African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Vol. 22 No. 1


VOL. 22 NO. 1 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Cryptosporidium Infection In Free Roaming Native Chickens From Kebbi State, Nigeria.


Danladi Y. K  and Garba M. Y.

Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero



Data elucidating the incidence of a significant diarrhea causing pathogen, Cryptosporidium in native domestic chickens, are relatively scarce in Northern Nigeria. This study was carried out to determine the incidence and factors associated with the infection in free roaming domestic chickens in the area. A total of 300 feacal samples from live and slaughtered birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or by cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered chicken, while noting their sex, age and diarrhea condition. Samples were analysed by concentration of stools and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining technique.  Overall, Cryptosporidium oocysts were present in 75 of 300 fowls examined (25.0%). Logistic regression analysis reveals that diarrheic fowls were four times prone to infection than the non-diarrheic (Odds Ratio [OR]= 4.088; 95% CI= 2.327-7.183; P < 0.0001).   Young chickens shaded more oocycts than the adults, with no significant variation (Young: 27.3% vs Adult: 24.1%, P = 0.558). Also, infection showed no sex related differences distribution (Males: 23.1% vs Females:27.1%, P = 0.806). Cryptosporidium oocysts were common in domestic chickens in Kebbi State. Diarrheal condition of chickens was significantly associated with presence of oocycsts. The wide spread presence of oocysts is of public health significance, since some infections with the human-pathogenic species  are known to be from avian sources. Therefore, educating owners on the need for good hygiene and  management standards will minimize environmental contamination.

Keywords: Cryptosporodium, oocysts, incidence, chickens, kebbi




Quality Assessment of the ‘Kunun-Zaki’ Soft Drink Based on Bacteria and Fungi Content


A Elihu1, Buba, ZM1, N.P. Naphthali1,

Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria



The purpose of the study was to made quality assessment of the ‘Kunun-zaki’, popular Nigerian soft drink based on bacteria and fungi content. Isolation of coliform of bacteria and fungi in Kunun-zaki was conducted in the month of May, 2019.Ten Kunun-zaki samples were obtained as freshly formulated beverages from 5 different sells point in Adamawa State University, Mubi metropolis, Adamawa State Nigeria and screened for microbial and fungi contamination. The media used for inoculation was Peptone water, Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB), Nutrient agar, Lauryl sulphate tryptonse broth (LST), Brilliant-green bile lactose broth (BGBLB).Microorganisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphyloccus aureus,  Streptococuus  pyogenes, Penicillium digitatum, Monilia sitophila, Rhizopus  nigricans, Aspergillus fumigatus. The pH samples ranged between 2.34-4.99 and the estimated number of total coliform bacterial count ranged between 2.0×103-2.9×104 cells/ml. The presences of high microbial loads were indication of poor hygiene and /or poor quality cereals and water used in the preparations. The types and density of microorganisms isolated from the samples examined need urgent measured. Producers should be given awareness to be taken in the processing and handling of the product before being sold to the unsuspecting general public in the school management. Kunu drink should be consumed within 24 hours of preparation or preserved using chemical preservatives rather than refrigeration. The present study concluded that the Kunun-Zaki sold in Adamawa State University was of low quality. Hence it was recommended that quality assurance programme should be started to ensure that good quality of Kunun-Zaki and Kunun-Zaki products are produced and consumed in the Campus.

Keywords: beverage, isolation, microbial contamination, coliform bacteria, quality assessment




Ecotourism Potentials on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria


Iliyasu M. Anzaku1,, Chunwante B.T2,  Francis Damachi3,  E.S Buba4,

1Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 2,3Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State    University  Keffi. 4National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism (NIHOTOUR) Bauchi Campus, Bauchi State



Endowment with natural attractive features is one of the important indicators of a successful development of ecotourism, as simulation of ecotourism potentials can significantly affect patronage by making experience unnatural. This survey was conducted using oral interviews, group discussions, a reconnaissance survey and information obtained from administrative records of tourism institutions. The results obtained were analysed using descriptive presention in the form of a table and some photographs. The study revealed that Jos Plateau region is endowed with great, outstanding, spectacular and unique ecotourism potentials. These ecotourism potentials, if properly and fully harnessed, could make the region a buoyant tourism industry. However lack of inventory and socio-economic problems have hampered ecotourism development in the region. The ecotourism potentials of Jos Plateau region was therefore investigated to assess, locate and determine potential ecotourism features of the region. The study also reveals that the major problems affecting ecotourism development on the Jos Plateau include improper funding, social disturbance and inadequate infrastructural facilities. It is therefore important that the potentials of the region as tourist destination be explored and widely publicized so as to attract tourists, while drastic steps should be taken to curtail the obstacles that may limit their development.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Potentials, Endowment, Plateau, Leisure




