Harvard Int’l Journal of African Sustainable Development (HAJASD) Vol.16 (2)


HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (HAJASD)

VOL.16 (2) SEPTEMBER, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0081 – 3998



Published by:

HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,

Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,

MA 02138.

 Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;

Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja,

Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.

Copyright © 2020 Harvard Research and Publications International

Email: harvardnigeriapublications@gmail.com    ||   Phone: +234 (0) 802 5604 997.

 



 

THE IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIODIC MARKETS ON PATRONAGES IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

 

1AYENI BASHIR S; 2 PROF. I J. MUSA; 3PROF. A. BASHIR; & 2DR.  R. O.  YUSUF  

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Management and Social Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Geography, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 3Department of Geography, faculty of Environmental sciences, Modibbo Adamawa University of Technology (Mautech), Yola

 

Abstract

Rural Periodic markets are those markets that meet at interval of days for the exchange of both agricultural and manufactured goods from the urban centers, exchange of services and innovations. Most of the Nigerian rural settlements and towns are characterized by periodic markets that serve as useful points for collection and distribution of agricultural and non agricultural commodities. The presence of good network of road transport is required to link the periodic markets and agricultural producing regions. This paper focused on the implications of location and characteristics of periodic markets on patronages in Kogi West Senatorial District. The study involved five LGAs of Kabba Bunu, Ijumu, Mopa Amuro, Yagba West and Yagba East. The paper addresses the questions of what are the spatial locations of periodic markets, what are the patterns of periodic markets? What are the effects on on patronages of the markets? The objectives of the paper were achieved through identifying the location of the periodic markets in term of coordinates; examine the patterns of periodic markets in the study areas. Data for the paper were collected through primary, secondary and field survey. The primary data was  collected through structured questionaire which were administred on periodic market days to the buyers and sellers (patrons). The random table was used to select 1/3rd of the identified 59 rural village markets  to ensure fair, even distribution and void of bias. The generated data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics involved the use of percentages, frequency table.  The spatial patterns of periodic markets was achieved through importing the geographic coordinates of periodic markets from the excel file into ArcGIS 10.1 environment and a periodic market map was created. Also the spatial pattern of distribution of periodic markets was determined using Average Nearest Neighbor statistical tool in ArcGIS 10.1. The result shows that marketing of agricultural commodities are largely carried out by females while males engaged in production. The finding of this study shows that the periodicity of rural markets in the study area is largely 5days and 7days cycle which are in ring patterns. The competition between periodic markets in rural areas probably arises as a result of the ring patterns of the periodic marketing. Nearest Neighbour Analysis calculated shows an Rn of 1.84 which implies a random distribution of periodic market in the study area. The study areas Kogi West Senatorial district are characterized by dispersed isolated settlement linked by minor unpaved roads and dominated by primary activities of farming with low commercial activities. The data also revealed that 29% of patrons are within the LGA, 19% attendance comes from outside the local government while 13% patrons come from outside the state.  The result reveals that traders faced a lot of problems in patronizing the rural periodic markets in Kogi west senatorial district; problems encountered includes high cost of transport, problem of overloading their vehicles most especially on market days and  Inadequate means of transport which affected intra and inter movement with the periodic markets. Suggestion and recommendations made for better improvement of patronages of periodic market and general economic and commercial activities of the study area.

Keywords:    Periodic market, Patronages, Market coordinates and challenges

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COUNSELLORS PERCEPTION OF CAUSES AND COUNSELLING STRATEGIES IN REDUCING DEPRESSION AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN OGIDI EDUCATION ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE

 

NWOBI NGOZIKA L. (Ph.D); NNADI GRACE C. (Ph.D); OJO TAIWO; AND MOKWELU BLESSING

Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

 

Abstract

Depression is one of the disease burdens that has negative consequences on both males and females, though females are adversely affected. This study was carried out in Ogidi education zone of Anambra state. The research design adopted for this study was descriptive survey and three research questions guided the study. The questionnaire titled ‘’Causes, Consequences and Counselling Strategies in Reducing Depression Among Married Women Questionnaire’’(CCCSRDAMWQ) was filled by all the counsellors  in the  state. Since population is small there is no need for sample. The questionnaire has 29 items. The reliability of co-efficient was 0.89. This was determined by subjecting the instrument to trial testing. The internal consistency was determined using Cronbach alpha method. Answers to these research questions were analyzed using mean scores. Findings were: The main causes of depression among married women includes pregnancy, child birth substance abuse, domestic violence, poverty among others coupled with its negative consequences such as suicidal thought, drug dependence and troubled relationship among others. While counselling strategies such as cognitive behaviour therapy, interpersonal coping skills, connection with friends, resolving conflicts among others have the potentials in reducing depression among married women. Based on the findings recommendations were made among which includes posting of counsellors to health institutions to work on the irrational thinking of the depressed women as well as equip these women with coping skills.

