. It is recommended that there should be a very strong connecting link between the elites who are the policy makers and the mass – public and that corruption should be reduced in the public service so as to allow free-flow of policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria.

Keywords:  Public policy, bureaucrat, public administrator, citizenry, political actors.




A Classificatory Analysis of Fulbe Proverbs


Usman Bobbo Iliyasu

Federal College of Education, Yola



This research is conducted purposely to investigates Fulbe proverbs and its classificatory analysis, and it mainly limited to the three main dialectal zones of Fulfulde spoking in Nigeria such as Sokoto, central and Adamawa dialect. Fulbe proverbs have not been investigated extensively by the previous researchers particularly for the three dialects. Therefore, this research is one of the major investigations of Fulbe proverbs specifically in term of its classification. The work of Mohammed et al (2010) dwells strictly on proverbial names reflecting the concept of God and a bit of their morphological composition. There are also small collections of FulБe proverbs by Ishak P. K. Mbáya (n.d.) which fails to go beyond mere listing of the proverbs of the language only. However, it has contributed to documenting some of them. Therefore, this study is intended to fill this gap by classifying the Fulbe proverbs.

Keywords: Fulfulde Language, Proverbs, Rhetorical type, Epistemological proverbs, Philosophical proverbs,




Resolving Conflict through National Integration


Mamman Nathan Enos

Kashim Ibrahim College of Eduction, Department of Christian Religious Studies, Maiduguri, Borno State



Integration is the process of incorporating racially, economically, politically etc. into the normal stream. It may involve empowering victims of conflict or subcultural group that were segregated upon. The aim of the program is to resolve conflict through sustainable peace building .Successful peace building will require inclusion. This lead to the discussion of inclusive integration .This process requires that the victims of conflict are directly involved in the implementation of peace –building programs. This paper also discusses some of the strategies to be adopted toward a successful and sustainable peace –building process. It is understood that when victims are directly involved in finding solution to their problems (peace-building process), it clears away perceived fear, instead it built trust and honesty in the individuals or victims of conflict. However inclusive integration should follow an established rules and constitution of the country in collaboration with international stake holders’ civil societies worthy of note is that conflict is a relative term. It is not only limited to physical  conflict ,or terrorism, but also include domestic ,office ,religious ,economic and psychological conflict which often times are by product of exclusion –It might also be caused by the political elites ,traditional authorities government authorities that were expected to be fully part of the peace building process but deviated due to their personal interest . We are in a generation where majority prefers self-righteous in the eyes of the few families or relations. A generation that celebrate selfishness, greed, pride and even the suffering of others in our society, we are prepared to lose one of eyes if it will go well with our personality not minding the majority that are suffering .For our selfish reasons we avoid reconciliation. We should have a generation of willing people that can give in their best, so that peace can reign in the society and that everyone is properly integrated to the normal life stream that can lead to equal distribution of resources through trust and love for one another.

Keywords: Resolution, conflict, Integration, Inclusive, National, Insurgent, Corruption, Sustainable, and Peace




Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Status Disclosure and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among Persons Living With HIV in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria


*Jamiu, Mahmood Suleiman; **Abdulmumin, Ayodele Abdullahi; & *Musa Aremu Mahmud

*School Of Education and General Studies, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria. **CAILS/Kwasu Department, College of Arabic and Islamic Legal, Studies Ilorin, Ilorin. Kwara State, Nigeria.



HIV status disclosure and adherence to ART remain issues of concern to health related professional, most especially counselling psychologists in the field of STI/HIV/AIDS as many of the Persons living with HIV hardly adhere to ART and some of them are experiencing psychological related issues which are impeding their HIV positive status disclosure. This informed the direction of this study to examine psychosocial factors as correlates of HIV status disclosure and adherence to ART among Persons living with HIV in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design of correlational type and structured questionnaires were used to gather information. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted which involved the use of simple random sampling technique to select three (3) APIN/PEPFAR Clinics Ibadan metropolis and purposive sampling technique was used to select (150) Persons living with HIV from each of the selected clinics. The data collected were analysed using frequency count, Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple Regression Statistical Tool, and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that self-concept (b=0.423; t = 4.324; p<0.05), stigmatization (b=-0.389; t = -3.762; p<0.05), depression (b=0.531; t = 4.341; p<0.05) and social support (b=0.618; t = 5.277; p<0.05) made significant independent contribution to HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV. The result also indicated that psychosocial factors (self-concept, depression, stigmatization and social support) had significant joint contribution to HIV status disclosure among Persons living with HIV (F(4,140)= 9.012; p<0.05). It was recommended that counselling psychologists and health related professionals should take cognisance of self-concept, depression, stigmatization and social support in the development of any intervention to improve adherence to ART and help people living with HIV through disclosure.

Keywords:   Psychosocial, Disclosure, Adherence, HIV, Correlates and Antiretroviral Therapy




Influence of Parents on the Choice of Marriage Partners among Yorubas in Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State


Oladokun, K. C.; & Olatunji, K. A.