Traditional Occupational Practices And Survival Of Maize Farming In Rural Area In Ogun State


*Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo; **Akinyele, Esther Feyisayo; & ***Okeleye, Samuel Oluwatimilehin

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria. ***Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria



This study assessed traditional occupational practices and survival of maize farming in rural area in Ogun state. The specific objectives of this study were to: determining the influence of leadership structure in rural areas on climate change on the survival of maize farming in the study area, determine the influence of land management on pesticides usage on the survival of maize farming in the rural areas of Ogun State, determine the effect of indigenous knowledge on pest and disease  on the survival of maize farming in the rural areas of Ogun State and determine the influence of Land management on fertilizer usage on the survival of maize farming in the rural areas of Ogun State. This study adopts survey research method; the population of the study was rural farmers within Abeokuta south local government area, who are involved in maize farming, the total population for this study is ninety six (96), the sampling technique that was used for this study is the simple random sampling technique, the instrument that was used for this study is a structured self-designed questionnaire, descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected for this study, hypothesis was tested using chi- square method; The result of the study shows that leadership structure significantly influenced climate change on the survival of maize farming in rural areas, land management has significant influence on climate change on the survival of maize farming in rural areas, indigenous knowledge can help in pest and disease control on the survival of maize farming in rural areas and land management has significant influence on fertilizer usage on the survival of maize farming in rural areas. In conclusion, the study revealed that traditional occupational practices have an impact on on survival of maize farming. The study therefore recommended that, f or easy access to information and effective utilization, there is need for establishment of information centers by Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) in all rural communities in Nigeria. Such information centers could provide the rural maize farmers information on Fertilizer usage, Pest and disease, Pesticides usage, Climate change, Leadership structure and Land management and its impact on productivity and survival of maize farming and the government, private investors or Non-Governmental Organizations should endeavor to provide rural areas farmers with inputs support like fertilizers, land, credit facility and improved education e.t.c

Keywords: Occupational practice, Maize farming, Traditional, Rural area, Rural farmers




Effect of Oil Spills on Artisanal Fishery in the Niger- Delta, Nigeria


Aghughu A. Adolphus1, D.U sangari2, A.T Ogah3, M. Alkali4  

1,2&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 4Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



This Research assess Effects of oil Spills on Artisanal Fisheries in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria the Study used both primary and secondary Sources of data, the findings of the research revealed that there is the lack of effective integrated management of coastal areas, embedding Artisanal Fishery sub-sector into policy, legal and institutional frameworks, lack of assistance from Government and awareness of any government activities on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):However, there were community Artisanal fisheries and Fishermen’s organisations practising an exclusive rights-based regime, regulating activities of members to ensure harmonious fishing conduct, imposing fines and sanctions for non-compliance in the course of effective monitoring and enforcement. Life on land impacts negatively on life below water via Pollution, waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-target species, both fish and non-fish species. International agreements, treaties and commitments on fishing as well as national/state artisanal fishing legislative requirements are not known to the artisanal fishers. Measures are not in place to reduce and mitigate coastal / marine pollution and degradation, and protect the environment and give traditional and customary resource users the right to a certain level of environmental quality as part of their livelihood. The level of enforcement of compliance with waste related policies, laws and regulations to address and regulate coastal and marine disposal/pollution is poor. No adequate infrastructure and resources for effective coastal and marine waste management Coastal and marine waste management do not conform to international accords/treaties and commitments to address coastal/ marine pollution. No monitoring systems in place for the coastal environment to identify environmental degradation from all sources as early as possible for prevention, rather than clean-up.

Keywords: Effects, oil, spill, Artisanal, Fisheries, Resources




Analysis of Mass Media Utilization among Yam Farmers in Benue and Niger States, Nigeria


1Opara, S., 1Olaleye R. S., 1Mohammed, M., 1Salihu, I. T., and 1Pelemo J. J.

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



This study analysed mass media utilization among yam farmers in Benue and Niger States, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 399 yam farmers for the study. Data were collected from primary source using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages and mean were used for data analysis. Results revealed that 86.2% of the respondents were males with mean age of 42 years. Majority of the respondents (85.2%) utilized mass media. Also, 78.9% of the respondents’ utilized radio, 67.7% utilized telephone 27.9% and 24.6% utilized newspaper and book. Insufficient access to credit facilities ranked 1st and poor electrification ranked 2nd were the major constraints with mass media utilization in the study area. It is recommended that credit should be made available by government through financial institutions, cooperative and other farmers in order to increase the level of mass media utilization and efforts should be made governments and people involved to ensure the programme on yam is always communicated in the best language understand by farmers.

