African Scholar Journal of Built Env. & Geological Research Vol. 24 No. 4


VOL. 24 NO. 4 MARCH, 2022 ISSN: 2196-1789



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2022 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Vulnerabilities among Informal Economic Operators in Kano Metropolis


Abdulquadri K1*, Balogun J.O2, Oladimeji J.S3, Asani M.A4

1 Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. 2&3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso,



This paper identified the factors that render informal economic operators in Kano metropolis vulnerable. The study adopted quantitative research method and data was collected through the use of questionnaire covering a sample size of 384 following Cochran’s formular for indefinite population. The questionnaires were divided across the 6 clustersto achieve the desired proportion based on the population of the local government areas. Findings revealed that factors that render informal economic operators in Kano metropolis vulnerable  are lack of informal welfare, no access to credit facilities, non-membership of association, non-registration of business, lack of space, experience of harassment due to location, security of space and low income. Socio economic characteristics such as migration status, educational qualification and gender do not render operators vulnerable. When analysed within the clusters Kano municipal ranked the highest in vulnerability with 10 out of 14 factors rendering operators, Gwale, Fagge and Dala shows similarities with seven factors of vulnerability while Nassarawa is the least vulnerable area with only 4 factors out of 14. The study therefore recommended provision of more serviced business space for operators, strengthening of informal welfare, simplification of registration procedures as a way of ensuring inclusion and creating conducive environment for business to thrive.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Informal Economy, Operators, Informal Activities, Kano Metropolis




Impact of Quarrying on Land Availability for Housing Investment in Uturu, Abia State 


Sam-Otuonye, Chika Clara, PhD; & Okoronkwo, Ndukuba Sunday Nwafor, PhD

Department of Estate Management, Imo State University Owerri



Land has remained an economic resource of great value all over the world. Quarrying is an open pit mining activities from which mineral rocks are extracted. Quarrying in a way is a destructive enterprise which usually involves ecological degradation. This paper aims at assessing the impact which quarrying activities in Uturu, Abia state has on land available for housing investment. The study adopted the survey research design with the use of questionnaire and 82 questionnaires were used for this study. The key informant sampling technique was used for the study. Data was collected through the study questionnaire, personal observation and interview. A close-ended questionnaire was used in a 4-point Likert Evaluation scale, while open-ended questions were also be used to give the respondents the freedom to give relevant information relevant to the study. Descriptive statistical tools were utilized to analyze data on impact of quarrying on housing investment, while SPSS was utilized for data on mitigation of the impacts identified in this study. The study found out that thick dust and loud noise pollution are the most significant deterrents impacts quarrying has on housing investment in the study area, with both having a mean value of (4.00) respectively. The study therefore recommends among others, the use of advanced blasting techniques such as shock tube technology and right blasting schedule in order to adopt the best timing for blasting.

Keywords: Housing, Investment, Land Availability, Quarrying, Ugwuele-Uturu.




Effect of Sand Mining in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria


F.A. Damachi1, A.T. Ogah2, Alkali Moh’d3

1&2Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 3Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



This study examine the effects of sand mining in Calabar, Cross River State. Both the primary and secondary sources of data were used for this study. As ample of 324 respondents were used in the study, while data used were obtained via survey questionnaires and interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that, people in the study communities became part of the sand mining business for various reasons. In the first place, some farmers joined the sand mining activities because of some vulnerabilities associated with farming such as adverse weather conditions, pests and disease attacks on crops and the seasonality of agricultural activities. These situations coupled with the lack of employable skills amongst the youth, low productivity and poor pricing of agricultural produce compels them to become sand miners. These were the category of people who were pressured by difficult circumstances to become sand miners. Another group of people also became sand miners because of some opportunities they found in the work, including higher and quicker income. The positive effects of sand mining on livelihoods were found to be many. Sand mining activities create jobs for several people in the sand mining fringe communities. A lot of people are employed as diggers of sand, loaders of sand, drivers of tipper trucks, operators of excavators, food vendors and tally clerks. Sand miners also enjoy higher and regular income than most farmers. Sand miners engage in the construction and repairing of roads for their work. Most of these roads are the major means of transportation for the people in the sand mining fringe communities. Sand mining activities were also found to boost trading activities in the study communities. Based on these findings the study recommended that  the drivers that influence people into sand mining can be minimised when members of the sand mining-fringe communities are introduced to other livelihood activities. More so, All efforts must therefore be put in place by the district assemblies, in collaborations with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture; to restore the lands that are destroyed in the wake of sand mining activities. In like manner, livelihood challenges that arise from the activities of sand mining, adequate compensation must be paid by the sand miners to the land owners and land users who have lost their assets.