Yoruba Department, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



This research work was carried out on the influence of parent on the choice of marriage partners among Yorubas in Oyo state. A study of Atiba local government Area of Oyo state. Questionnaire was adopted to sample one hundred and seventy unmarried singles in Atiba local government Area. Moreover the hypotheses was tested and the result was analyzed with T-test statistics tools at the level of 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that the hypotheses were rejected. This implies that parental influence have great impact on the choice of marriage partners among unmarried adults in Atiba local government Area of Oyo state. More so, due to the outcomes of the findings, the following recommendations were made; Marriage counselors should try their possible best in educating the children and parents on how to make a right choice. They should make them know or understand that each ward will be able to make their own choice rather than parents’ choice. Counseling should be offered to the parents and wards that they should not be after the materials wealth in making marriage choice for the children. Also wards  must make love and not money the bases of  their  choice of marriage partner. Parent should serve as a role model for  their  wards so that the children will be able to copy and  live a successful life rather than end divorce in their long marital life. School counselors should try to take note of the children from broken homes in the school and educate them on the importance of parental care to the parents. This can be done by inviting their parents for that on through Parent- Teacher Association forum.




Planning and Budgetary Techniques for Effective Schools Management


Belinda Anyanwu

Department of Mass Communication, College of Administrative Studies and social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



Education is generally accepted as the backbone for any societal development. Virtually every country’s of the world depend largely on the educational structure of a given system. Educational institutions cannot be effectively achieved without adequate funding for its day to day running of programmes/activities. To achieve success depend greatly on effective planning and budgeting for actualization of goals. A good education programme is basically anchored on a well formulated curriculum. The study therefore, is focused on planning and budgeting techniques as an effective tools for school management. The paper examined major types of planning such as, operational planning, tactical and strategic planning. Characteristics of planning, steps involved in planning and the tools for effective school management. Concept of management was explicitly defined through the acronym POSDCORB. Under school management, authorities often engaged in various activities so as to provide better experiences to learners. The study also examined budgeting system from its formation to the execution stating the procedure for functionality such as budget preparation, presentation, approval, implementation and evaluation. The study is anchored on the scientific management theory of 20th century by Frederick Taylor. In conclusion, it is observed that planning plays important role in any management setting. Effective planning and budgeting serves as an instrument used to facilitate educational process which automatically leads to achieving a successful goal.

Keywords: Education, Planning, Budgeting, Management, Curriculum.




Exploiting the Blessings of Multilingualism for National Development in Nigeria


*Odekunbi Sunday Kehinde; **Shittu Morufu Adewale; & **Omowon Aderonke Abiodun

*Department of English, School of Languages, the College of Education, Lanlate. **Department of General Studies in Education, School of Education, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate



It has been observed that several steps that have been taken by the successive governments in Nigeria to ensure that notable and commendable developments take place have not yielded the expected result. One of the major problems that Nigerian government in particular and Nigerians in general do not take cognizance of is the role that multilingualism plays in a nation’s development. This paper is thus out to contend that the benefits in multilingualism can be exploited for the development of Nigeria. This is achieved by considering multilingualism and other related concepts, the weaknesses in the issues raised for the use of English for the performance of major roles in Nigeria at the expense of the indigenous languages and indices for measuring development, before examining some areas of development in Nigeria to ascertain whether or not Nigeria is developing. It is then recommended, among others, that the Nigerian government should do her best to ensure that the language policies in the National Policy on Education and Nigerian Constitution are fully implemented and Nigerians should change their negative attitude towards the use of Nigerian indigenous languages.

Keywords:   Multilingualism, national development, indigenous languages, Education, language of instruction 




Youths as Agent of Peacebuilding for Sustainable Development in Nigeria


*Waziri Musa; **Idris Yakubu Haliru; & **Bashir Adeyemi Dere

*Department Of Public Administration, Kaduna Plytechnic-Kaduna State. **Department Of Local Government Studies, Kaduna Plytechnic-Kaduna State



Youths plays a vital role in peace-building and sustainable development of every country in the world. The development of all nations lies on the shoulder of how productive and creative the youthful populations are; they refer as the engine of growth and development. This paper examines the role of youths in peace-building for sustainable development in Nigeria. Literature indicated that successive governments in Nigeria had introduced several youth development programmes as a mechanism to enhance peace-building and national development capable of reducing crime in the society, yet not much has been achieved, due to poor political-will, a systemic failure such as impunity, persistent corruption and inability to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The study recommends for empowering the youth by exposing them into different vocational skills programmes which may help them to engage into sustainable-income and self-empowerment for national development which will lead to sustained peace-building, and the transformation of the judicial institution with severe punishment on all corrupt individuals who divert public funds meant for developmental and empowerment programmes. This study is conceptual in nature and it employed secondary data like journals, internet resource, government documents, textbooks, and several others to analyze the role of the youth on peace-building for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper may be found beneficial to the policymakers in Nigeria on the necessary measures and the strategic direction needed towards effective implementation of people oriented policy and programmes of government  capable of promoting productivity and creativity among youth for peace-building and sustainable national development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Youth, National Development, Peace Building, Security, Empowerment




ICT and News Gathering, News Reporting and News Dissemination


Kabiru Idris Muhammad

School of General Studies, Department of Mass Communication, Kano State Polytechnic



The 21st century can be described as the age of information technology. Technology runs almost all human endeavours. In recent times, Hate speeches have swerved from the use of traditional word of mouth to the use of social media. One of the major challenges of electioneering in the 21st century is that, due to the faceless nature of the internet, social media spreads propaganda, false information, and hate speeches, these go viral and are used to manipulate the population. This paper examines regulating social media as a way of checking hate speech.

Keywords: ICT, News, Reporting, Revolution, Globalization, Social



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