Keyword: Mass Media; Utilization; Yam; Farmers




A Study on the Effects of Different Forms of Diet on the Performance Characteristics of Broiler Chickens


Mohammed Shu’aibu Shinkafi1 Abubakar Bello Anka2, Musa Mabu Isa 3, Audu A. Mohammed4 and Abubakar Yusuf Kakagida5

1Directorate of Animal Health and Livestock Development, Zamfara State. 2Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Gusau Zamfara State Office, Nigeria. 3Yobe State University, Desert research Monitoring and Control Centre, Damaturu Nigeria 4Ministry of Animal and Fisheries Development, Livestock Division, Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria. 5Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria



The study was conducted to determine the effects of different forms of diet on performance of broiler chickens. 225 day old broiler chicks were allotted to 3 different treatment groups. Each group was divided into 5 replication with 15 birds each, in a Completely Randomized Design. The chicks were raised in deep litter system throughout the period of experiment.  All data generated were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The results for starter phase showed significant differences (P<0.05) in body weight gain and feed conversion ratio across the dietary treatment. No significance differences (P>0.05) was observed for feed intake and mortality. But higher water intake for birds on mash and pellet groups was observed.  For finisher phase all the parameters were not significant (P>0.05) with exception of feed conversion ratio which reflected better in mash and pellet groups compared to crumbs group. It could be concluded from the study that mash could give better performance at starter phase and feeding mash or pellet forms at finisher could give better performance. It was recommended that, feeding mash form of feed for the starter phase and mash or pellet forms at finisher phase should be adopted for optimum performance.

Keywords:  Effects, Different, Diet, Performance, Characteristics, Broiler Chickens




A Comparative Woody Species Composition of a Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Plantation and an Adjacent Open Savanna at Bununu, Tafawa Balewa Local Government Headquarter Bauchi State Nigeria


Garba A., Yakubu I. and Muhammad A. K.

Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



The study accessed the woody species composition within the one-hectare Eucalyptus plantation and an adjoining open savanna located at Bununu Tafawa Balewa local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria with the view of providing information on ecological impact of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on natural regeneration of indigenous species. Three quadrats of 10mx10m were selected in each of the two sides and total species count conducted. Results from the study shows that, there are 236 and 90 tree stands representing 18 and 12 tree species cutting across 10 and7 families and 13 and 10 genera in the Eucalyptus plantation and the adjoining open savanna respectively. Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Combretum glutinosum recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 98 and 39, and 41.53% and 43.3% in the plantation and open savanna respectively followed by Acacia ataxacanta and Piliostigma reticulatum with frequency and frequency percentage of 34 and 14% and 12 and 13.3% in the respective sides. In the plantation, Vitellaria paradoxa, Tamarindus indica, Paliostigma reticulata and Cassia singuriana have the least frequency and frequency percentage with 1 and 0.47% respectively. The family Fabaceae/Leguminosae recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 5 and 45.45 while Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Ebenaceae, Oligocaceae and Zygophyllaceae recorded the lowest frequency of 1 and 1.23% each .In the open savanna Acacia seyal and Zizipus mauritiana have the frequencies of 9 and percentage frequency of 10, Diospyros mespiliformis has frequency of 6 and percentage frequency of 6.7 species with lower frequency values in the open savanna include Dichrostachys cinerea with frequency of 4 and percentage frequency of 2.2, Combretum mole has frequency of 3 and frequency percentage of 3.3. Pakia biglobosa and Carrisa adolis have frequencies of 2 and percentage frequency of 2.2. the list frequency was recorded with Anogeissus leiocarpus and Acacia polyacanta with frequency of 1 and percentage frequency of 1.1. in the open savanna Combretaceae and Fabaceae have the highest frequency of 3 and frequency percentage of 3.3, Leguminaceae has frequency of 2 and frequency percentage of 2.2. Ebenaceae, Rhamnaceae, Apocynaceae and Zygopyllaceae all have the frequency of 1 and frequency percentage of 1.1.  Although the introduced Eucalyptus species is the dominant species in the plantation, natural regeneration could be said to be fair probably caused by periodical harvesting of the Eucalyptus species.