Keywords: Effect, Sand, Mining, Environment, Minerals




Geospatial Assessment of Effect of Vegetation Changes on Air Temperature in the Savannah Region of Ondo State Nigeria


Ogunlade, S.O.; Akinde A.A.; & Akinde R.I.

Remote Sensing and GIS Division, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria



This research focused on assessing the effect of vegetation change on air temperature in the Savannah region of Ondo State Nigeria between year 1990 and 2020. The dataset used were Landsat 5 of 1990, Landsat 7 of 2000, Landsat 8 of 2014 and 2020; Worldview 3 of 2020; Administrative map of Ondo State; Savannah region boundary shape files; GNSS ground coordinates. The Landsat images were processed to extract and combine three selected bands 5,4,3 into a composite of red, green, and blue (RGB). The image was pan-sharpened with the panchromatic band to aid its interpretation. The bands were then used to calculate vegetation Index and air temperatures (TAIR). A decrease in the extent of vegetation between year 1990, 2000 and 2014 met a corresponding increase in the minimum, mean and maximum values of TAIR respectively, while an increase in vegetation between the years 2014 and 2020 led to an increase in the minimum and mean value of TAIR but a decrease in the maximum value of TAIR. The results showed that increased or decreased vegetation is not the only determinant factor for the increase or decrease in the air temperature (TAIR). The results of future prediction of TAIR show that minimum, mean and maximum air temperature (TAIR) will increase to 22.81°C, 29.52°C, and 32.45°C in the year 2030 compared to year 2020 hence TAIR values will increase; and that vegetation cover will decline to 70.8% coverage thus concluding that the gradual decline in vegetation might also expose the Savannah region of Ondo State to hotter land and air surface in the year 2030. The research recommended a proactive decision and policy such as reafforestation and green revolution of various stake holders in the study area for a viable sustainable development.

Keywords:   Air Temperature, Images, Resolution, Savannah Region, Vegetation




Assessment of Effectiveness of Wupa Waste Water Treatment Plant in Abuja FCT


Iliyasu M. Anzaku; Yakubu A. Ubangari; & Benson Polycarp

1Depratment of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustapha Agwai I, Polytechnic, Lafia, Nasarawa State.



Solid waste generation within twenty four hours were weighed and recorded. Results obtained show that the rate of per ca pita Liquid waste generation there is no significant variation in the amount of waste generated among the study areas, in the result of regression, household size exerts the greatest influence on the rate of waste generated in the study area, followed by level of education and the least is the income level of the household head. This shows that the larger the size of household, the greater the amount of waste generated and visa verse. Recommendations include maintenance and reconstruction should be carried out on sewage lines that are damaged to ensure free flow of liquid waste from point of generation to treatment stage. Adequate fund should be provided for AEPB in charge of waste collection in the study area for proper execution of environmental programmes. Maintenance work should be carried out on WUPA plant regularly to prevent break down of the plant House should ensure that there is no pipe leakage conveying liquid waste. Effective campaign should be put in place for see the necessity of consciousness with regards to waste disposal and management Integration of a Biodigester plant be encouraged at Wupa treatment plant The Eco-friendly effluent discharge from the plant should be properly harnessed.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Waste, Water, Treatment plant




Construction Waste Management Practices in Private and Public Projects in Abuja, Nigeria


* Usman, J. B.; & Ola-Awo, W. A

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



This research aims to investigate waste management practises in private and public construction projects in Abuja, Nigeria, with a view to improving project performance as well as producing environmentally friendly projects and serving as a guideline for good waste management on sites. There is no database of private building projects executed in the study area, which makes the establishment of a population difficult. Therefore, two professionals each were purposively selected from each of the thirty (30) public and thirty private projects visited in the study area. The study utilised closed-ended questionnaires and adopted both descriptive and inferential methods of analysis. The findings classified factors contributing to waste generation on construction sites into four categories: procurement, handing, operation, and cultural factors. Damages due to transportation (MIS = 3.70) are identified as the most important overall factor contributing to waste generation on construction sites. This was followed by rework, variation, and negligence (MIS = 3.62). The Pearson Chi-square statistic (f) = 1.833a p-value = 0.400 (p 0.05) yielded this result. This shows that the variables are interdependent, implying that there is a statistically significant difference in the amount of trash created in private and public building projects. Based on the findings of this research, it is concluded that proper waste management practises in private and public construction projects when adhered to help in improving project performance, as well as producing environmentally friendly projects and serving as a guideline for good waste management on sites. The study recommends, based on challenges, that professional bodies should work with university bodies so as to inculcate sustainable building education into their various academic curricula.