Keywords:     Depression, Counselling, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy , Inter personal therapy.

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EVALUATION OF WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN WUDIL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

 

ILIYASU M.ANZAKU1, MUHAMMAD K. DAHIRU2, NASIRU UMAR3, JENNIFER H. HAMADU4 

1Department of Science, School of Continuing Education, Bayero University,  Kano, Kano State, Nigeria 2,3Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Federal University, Lafia, Nassarawa State . 4Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Management Sciences, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State

 

Abstract

This study evaluates the demand and supply of water in Wudil Local Government Area of Kano State. The disparity between water supply and demand has led to scarcity, also given the essential role of water in human activities; the lack of access to clean water is a serious concern, which has negative effect on nutrition and health through limited hydration. This study is therefore aimed at reviewing and evaluating the most outstanding features of water problems with particular reference to the historical and present situation, and the possibility of an improved water supply and distribution to the study population. The survey of the study area led to the selection of 240 individuals (people) which constituted the study sample. Data obtained during the field exercise are presented and analyzed using tables, graphs and percentage. Questionnaire is the major research instrument in which data on various aspects of water supply and demand especially those relating to supply of water, time spent on sourcing for water, monthly expenditure on water, and problems encountered due to severe water scarcity. The major source of water to the area includes boreholes, water vendors and well. Borehole is the major source of water in the five wards of the study area, which accounted for 44%. Most of the respondents, source for their water between the distances of 0-500m. The months of February -April has been indicated by 74% of the respondents as the month in which the problem of water scarcity is experienced to most. The borehole owners tend to increase the price during severe scarcity and wells which contribute 16.3% of water supply to the inhabitant often dry up during severe scarcity. For improved and effective water supply; more boreholes and wells should be dug, dumping of refuse into streams should be abolish by Local Government, illegal activities of some unscrupulous members of the public perpetuated through theft, vandalization and unauthorized tampering of boreholes should be checked, the state government should mobilize benefiting communities water projects and regulate market price of water.

Keywords:   Water, Demand, Supply, Scarcitry, inhabitant Water, Demand, Supply, Scarcitry, inhabitant

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FUZZY-BASED INTELLIGENT HEADLAMP MONITORING SYSTEM 

 

DAUDA YUSUF 1, ADATI ELKANAH CHAHARI 2, ABDULFATTAH A. ABOABA3, ANDRA UMORU4, OLAYEMI M. OLANIYI5

1,3Department of Computer Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri. 2Department of General Studies Education, School of General Education, Federal College of Education, Yola. 4Computer Science Program, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri. 5Department of Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna

 

Abstract

Many accidents occur as a result of poor or faulty headlamp. This is partly because advancement in auto-electronics is yet to consider having a system that periodically checks the status of the headlamp and report to the driver long before the need for headlamp is required, and partly due to negligence on the part of some drivers. This paper presents solution former, that is, periodic monitoring and reporting of the state of the headlamps from the point of ignition.  It is an intelligent system based on the use of microcontroller and fuzzy logic. The intelligent system has the ability to detect faulty headlamp and report it to the driver via Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and alarm. 

Keywords:     Auto-electronics, Headlamp-monitoring, Microcontroller, and Fuzzy-Logic.

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A REVIEW OF END USERS’ SATISFACTION WITH PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATES IN NIGERIA.

 

1ONYEKWERE, O. CHARLES AND 2DIUGWU, A. IKECHUKWU

1&2Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

The population explosion experienced in most Nigerian cities, and rising rate of urbanisation which are incommensurate with the provision of adequate housing infrastructure is of major concern. Public housing schemes have generally been condemned for failing to deliver quality, affordable and adequate housing units to the end users in most developing countries. The objective of this study is to assess through literature review, the level of satisfaction of residents in public housing estates in Nigeria. Findings revealed that there exists low satisfaction level to a large extent across the Nigerian states. In addition, residents are mostly dissatisfies with illumination, safety, service quality, housing/dwelling quality, and physical environment quality. Thus, the study recommends active participation of end users in the design and development of public housing estates, effective total quality management practices, quality control and quality assurance mechanisms.