Keywords: Tree species composition, Savanna, Indigenous tree species, Forest Conservation




Socio-Economic Importance of Lithered Waste Disposal and Utilization: A Case Study of Adamawa State


*Mshelia, A.A; *Bazza, W.Z.; *Mshelia, A.A; & **Bazza, W.Z. 

*Depratment of Science Laboratory Technology, Adamawa State College of Agriculture, P.M.B 2088 Ganye Adamawa State. **Depratment of Basic Sciences, Adamawa State College of Agriculture, P.M.B 2088 Ganye, Adamawa State.



Materials recovery from waste has been practiced for several centuries in different parts of the world. Whilst it provides a means of livelihood for many, and supplies cheap and environmental friendly raw materials to industries, it also represent an affordable means of waste disposal. The objective of this study was to asses solid waste recovery and utilization in Adamawa state, evaluate the problems and suggest some ways of improving it. The study also investigated waste generation rate and composition at household level within different income class. The result of the study shows that average generation rate in the study area is 0.52kg/head/day. Composition of waste varies with income group and social customs of the people among other things. The average composition of waste generated at household level shows that organic waste  heats up with 1%. The major problems facing materials recovery in the study area include; lack of purchase point at the grass root level, inadequate capital, and low price, location of potential users and purity of the recovery items there is however adequate quantity of racy cables in the study area. The way forward must involve the combined effort of government industries, private and informal sectors. Key words: waste, household, environment, recovery, management; recycling.

Keywords:  Socio-Economic, Importance, Lithered, Waste Disposal and Utilization.




Assessment of Species Composition and Abundance of the Ichthyofauna of Ikere Gorge Dam, Iseyin, Nigeria


G W Olakunle

 Nigerian institute for oceanography and marine research, no.3, Wilmot point, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.



Accurate data collection is most difficult for inland fisheries like Ikere because of the artisanal nature and the rural location of the fisher folks and the rivers. Species composition and abundance studies were conducted at three sampling points (SP) based on hydrological characteristics of the dam. The wider and deepest part of the main Dam was designated, SP-A, the broad mid part as SP-B and the narrow shallow upper (inlet) as SP-C. Nine passive graded experimental gill nets (mesh sizes 25.4mm to 177.8mm) measuring 30 meters in length and 3 meters depth each arranged randomly were used for catching fish from the shore; surface and bottom habitat. Eleven fish families consisting of thirty-three species were identified from experimental catch. Nine hundred and fifty-nine (959) fishes (850.09kg) was recorded the first year (yr1) and 6891fishes (1181.07kg), the second year (yr2). The mean weight of each fish was 0.3kg ±0.04kg. Nine (9) families were recorded along the shore, seven (7) from the surface and ten (10) from the bottom.

Keywords: Specie composition, experimental Catch, Gorge dam




Critical Evaluation of the Advantages and the Disadvantages of Using Ozone as a Novel Method of Food Preservation


Ta’awu, K. G.; & Wafari, U. U

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.



The food contamination issue needs constant control of food at every steps of food production. Pathogens and spoilage free organisms as well as high quality and safety of products are one of the most important factors in food industry. This may be achieved by many advanced novel technologies. The aim of this work is to review the role, contribution, importance, and impart of ozone as decontaminated agent use to control and eliminate the presence of microorganisms in food products as well to extend their self-life and removed unwanted odours. Many researchers have reported the properties and application of ozone, showing that ozone treatment technologies can be applied to all types of food such as fruits, spices, vegetables, meat, seafood products, and beverages. A compilation of other research works presented in this review work can be a useful tool for establishing appropriate ozone treatment conditions to improved quality and safety of food products. A critical evaluation of the advantages and the disadvantages of ozone in the context of it application in food industry is also highlighted as well.

Keywords: Ozone, Decontamination, Food Industry, Microorganisms, Quality and Safety




Effect of Diatomaceous earth (Silicosec®) on Mortality and Progeny Development of Lesser Grain Borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (Linnaeus))