Keywords: Construction, Waste Management, Practices, Private, Public Projects.




Impact of Motivation Techniques on the Performance of Workers Construction in Firms Abuja


*Abdullahi, M., Shittu, A. A And Adamu, I. I.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



This study assessed the impact of motivation techniques on the performance of construction workers in Abuja construction firms with a view to improving the performance of workers. Data was collected from 155 construction companies listed in the Abuja business directory using a structured questionnaire with a response rate of 95.48%. A simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. Analysis of the data was undertaken using the Mean Index Score (MIS). Findings from the identified eleven (11) motivational techniques enhance the performance of construction workers in Abuja, of which monetary incentives (MIS = 4.90) are the most effective. Findings from the study also revealed that low wages of construction workers (MIS = 4.70) are the most significant cause of the low performance of construction workers in construction projects. It was, however, concluded that the impact of motivation techniques on the performance of workers in construction firms in Abuja is significant. The major recommendation from the study was that construction firms should pay more attention to the implementation of training, job satisfaction, work conditions, recognition, job transfer, achievement, and social opportunities in order to improve the performance of construction workers.

Keywords: Construction Workers, Impact, Motivation Techniques, Performance.




The Effect of Lime Variation on Index and Compaction Characteristic of a Clay Soil Using Three Different Compactive Efforts


*Adamu Umar Adamu; Sabo Bala; & Adamu Muhammad Isa

**Department of Physical Planning, Federal University of kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. **Department of Civil Engineering, Modibbo Adama University Yola.



This paper presents the influence of lime variation on index and compaction characteristic of a clay soil using three different compaction energy with a view to ameliorating the problems pose by this soil to civil engineering structures such as road, building, foundation and embankments. The clay soil was classified as A-7-5 (29) and CH according to the American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO) and the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). XRD result revealed that three strongest peaks numbered 1,2 and 7 yielded two theta(2ϴ) values of 18.24970,24.02030 and 47.53500 respectively, which showed the prevalence of kaolinite and chlorite clay minerals with mixtures of chrysotile and other minerals. The clay soil was stabilized with 0,2,4,6 and 8% hydrated lime by weight of the dry soil. laboratory tests such as Atterberg limit, free swell, linear shrinkage, specific gravity, sieve analysis, compaction test using three different compactive effort of British standard light (BSL), British standard Heavy (BSH) and West African Standard (WAS) were carried out. The result revealed that there is a decreasing trend in the free swell and linear shrinkage with increase in the concentration of lime. This could be attributed to the mineralogy and mechanical bonding between the clay lattice. The result also showed that the addition of small amount of lime to clay soil have a significant effect to the clay soil by altering the physical and mechanical properties such as swelling, shrinkage potential and compaction characteristic of the soil. the beneficial effect of lime addition to the soil is that it decreases the free swell potential, shrinkage and maximum dry density and increase the optimum moisture content of the soil with increase in lime concentration. A One- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test performed on the generated data also confirmed that addition of prescribed amount of lime significantly altered the engineering properties of the clay soil.

Keywords: Clay soil, Lime, index properties, compaction, free swell, linear shrinkage and compactive effort




Critical Success Factors of the Intention-To-Use Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Nigerian Construction Industry


Isa, S.; & Anifowose, M. O.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna



The use of technology in the Nigerian construction industry has continued to draw the interest of researchers particularly in the area of BIM. This study aims to assess the critical success factors of the intention to use BIM. The study adopted a quantitative research approach which include the use of a questionnaire. The population of the study include construction professionals registered with Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) which is 4,195. The Kothari sample size formula was applied to calculate the sample size of the study (352 professionals). The questionnaire was then served to the professionals in the population randomly and a total of 156 questionnaires representing a 44% response rate were retrieved. The data collected was analyzed using a mean item score. The study revealed the top five critical success factors to include; Training and learning (MS = 4.12; SD = 0.96; p < 0.05), Functionality (MS = 4.11; SD = 1.08; p < 0.05), 3D visualization, data sharing and bim platform access (MS = 4.11; SD = 0.80; p < 0.05), Ease of use and adoption (MS = 4.11; SD = 0.77; p < 0.05), and Standardization (product and process) (MS = 4.06; SD = 0.80; p < 0.05). This study would serve as a theoretical foundation for future studies and as well assist construction industry stakeholders to develop appropriate policies to improve BIM adoption in Nigeria.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Adoption, Built Environment Professionals, Critical Success Factors