Keywords:     End users, Housing estates, Nigeria, Public, Quality management.

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HARNESSING ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

 

*DAVID ADENIRAN; **JAMIYAL NATHAN DAUDA; ***JOHN BUBA JOSHUA; ****SADA, SALAMATU M; & *****MUHAMMAD YUNUSA

*Department of Geography and planning, University of Jos; **Department of General Studies, Gombe state polytechnic, Bajoga; ***Department of General studies- Gombe state College of Health Sciences and Technology, Kaltungo; ****Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe; *****Department of Accountancy, Gombe State Polytechnic, Bajoga.

 

Abstract

In an attempt to sort out the role of public administration in harnessing environmental potentials for sustainable national development, this paper has been able to see the potentials of science technology and innovation as key factor for achieving sustainable national development amongst others. The environment and its potentials cannot be harnessed without the modern world of technological advancements. Problems identified include lack of an enabling environment for the benefit of the environment, poor networks and linkages, bad policy frameworks, priority setting and other challenges. It has also identified broadening the scope of science, technology and innovation policy and innovation in public administration and public service delivery through people centred approaches, the use of ICT in public sector, the empowering of people with higher expectations, accountability enabled by information and technology advancement, people driven solutions in public service, people centred service delivery, e-participation, e-government and open government, co- creation e.t.c as solutions to these problems. The research has examined theories such as the traditional neo-classical theory, the modern neo-classical theory and the neo Malthusian theory. This formed the basis for comparism and the adoption of the most suitable for the research. The research was carried out primarily using secondary sources of data and recommended the following; that there should be changes in capacity needs and renewed demand for excellence; leadership should play more significant roles for effective institutions; there should be people and public sector innovations; changes should be properly managed by providing the required know-how based on resistance to change; investment in people and technology amongst others.

Keywords:     Public Administration, Harnessing, Environmental, Potentials, National Development.

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A REVIEW

 

Y.S. MAIGARI AND A.M. DOHO

Department of chemical sciences, Federal University of Kashere

 

Abstract

Textile wastewater or otherwise textile effluent is the residual water discharged into the environment after use from wet processing of textiles in the industry. This water contains a number of substances ranging from salts, dyes, fats and oils, acids, heavy metals etc.  it is therefore a major source of water pollution. This paper reviews the various pollutants in the wastewater, the environmental impact of textile wastewater and the various physicochemical processes of wastewater treatment.

Keywords:     Textiles Wastewater, effluent, dyes, advanced oxidation processes, BOD, COD

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RADIO PROGRAMME (DOKITA WA) AS TOOL FOR DRIVING THE ADOPTION OF MATERNAL HEALTH CARE PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN ILISHAN-REMO, OGUN STATE

 

AKINTAYO, BABAFEMI J., EKEH, CHARLES M., & OKUNOLA, MARIAM O.

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State

 

Abstract

Radio is one of the most accessible media platforms upon which health communication messages are driven. Despite this, studies have shown that Nigeria loses a high number of under 5 children and women of child-bearing age yearly especially those  residing in rural communities of developing countries. This study therefore investigated the use of the radio programme (Dokita wa) as tool for driving the adoption of maternal health care practices among women of reproductive age in Ilishan-Remo community, Ogun state, Nigeria. The study utilized the pre-test, post-test experimental design. Questionnaires were distributed to 100 women of child bearing age before and after exposure to the radio programme (Dokita wa). Results showed that women of child bearing age in Ilishan-Remo community had little knowledge about maternal mortality and therefore paid little or no attention to it before exposure to the radio programme. However, after the intervention, the women had broadened knowledge about maternal mortality, its causes and preventive practices and were willing to participate in the war to combat the scourge. The study therefore recommended that in order to put an end to maternal mortality, radio and other media platforms should be utilized in creating more awareness and educating women on safe maternal practices that can help reduce the incidence of maternal mortality.