1Bukar, A., 2Kabir, B. G. J., 2Wulgo, M. A., A. & 1Dawud, A. M.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Crop protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of Diatomaceous earth (Silicosec®) against Rhyzopertha dominica on cowpea. The test were conducted under ambient laboratory conditions (28-35Oc and 65-70% r.h.). Thirty adult insects of unsexed were bioassayed on 50g cowpea grain sample treated with the DE (Silicosec®) at five dose rates: 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500mg/kg. Mortality of exposed adults were assessed after 7, 14 and 21days exposure to treated grains. Number of progeny were assessed after 56 and 112days of removal of parent insects. Significance difference (p<0.05) in adults mortality were noted between dose rates and exposure periods on treated grain. Increase in dose rate and exposure period resulted in higher adult mortality and progeny suppression. After 14days exposure to the highest dose rate, 100% adult mortality was achieved. Progeny production was considerably suppressed even with lowest dose rate of 250mg/kg 3.0±1.0 and 10.8±1.4 was recorded when compared with untreated control with 86.0±3.8 and 145.0±6.9 after 56 and 112days of storage respectively. Moreover, the percentage of insect damage kernel, weight loss and germination loss decreased with increase in dose rate. Thus at 1500mg/kg 0.4±0.4 and 0.0 was recorded against IDK and weight loss as compared to 100% and 82.4% in the untreated control. Similarly, the result shows that there were significant differences between the treated grain and untreated grain on the germinated seeds, highest germinated seed was recorded on seed treated with 1500mg/kg 99.4% and the least was recorded on untreated seed with 6.0%, respectively.

Keywords .Silicosec® . R. dominica . Cowpea . Adult mortality . Progeny




Evaluation of the Effects of Drying Temperatures on some Selected Physical Properties of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seeds


*Aneke, V.I.; *Udorah, D.O.; & **Oshagbemi, A. A.,  

*Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. **Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.



Some physical properties of African breadfruit seeds botanically known as (treculia africana) such as: moisture content, unit volume, major, intermediate and minor diameters properties were determined at 50, 70 and 90 exposure temperatures employing standard experimental equipments and procedures. From the results and analysis carried out it was observed that most physical properties showed linear decrement as the exposure temperature increases from 50 to 90.The axial dimensions like the major, intermediate and minor diameters decreased linearly with increment in temperatures from 50 to 90 and the values obtained ranged from 14.40 to 10.20, 6.98 to 3.10 and 7.96 to 5.32mm respectively due to decrease in moisture content as a result of drying..  It was observed that the mean values of the AMD, GMD and SMD were found to be statistically the same (p=0.005) as was observed for mucunaprureins and veracruz varieties (Aneke et al., 2019).Bulk density varied from 0.11 to 0,05the temperature increases from 50 to 90. This indicates that there were an decrease in the weight of the samples due to moisture in the seeds which was lower than the volumetric expansion of the treculia african samples. This decreasing trend was reported for Jatropha seeds (Garnayak et al., 2008). The surface area varied from 2.4 to 1.7   as the temperature increased from 50 -90. The increment could be as a result of their dependence on the size dimension of the bean similar to Cowpeas (Oluka et al., 2011).

Keywords: Physical Properties, Treculia Africana, Drying Temperature, Moisture Content, Major Diameter and Minor Diameter.




Physicochemical Composition of Earthworm Cast in Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Nigeria.


Collina Kambai *1, Stephen A. Popoola1, Chidiebere J. Ukanyirioha1, Theophilus A. Erhabor1, Yahaya E. Sadiku1, Nanlir Janfa1, Stephen M. Chomini1, Mundi J. Francis1, Martins Ukwadi1, Zainab Y. Hussein1.

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State.



Earthworm cast are an organic form of fertilizer produced from earthworms. The broad objective of this research work is to study the physicochemical composition of earthworm casts found in Federal College of Forestry, Jos. Ten transects of 200 metres was laid. Stratified sampling method on the basis of occurrence of fresh worm casts was used to select points for collection. Eight (8) samples of each type of cast were collected from different locations, the control (no cast but soil) was collected alongside at each of the locations making a total of thirty-two samples. Fifty (50g) grams of earthworm cast and soil samples within the plant rhizosphere (control) were collected. The samples were collected, properly labeled, air dried, sieved and taken to the laboratory for analysis. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation among soil samples from different locations) and inferential (ANOVA) statistics was used to analyse data obtained, Duncan Multiple Range test was used to separate means and each soil property was compared using Pearson correlation coefficient at 1 and 5% significant levels. From the results, the two types of earthworm casts identified were; the mass and turret cast. Mass earthworm cast collected under many plant species had a higher silt value which was significant; Bauhinia purpurea (7.00 + 0.88), Bombax buonopozense (15.67+1.35), Auraucaria columnaris (13.00 + 1.11), Delonix regia 1 (10.50 + 0.75) and Jatropha curcas (13.00 + 0.47).  The clay content for the three components (mass, turret casts and control) were relatively the same with no significant difference (p > 0.05) while the value of sand was higher in the control with significant difference. Mass cast and turret cast had higher nitrate content, organic matter, potassium and phosphorous which was significant with the control (p > 0.05). Sulphur content was higher in the control with high significant difference (p < 0.05). Mass cast had the highest number of elements than the turret cast but there was no variation, hence both earthworm cast can be used simultaneously to enrich out soils when planting seedlings.