Cost-Benefit Analysis of Commercial Complexes in Minna, Nigeria


Yahaya Maji Isah; & Namnso Bassey Udoekanem

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



Investors rely on Cost-Benefits Analysis (CBA) to guide their investment decisions. The need to determine environmental and social costs and benefits of a proposed commercial property development is crucial to help decide on the best option to adopt. Despite this recognized benefit of CBA, there has been little focus on CBA of commercial property investments in Minna metropolis. This study involves the preparation of CBA of commercial complexes in Minna, Nigeria with specific focus on those recently developed in the city. Data were collected through structured questionnaires, administered to commercial property developers, occupiers, and real estate professionals. The study revealed that location, economy, and transportation/infrastructure are the major factors that influence the demand for commercial complexes. . It also found that return on investment is the major reason private estate developers participate in commercial complex development while the most significant constraint in developing commercial complexes in Minna is high construction cost.

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Commercial Complexes, Property Investment, Minna




Assessment of the Utilisation of Modular Integrated Construction on the Cost Effectiveness of Building Projects in Abuja


Idris, A.; & Adamu, A.D.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



This study assessed the utilisation of modular integrated construction as a building construction method in Nigeria with a view to ensuring cost effectiveness in building construction projects. Data was collected from 50 construction sites in Abuja using a structured questionnaire with a response rate of 98.03%. A purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study. The analysis of the data was carried out with the use of percentage, mean item score, and factor analysis. The study identified nine (9) drivers for the use of modular construction, of which the availability and accessibility of a skilled and experienced factory labour force (MIS = 4.38) is the most important. The study identified eight (8) barriers to the use of modular construction, of which two are financial barriers. (MIS = 4.54) is very important. The most important critical success factors for implementing modular integrated construction as a building construction method are an experienced workforce and technical capability (MIS = 4.52). The most significant effect of modular integrated construction practises on cost effectiveness is that they reduce the costs of design and development and/or maintenance of the project (MIS = 4.70). It can therefore be concluded that by knowing the current opportunities and challenges involved in the implementation of modular methods in the urban environment, practitioners would promote, plan, and implement modular methods better in the urban environment and achieve higher levels of modularization, which will then contribute to the productivity growth in the construction industry. Hence, appropriate measures were recommended to enhance the adoption of the modular construction method by professionals to ensure cost effectiveness in building construction projects.




Analysis of the Effects of Organization Culture on the Performance of Construction Firms in Abuja


*Ibrahim, A. O. And Tsado, A.J

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



This study assessed the effect of organisational culture on the performance of construction firms in Abuja with a view to improving the performance of construction firms. Based on the participation selection criteria, a total of 80 members of the selected construction company’s management team took part in the interviews. Face-to-face interviews with research participants were done using semi-structured interview questions. Each participant’s interview lasted 40–60 minutes. Follow-up and member-checking interviews provided further information. The data was transcribed, processed, and triangulated after the data gathering procedure. The themes discovered in the research were divided into three categories. The major topics were (a) dominating organisational culture types and (b) core corporate values. (c) employee-centred management. The most common types of organisational culture were clan culture, adhocracy culture, hierarchical culture, and market culture. Customer satisfaction, honest communication, performance improvement, social responsibility, business identity, and excellent leadership were among the organisational culture elements impacting performance in the core corporate values theme. People who work for the company care about things like (a) a competitive wage and benefits package, (b) commitment from the managing director, (c) empowerment and training, (d) safe and comfortable work conditions, and (e) a sense of ownership. It was, however, concluded that organisational culture serves as a guide and router for a company. As a result, it is critical for employers and workers in the construction industry to understand this. The major recommendation from the study was that construction managers in related sectors may want to pay attention to the findings of this research since a lack of understanding of effective organisational culture has an impact on performance.

Keywords: Effects, Organization Culture, Performance, Construction Firms.




Urban Planning Implications of Land Cover Dynamics in Zaria Urban Area-Nigeria


Muhammad Uthmana;   Nasir Baba Saleha; & Abdulaziz Ibrahim b

aDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. bNational Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.