Keywords: Biochemical, Earthworm cast, Composition, Physico-chemical, rhizosphere




Studies on Plant Parasitic Nematode Associated with Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in Gombe Nigeria


*1Jidere, C. I., 2 Simon, L. D.,1Sulaiman, I., Peter, A.

1Department of Horticultural Technology, Federal College of Horticulture Dadin Kowa Gombe Nigeria. 2Department of Agronomy, Federal University Gashua, Yobe Nigeria



Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is one of the most important staple foods consumed in Nigeria and around the world, however yields are influenced by both biotic and abiotic variables, with plant parasite nematodes (PPN) being one of the biotic causes. The aim of this study was to document the plant parasitic nematode pests of sweet potato in major sweet potato growing areas in Gombe State. Soil samples were randomly collected from sweet potato fields in Nafada, Kaltungo and Yamaltu Deba Local Government areas representing the three senatorial districts. Plant parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil using whitehead and Hemming method (1965) and identification key for agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes was used for the nematode identification. Fifteen plant parasitic nematode were identified across the three local government which include Scutellonema sp, Nacobbus sp, Pratylenchus sp,, Heterodera sp, Longidorus sp, Tylenchus sp, Xiphinema sp, Trichodorus sp, Rotylenchus sp, Tylenchulus sp, Dispaci sp, Aphelenchoides sp, Helicotylenchus sp, Ditylenchus sp.It is therefore critical to educate farmers about the economic importance of plant-parasitic nematodes on sweet potato in the surveyed areas, as well as how to manage them.

Keyword: Plant parasitic nematode, Sweet potato, survey.




Analysis of the Effect of Farmers – Fulani Herdsmen Conflicts on Agricultural Output in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State


Liman, Sale Awalu

Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Department of General Studies, SABS, Numan.



This study analysed the conflict between farmers and Fulani herdsmen in Maiha LGA of Adamawa State with particular emphases on its effects on Agricultural output in the study area, the study adopted the theory of dialectical materialism which insist on interpreting mass consciousness and activities in society based on the competitive balance and satisfaction of economic factors among different groups. The study adopted a survey design techniques via purposive and random sampling in which five wards were selected. A questionnaire method was adopted and distributed to a sample of 96 Farmers and herders from the chosen population. The study used descriptive methods of analysis of percentage and chi-square to examine the effects of the attacks on farmers and herders output in the Local Government. The study found that, famers and herders conflicts has negative effects on agricultural output. The result of the X2 test has proved that (X2 comp >X2 tab) which resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis which states there is no significant relationship between farmers-herders conflicts and agricultural output. The study also found that the following are the major causes of famers-herders conflicts, Cattle rustling and banditry, Proliferation of small arms, Water scarcity, Desertification, Population expansion, Increasing unemployment, Destruction of farm land, Fake news and media propaganda and reprisal attack. The study therefore recommended that, element of compromise and arbitration should be devised to resolve conflict. The study suggests that, the farmers need to be educated on the need for peaceful coexistence between them and the farmers; there is a need also for the farmers to evacuate their farm products immediately after harvest and also avoid farming on cattle ways. There is a need also for the government to empower the traditional in handling and punishing whoever is causing trouble within their area and also serves as mediators between both farmers and herdsmen. The Local Government should create reserves areas and transits path for herder’s activities in the study area and also

Key words: Famers, Herdsmen, conflict, Chi-square, Agricultural output.




Production Of Cyprinus Carpio (Common Carp, Linnaeus, 1758) Fingerlings And Table Size Using Local Feedstuff.


1Goni, B. L., 2Mshelia M. B., 3Umara, L., 2Wanas, N. L. and 1Musa, I. S.

1Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Borno State



Production of Cyprinus carpio (common carp, linnaeus, 1758) fingerlings and table size using local feedstuff was carried in Ramat Polytechnic, Borno State, Nigeria. The aim was to meet the requirements of fish farmers in Maiduguri, Borno State. 20 males and 20 females of Common carp brooders were purchased in a reputable fish farm in Jos and were transported in oxygenated transportation tanks to Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri for the breeding and culturing of the fish. Local fish feeds were prepaid at 28% Crude protein and used for feeding the fish at 5% of their body weight. All data obtained on survival were analysed using descriptive statistics such as percentage, while a standard formula was used to calculate the specific growth rate of the fish. For the results, a total of 12388 fries were hatched and out of these, only 4.43% survived. This study shows specific growth rate of common carp to be 7.43 %/day when fed 2 times a day at the rate of 2 % of the body weight while common carp fed 2 times a day at the rate of 5 % ration level only showed Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of 2.88 %/day in indoor fish rearing system. It therefore concluded that the production of Common Carp in Maiduguri is possible but with extra careful care due to the excessive.