Rapid urbanization significantly impacts land cover change and is a barrier to sustainable urban development. Emphasis has primarily been on cities in the global north, with little attention paid to cities in the global south, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are numerous studies on land cover change in Nigeria, its implications are rarely discussed. Inadequate data on changes in urban land cover and their consequences has hampered effective land use planning. As a result, there is a pressing need to gather, evaluate, and disseminate data on urban land cover and determine its potential implications. Landsat satellite images were collected and analyzed using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems capabilities to detect and comprehend the spatiotemporal pattern of land cover change from 1984 to 2020. We used the supervised classification algorithm to create land cover maps for 1984, 2002, and 2020, using four land cover classes, and calculated the net urban land cover change for each epoch. This data was used to establish a baseline for assessing the implications of changing urban land cover and aid in urban land use planning. The findings revealed an increase in built-up cover (12.04 km2 -73.74 km2) with a decreasing vegetation (100.01 km2 -74.61 km2) and bare land (248.21 km2-211.77 km2). The study result provided insight into the potential implications of changing urban land cover, this include rising temperatures, health concerns, urban heat islands, unconducive urban area, increased erosion, flood events, and land degradation, as well as food security and microeconomic stability concerns.

Keywords: Land Cover Change, Urbanization, Sustainability, Implications, Zaria




Causes and Effects of Delay on Public Construction Projects Delivery in Nigeria


Mamman, E. Juliet; & Umesi, E. Ruth

Department of Quantity Surveying, The Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger state



Most of the construction projects in Nigeria have had problems with delay in completion time and cost overruns and this has cause a lot of concern. The study is aimed at examining the factors causing delay and their effects on public project in Nigeria. 240 well-structured questionnaire was distributed to knowledgeable professionals in the ministries/agencies sampled.  174 questionnaire representing 72.5% were returned and analysed using Relative Importance Index (RII). Cost data was obtained in respect of the quantitative difference between initial estimated time and cost and final completion time and cost of 196 projects. Regression analysis was used to analyse the inferential statistics. Findings from factors contributing to the causes of delay revealed that delay in payment, lack of fund by client, change in government, poor site management and supervision. Result on effects of delay on project delivery were identified to be time overrun, total abandonment and cost overrun. Regression analysis disclosed that no significant relationship existed between the initial estimated time and the percentage time difference with P-value of 0.087. Result revealed that construction cost were statistically significant with P-value of 0.00. It was recommended that client should make progress payment without delay in order for contractors to complete the project at the stipulated period. The study will help stakeholder during project planning and implementation to forecast on the factors that can hinder the progress of work.

Keywords: Construction, Delay, Effects, Overrun, Projects, Public Construction,




Sustainability of Off-Site Practice in Nigeria Road Construction Industry


Toriola-Coker O L1*, Omokungbe O1, Ayodele-Oja S2, Yekini A1, Alakija T3,

1School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 2School of Environmental, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 3School of Science, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.



The Nigeria construction industry has long been criticized for its poor performance, poor image in road construction ethics. This paper aimed to explore the sustainability of off-site construction Practice (OSCP) practices facing Nigeria built environment which are linked to a diverse range of factors including cost of installation, traditional construction method, accessibility to favorable exchange rate and level of accessibility to loans among others. The research framework indicates Nigeria construction industry’s attitude towards adopting sustainable road construction processes. An online quantitative approach was primarily used for data collection and analysis. The findings from 294 construction professionals (representing a 73.5% response rate) suggested that although the industry considered OSCP to be the future of the Nigeria construction industry. Presently, cast-in-situ method of construction has been considered as most effective approach in Nigeria road construction industry. Results has shown that level of OSCP in Nigeria road is very low. This has brought gap in knowledge in which OSCP should be used in producing road infrastructure appurtenances which will improve sustainable construction practices in Nigeria. There is a paucity of research on OSCP in Nigeria despite significant efforts in which no previous research can be established. The results provide a valuable insight into the commitment of OSCP methods in order to assist the investors, professionals, and policymakers by growing the level of sustainability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Nigeria, Off-Site Construction Practice (OSCP), Sustainability, Construction, Professionals




Building Use Change and its Implication on Urban Management of Kaduna Metropolis


Hauwa Umar Abere1; Dr. Joseph Olabode Balogun2; & Fatima Yusuf3

1&3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



As urbanisation increases, building alterations and urban configuration changes in designs and conversion for other purposes as well increases. These changes have brought about poor management of the urban areas with increasing environmental and socio-economic challenges. This paper assessed the implication of building use changes on urban management of Kaduna metropolis particularly the northern part of the town The study used quantitative and qualitative research approach to obtain the data collection process. The population frame for the study (13,757) was obtained from the digitised updated Google image of building structures. A sample of 244 buildings was assessed in eight (8) clusters which displayed the changes within the three districts of Kaduna North. Data collection was obtained through focused group discussions, physical observations, interviews and questionnaire administration. Stratified and purposive sampling method was used in the data gathering process. The data analysis was presented in tables, figures, pictures and charts. Findings revealed that over 80% of majority of the buildings in the study had changes to their building which was motivated by the quest for more income and as a result of pressure from business owners. The study suggests that land readjustment by the state government to prepare and implement development plans for the relocation of some persons to other areas of the city. This will enhance meeting the high demand for shops in the areas as a necessity for the sustainability of urban areas.

Keywords: Assessment, Implication, Urban Change, Urbanization, Urban Management




Evaluating the Implementation of Green Construction (GC) within Kaduna Metropolis in Nigeria


Isa Sani Mohammed1, Anas Muhammad2, Saminu Ahmed3 and Sani Yusuf4

1,3&4Department of Civil Engineering, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



The increasing rate urbanization is coupled with some problems such as; loss of arable land, material and water crisis, and serious environmental problems like air pollution, noise pollution and waste generated from buildings. Perhaps, this could be as a result of some activities of the construction industry. Despite all these glaring challenges and drastic measures, Green Construction developments and sustainable practices are embraced very slowly and practiced at slow pace in developed and developing cities. This development is worrisome and may be as a result of some factors and barriers affecting the sustainable practices within the built environment. GC reduces or eliminates negative impacts of construction activities on the environment, and can create positive impacts on our climate and natural environment. This study evaluates the implementation of GC in Kaduna metropolis based on the following objectives: the identification of concepts and principles of GC; determination of the barriers hindering the implementation of GC in Kaduna metropolis; and determination of the drivers enhancing the implementation of GC. A total of 1,067 questionnaires were administered to consultants, contractors, clients/end-users and staff of development agencies out of which 486 questionnaires were returned representing 45.55% valid response rate. Subsequently, they were analysed using descriptive statistics. It was established that the barriers of GC can be overcome by changing the thinking of stakeholders of the CI from cost to value, and from short-term to long-term. A way forward to an effective implementation of GC requires a multifaced collaboration among the key stakeholders of the CI by focusing on drivers that will drive its utilisation.

Keywords: Green Construction (GC), Drivers of GC, Barriers of GC, Implementation of GC, Construction Industry.




A Critical Review of the Circumstances and Effects of Abandonment of Construction Project in Nigeria


Jambil Suyudi Zubairu

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Technology Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria



The predominant and frequent abandonment of construction project is alarming that it makes negative impacts to project construction sector, the owners, the built environment and the economy in general. The motivation behind this paper is to review some related literature and find out the different circumstances and the effects of abandoning construction projects in Nigeria and its consequences in the Nigerian economy with a view to propose a framework for addressing the problem. This paper used systematic review of related literatures to ascertain the circumstances/causes and effects of construction project abandonment. Forty five relevant articles were identified and fifteen were randomly selected, the sampled articles were reviewed and the following were identified as the key causes of construction project abandonment in Nigeria: inadequate project planning, insufficient fund by the client and the contractor, inflation, bankruptcy of contractors, variation of project scope, and political factor among other things. The effects include: disappointment of the populace/clients, low living standard, wastage of assets, decreased in employment opportunities, etc. Therefore, government, clients, contractors and consultants/professional were identified to have a significant contribution towards construction projects abandonment in Nigeria. Consequently, it was recommended that government, client and contractors/consultant should adhere strictly to their roles and responsibilities; so that the country (Nigeria) could have construction projects abandonment free cities.

Keywords: Abandonment, built environment, circumstances, emerging economy.