Keywords Common carp; Fingerlings; Broodstock; Growth rate; Fish culture.




Factors Affecting the Adoption of Agro-Forestry Practices in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria


Richard, S. D; Dahiru, B.; & Chimoya, I.A,

Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB.035 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



A study was conducted to determine the factors affecting the adoption of agro-forestry practices in Mubi North local government area of Adamawa state. The study was conducted in Mubi North L.G.A. of Adamawa State. Five (5) wards were randomly selected from the study area (Muchalla, Digil, Mayo bani, Pahuli and Vimtim). Data were collected using structured and unstructured questionnaires. Hundred (100) questionnaires 20 per ward were randomly distributed to the respondents in the study area. Data were collected on personal information, education background, occupation, types of agro-forestry and factors affecting the adoption of agro-forestry. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and they were tabulated. The result indicated that females were more in the study area with percentage value 51%. Married men and women were 90% and the most predominant age grade was 36 years and above. Non education (50%) and farmers (49%) form most of respondents. The major agro-forestry practiced was agro-forestry (54%).The study therefore revealed that adoption of agro-forestry in the study area was generally affected by lack of farm inputs/ high price (26%) and lack of technical know-how. It is recommended that government should provide farm inputs and educate the farmers in the study area through the use of extension workers.

Keywords: Agro-forestry, Adoption, Factors, Farmers, Questionnaire and Mubi North




Effect of Bush Burning on the Cation Exchange Capacity of the Soil in Bali Local Government, Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.


Abdulmumin Abdulkadir

Federal Polytechnic Bali, School of Agricultural Technology, Department of Agricultural Technology.



Bush burning is the intentional setting the land in fire which burns importance microorganism, organic matter and changes the physical as well as the chemical properties of the soil. Cation exchange capacity abbreviation to CEC measures the amount of cations (positively change ions) which can be absorbed by e.g. organic matter or clay mineral and which can be exchanged for cations dissolved in a solution. Four experiments were carried out in the Orchard of Bali Local Government, Bali. The first experiment was meant to see if soil had electrical charge. The second experiment was to find out whether bush burning had an effect on the cation exchange capacity of the soil. The third experiment was to see if the of bush burning on the cation exchange capacity varies with soil depth. The fourth experiment was to see if sandy, loamy and clay soil have the same cation exchange capacity. The result showed that soil   had a statistically significant electrical charges (P < 0.01). Bush burning had a statistically significant effect on the cation exchange capacity of the soil (P < 0.01) in clay and loamy soil, but in sandy soil, (P < 0.05). The cation exchange capacity of the soil varied with soil  depth ( P < 0.01).The  result had practically affirmed that these three (3) types of soils had different cation capacity of the soil (P < 0.01).

Keywords: Bush burning, cation exchange, climate change and bio physicochemical




Poly (Olefin Sulfone)S (Poss)/Carbon Nanotube Composites in Sensors/Biosensors Applications.


Mgbechi Cletus Ekene; And Ndife Chidiebere Temple

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Pmb 021 Aguata Anambra State.



Organic polymers can be used as the active component of sensors and layer of solar cells. Ionizing radiation is radiation capable of ejecting an electron from an atom upon interaction with organic matter. The rational design and modification of the chemical structure of polymers has enabled control over their properties and morphology, leading to the advancement of Nanotechnology. Sensing the presence of ionizing radiation is crucial in several fields, including energy, biological and nuclear research. In general, systems used for the detection and dosimetry of ionizing radiation usually have one or several drawbacks. In this study, we report a new sensing scheme for radiation based on organic materials, in which the signal is not generated by scintillation or charge creation in a semi-conductor. The system herein described is based on the degradation of the radiation labile polymeric matrix of a composite film upon radiation exposure, which leads to large resistivity changes in a composite film. We also show how chemical design and tailoring of the sides chains of this active polymer using an orthogonal post polymerization modification can be used for the optimization of sensor performance. All reactions were performed using standard Schlenk techniques. Poly (Olefin Sulfone) (POS) synthesis was carried out following literature procedures. In order to test these ideas, devices containing a thin film of a poly (1-hexene Sulfone) (P1HS) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated. When the current measured under a constant potential of devices fabricated with different ratios of P1HS to MWCNTs was investigated, it was evidenced that increasing loadings of P1HS yielded Lower Conductivities for the composite films. The chemical structure of the active element in the sensor was modified to improve device sensitivity.