Population Growth and Land Use/Land Cover Changes in Kontagora Local Government Area, Niger State


1Iwalaiye Elizabeth Mayokun; 2Mohammed Baba Jibril; 3Shu’aibu Dabo; 4Suberu Habibat; & 5ayawa Murjanatu

12345Department of Geography, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria



Land use/Land cover patterns on Earth reflect the interaction of human activities and the natural environment. Human population growth together with competitive land use causes land scarcity, conversion of wild lands to agriculture and other uses. Geographic Information System (GIS) imageries were captured at different time interval (2006, 2013 and 2019) and projection of the Kontagora Local Government Area (L.G.A) population was made from 2006 to 2019. However the study monitored the land use changes with focus on built-up (settlements) growth in Kontagora L.G.A to detect and estimate the rate of changes over the periods. The study revealed that built-up increased from 0.65% in 2006 to 0.96% in 2013 and 1.38% in 2019. Water also increased from 0.095% in 2006 to 0.32% in 2013 and 0.55% in 2019. Vegetation of 62.26% in 2006 declined to 48.15% in 2013 and 40.93% in 2019. Bare land increased from 37% in 2006 to 50.56% in 2013 and 57.15% in 2019. With a population growth of 3.5%, the population figure of 2006 which accounts for 151,968 is projected to 193,346 in 2013 and 237,671 in 2019 respectively. The settlement (built-up) increase has encroached into the vegetation and agricultural land use which is decreasing due to growth in population, constructions and other human needs. Bare land is increasing meaning that there is increase in waste land and cultivable land. In addition, land use dynamics increased exponentially with population density change causes increase in bare land. The urbanization and unplanned growth of Kontagora requires more informed physical planning strategies and recommendation for sustainability.

Keywords: Population growth, Land use cover change, GIS and Remote Sensing, Urbanization




The Effects of Human Activities in the Mangrove Ecosystem in Nigeria (Review)


1James Jeffery Williams; 1Kwada Tumba Freeman; & 2Lawal Kabir Tunau  

1Department of Geography, Adamawa State College of Education Hong. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa – Nigeria.



This paper looks at the mangrove ecosystem in Nigeria, using secondary sources to discover some human activities that affect the natural environment and the resultant effects of these activities. Some human activities affecting the study area were briefly studied which includes pollution of coastal waters, gas flaring, land reclamation, overfishing etcetera. The study concludes majority of the local population are fishers or are engaged in trade that services fishers. Collapse of these fisheries and other resources will inevitably lead to loss of livelihood by an already impoverished segment of the population. loss of livelihood implies loss of employment, loss of income, loss of pleasure, satisfaction and food.  In a nutshell, loss of this ecosystem will lead to more poverty in the land.  On the other hand, re-forestation and sustainable management of mangroves will lead to improved ecosystem health as well as all the services it provides for mankind and biological diversity. Finally the study recommends among others that sustainable agriculture should be introduced, which is based on the idea that if communities are given more knowledge and tools to grow better crops on their land that command higher prices and also points out that alternative livelihoods are a further refinement of sustainable agriculture, which strives to give people other ways to make money that will limit their time and inclination to over-extract from the wild

Keywords: Mangrove, Ecosystem, Human activities, Coastal Waters, Gas Flaring, Land Reclamation




A Review Paper on Alkali Silica Reactions in Concrete


*Abubakar Magaji, *Ibrahim A. Sukamari; **Sadiq Aliyu Umar3

*Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria. **Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



ASR (Alkali–Silica Reactions) occurs over a long period of time. Reactions take place in concrete when the hydration product known to be highly alkaline cement paste and reactive non-crystalline silica which is found in many common aggregates, in the presence of moisture reacts. This results in the deterioration of concrete structures and can prove to be effective over time. The problem with this process is that it may not be noticeable during early stages with naked eyes but in the event of occurrence, it leads to considerable to severe damage of concrete structures. In areas with significant moisture during construction, Alkali Silica reactions are likely to be a problem in the long run.

Keywords: alkali, silica, reaction, moisture 




Investigation of the Causes of Collapse of a Section of the Federal Polytechnic Idah, Perimeter Fence Wall


1Esan, Olusegun Akintomide; 1Abdul Omale Boniface; 1Odawn, O. Godwin; 2Abubakar Idris Sadiq;

1Building Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah. 2Federal College of Education, Gusau Zamfara State



Fence is a barrier, railing, or other upright structure, typically constructed of wood or wire, enclosing an area of ground to protect the occupants’ lives and properties, prevent unwanted guest from entering property easily, establishing boundaries to avoids encroachment into land, concealing a property (privacy) as some property owners thinks of their outdoor space is an extension of their indoor space, and beautification (aesthetic) as it makes the property more beautiful and pleasing to the eyes. Collapse is a terrible action of a building component suddenly fallen. When a fence collapse, it cease to perform it functions, and there will be great need for action to treat the failure. This study investigated nature of collapse, cause(s) of the collapse and recommended ways of rectifying and forestalling future occurrence. Test were carried out to determine Moisture Content in Soil by Oven Drying Method, the Soil Texture, and Bearing Capacity of Soil Using a Shear Box Machine.  The nature of collapse – the foundation concrete base and the block work pulls from the soil; The cause(s) of the collapse – shallow foundation of 1.0m and excessive moisture; The required depth of foundation based on test should be 3.385m, while the actual depth used was 1m.  It’s recommended that the depth of the foundation be increased from 1m to 3.4m and a channel be created to allow rainwater run-off to pass through in order to avoid flood and excessive moisture in the surrounding soil.




Seasonal Variation in the Quality of Drinking Water in the Eastern Part of Kogi State, Nigeria


Dr. Joy Anwuli Jegede

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State.



The challenges of water supply and quality have constituted a major issue including conflicts in some parts of the world because the earth’s fresh water is diminishing due to man’s activities and climate change. This paper is designed to investigate the effects of the variations in the seasons of the year on the quality of drinking water in the eastern part of Kogi State. Idah, Anyigba and Ankpa were selected for this study based on spatial coverage. The primary data for this study were obtained from field survey (Ecological data) and Laboratory experiments. Water samples were collected from river, rain, boreholes and packaged water from each of the three locations in the study area within two seasons – rainy and dry seasons. The coefficient of variation and t-test were employed to determine the variations in the water parameters for each of the seasons. The result revealed that all the water quality parameters tested had their F-Values greater than the Critical Values which imply that the seasons of the year have significant effect on the quality of drinking water in the study area. The study further suggests that to ensure a good quality of drinking water at all times and seasons, the water should be treated by distillation, boiling and filtering.

Keywords: Seasonal; Variation; Water Quality; Drinking Water




An Evaluation of the Risks of Shops and Warehouses in Abak Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria


Ekpo, Mbosowo Ebong; & Jeremiah, Uduak Okon

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Akwa Ibom State.



The aim of this research was to investigate the returns of investment in shops and warehouses in Abak with view of developing models to forecast rental and capital of shops and warehouses investment in the study area. In order to achieve the stated aim, the following objectives were to investigate the average rental and average capital values of shops in the study area from 2012 to 2021; to ascertain the average rental and average capital value of warehouses in the study area from 2012 to 2021 and to analyse the returns of investments in shops and warehouses in the study area. This research work adopted the cross-sectional survey type of design. Primary data used for this study was obtained through questionnaire survey. The data collected was used to calculate the returns. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data while the Holding Period Returns technique was employed to determine the returns of the shops and warehouses. The study revealed that investments in shops and warehouses in the study area provided a continuous increase in rental and capital values while the corresponding returns ranged between 11.01% and 15.01% in warehouse investments as well as 5013% and 31.50% in shops investment. Based on the research findings, although shops seemed to have had the highest returns, it was recommended and concluded that further research be carried out to ascertain the risk of both investments so as to draw proper conclusion on which of the two investments performed better. The investment information provided in this study has significant implications for both local and foreign investors desiring to invest in the Nigerian property market, with particular reference to commercial property market in Abak.

Keywords: Returns, risk, shops, warehouses, Abak.




Crime Mapping and Hotspots Assessment in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria


Ategbe, D. 1*; Akpu, B. 2; Adefila, J. O. 3; & Danung, I. J. 4

1Department of Cartography & GIS, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2,3Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 4Department of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



The existence of crime is as primitive as the formation of mankind itself and man has always looked for ways to fight and subdue it.  This study applied geospatial techniques in analyzing crime in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria. The data on crime were obtained from the Taraba State Police Command. ArcGIS version 10.8 and SPSS software was used to analyzed the data using Krigging Geostatistical tool to show the pattern and hotspots of crime in the study area. The findings of the study revealed the existence of fourteen (14) crime types from the police crime records. The result reveals that Burglary had the highest incidence rate of 24.72%, while Treason and Rioting were the least with 0.57% and 0.36% respectively. The Krigging spatial pattern result revealed the intensity of crime is on the increase along the major transport route moving towards the city centre in some specific areas such as Kona, Barade, Road block, Mile 6, Sembe and Wuro Sembe. The study, therefore recommends that community policing should be established and more security personnel (especially policemen) should be deployed to such areas with high crime incidence.

Keywords: Crime, Hotspots, Incidence, Krigging, Spatial.



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