Keywords: Biosensor, sensor, poly (Olefin Sulfone), Nanotubes, Polymers, Radiation.




Incidence and Severity of Cercospora Leafspot of Groundnut as influence by inoculum levels in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria


1Ngwamdai, N.A and 2Tuti, N. Z.

1 Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35 Mubi Adamawa State. 2Department of Horticultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35 Mubi Adamawa State.



The Study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi to determine the influence of different inoculum concentrations of Cercospora. arachidiocola causal organism of Cercospora Leafspot (CLS) on the incidence, severity and yield components of groundnuts during the 2016 cropping season. Five inoculum concentrations (T1=107spore/ml, T2=106spore/ml, T3=105spore/ml, T4=104spore/ml, T5=103spore/ml) were prepared by serial dilution technique and T6=Distilled water which serves as control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four (4) times. Results obtained revealed that plants inoculated with 104spore/ml suspensions of the inoculums recorded the highest incidence (100%) and severity (57.77%) of the disease at 10 WAS and also the lowest yields of haulms (108 kgha-1), pods (202.20 kg/ha-1) and 170.62 kg/ha of groundnut seeds while significantly lower incidence (27.74%), severity (5.77%) and higher yields of haulms (262.66 kg/ha-1), pods 299.22 kg/ha-1 and seeds (240.51 kg/ha-1) were recorded against the control (T6).This study have therefore demonstrated the influence of inoculum concentration of 104 spore/ml in giving higher incidence and severity of CLS disease in the study area. Further studies should be conducted by incorporating more groundnut cultivars using different inoculum concentrations with a view to determine their susceptibility in other locations.

Keywords; Cercospora, Inoculum concentration, incidence, severity and Groundnut.




Assessing the Effect of Post-harvest Income Losses on Rice Farmers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


Wazis, Dunama Haruna

Department of Research Outreach, Nigerian Stored Product, Research Institute, Kano, P.M.B. 3032, Kano, Nigeria.



For what has been a close observation, post-harvest income losses have been one of the major setbacks to farmers in Nigeria. Owing to this, the study aimed at assessing the effect of post-harvest income losses on rice farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 200 farming households was sampled, using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data analysis was carried out through inferential statistics, with phased estimation of post-harvest losses and regression analysis. The ordinary least squares regression estimates showed that threshing losses and household sizes were significant determinants of rice farmers’ income at 1% and 5% level probability levels respectively, while the analysis of constraints revealed that lack of harvesting equipment constituted a significant challenge to rice post- harvest loss remedy. The study concluded that threshing losses had adverse effect on rice farmers’ income and thus, recommended renewed awareness campaigns and demonstrations on rice handling and post- harvest loss prevention so as to forestall future post-harvest income losses.

Keywords: Effect, Post-harvest Income losses, Farmers, Rice, threshing losses, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.




Analysis of the Involvement of Agricultural Cooperatives in Agricultural Value Chain


Nabiha Ahmed Alti; Sakinat Ahmed; & Abdullahi Muhammad

Department of Cooperative Economics and Management, College of Business and Management Studies (CBMS), Kaduna Polytechnic.



This study analyzes the involvement of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain. A survey method was used for the study. 90 respondents (65 male and 25 females) were included in the study. They were members of Abakpa Agricultural cooperative society Ltd, Kaduna. A 22-item questionnaire was used for the study. The questionnaire was based on likert 5-point scale. The research questions that were developed to guide the study were: What are the primary objectives of agricultural cooperatives in enhancing agricultural development? What are the activities of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain process? What are the benefits accruing to members from the involvement of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain? What are the challenges associated with the involvement of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain? Frequencies and mean were used as statistical analysis. Research findings show that the primary objectives of agricultural cooperatives towards enhancing agricultural development are numerous and that the activities of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain process are equally numerous. Besides, there are so many benefits accruing to members from the involvement of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain and also that different challenges are associated with the involvement of agricultural cooperatives in agricultural value chain. It was recommended among others that the Federal Government of Nigeria through the Cooperative Federation of (FCN), should play greater roles by providing more initiatives and incentives to the cooperative movement for them to be more effectively involved in the supply chain and also that the national, regional and international cooperative movement should play their roles as the coordinators and monitors in the networks of agriculture movement when the trading is made between the same nations, or between regional and in the global arena. .




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