Keywords:     Maternal mortality, maternal health, reproductive age and radio health programme (Dokita wa) and media messages

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CITIZENS’ PERCEPTION OF PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINISTRY OF WOMEN AFFAIRS AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, OGUN STATE

 

NTIWUNKA, GIFT UCHECHI PhD

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Project planning and implementation is critical for assessing a country’s development towards the wellbeing of the citizenry. Since independence, the Nigerian government has initiated quite a number of capital projects primarily aimed at poverty eradication. The mismanagement of funds and abandonment especially by successive governments at various levels are largely responsible for the recurrent failure of capital projects. Using the projects of the Ogun State Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development from 2007-2012 as case study, this study investigated the impact of projects executed by the Ministry on intended users (women and children); specifically determine the perception of the planning, implementation and effectiveness of the various projects of its operational departments: Women Empowerment, Child Development, Social Welfare and Rehabilitation among citizens of Ogun state. Adopting mixed methods of survey, interview and observation, and multistage random sampling technique, three Senatorial Districts, and Local Government Areas were selected. 250 copies of the questionnaire were distributed among citizens in each of the six LGA’s in Ogun state, while unstructured interview was used to gather data from relevant personnel at the Ministry (Heads of three Area Offices out of the six Social Welfare Area offices), while direct observations helped ascertain the conditions under which the services were rendered. The study found that the level of awareness of the programmes to be barely average; majority of the respondents did not participate in most of the applied programmes. Also, the majority of the respondents’ perceived the programmes to be inadequate in meeting the needs of the citizenry. The ministry therefore needs to create awareness of its programmes in the state through publicity and lectures especially at the grassroots level. More women need to be empowered in the rural areas as this will help alleviate poverty in the state.

Keywords: Awareness, Empowerment, Project Planning, Project Implementation, Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development

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NCDC’S MEDIA CAMPAIGN MESSAGES ON COVID-19 AND THE ESPOUSAL OF PRESCRIBED SAFETY LIFESTYLE AMONG BABCOCK UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES

 

*PATRICIA E. ERNEST-ONUIRI Ph.D; *DAVID B. OLOYEDE Ph.D; & **KADRI M. ADEYANJU

*Department of Mass Communication, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun state. **Department of Mass Communication, Veronica Adeleke School of Social Sciences (VASSS) Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state.

 

Abstract

Statistics by the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC), reveal that as at July 2021, about 167, 692 Nigerians were confirmed to be infected by the novel Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), while 2,121 deaths have been recorded in all 36 states including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). In a bid to curtail the virus, NCDC has adopted the intensive use of the mass media through health communication campaigns to disseminate information on the nature of the pandemic in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study sought to determine the relationship between the NCDC’s media campaign messages on COVID-19 and the practice of COVID-19 prescribed safety lifestyle among Babcock University undergraduates. Adopting a survey research approach, 340 respondents were sampled recording a 97.9% response rate. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between NCDC’s media campaign messages and the level of adoption of COVID-19 prescribed safety lifestyle among Babcock undergraduates at r=-0.19; p-value=0.04. The NCDC should continue to intensify its use of the mass media to communicate vital information on the nature of the virus in Nigeria.

Keywords:     COVID-19, NCDC, COVID-19 safety lifestyle, Media health messages, Adoption

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IMPACT OF AUDITOR’S INDEPENDENCE ON FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY IN MONEY DEPOSIT BANKS IN NIGERIA

 

SHAMSUDDEEN SHEHU SAEED

College of Business and Management Studies, School of Business and Financial Studies, Kaduna, Polytechnic

 

Abstract

Financial reports are meant to be a formal record of business activities and these reports are meant to provide an overview of the financial position and profitability in both short and long term of establishments to the users of these financial statements such as banks, employees, shareholders, managers, tax analyst and government. Misappropriation of financial statement by Enron, WorldCom revealed that information provided by financial statements does not faithfully representation by it management. Therefore, the study attempts to look at auditor’s independence on financial reporting quality in money deposit banks in Nigeria. The data used for this study were collected from primary sources.  Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses from the questionnaire. It will involve descriptive analysis such as frequencies, percentages and mean.  The results of the analysis show that auditor’s independence affects the understandability, reliability and faithful representation of financial statement of Banks. Finally, the study recommends that the management of the banks should ensure regular rotation of auditors as this will help to improve auditor’s independence and there should be an implementation of peer assessment in order to ensure that audits are carried out with utmost professionalism and joint respect. Furthermore, for appropriate decision to be made the auditor’s report has to be one that is void of manipulation.

Keywords:     Auditors, Bank, Independence, Financial Statement,

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THE POTENTIAL OF RUMBA AND KAFI SANDS AS MOULDING MATERIALS

 

*I. A. MUHAMMADA, **M. H. MUHAMMADB, **A. TOKANC, **M. A. BAWAD, **S. I. SINTALIE

*Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. **Mechanical/production engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

 

Abstract

This research work was conducted to investigate the potential of two moulding sands in Bauchi state. The natural Sand samples were collected from Rumba and Kafi deposit site in Warji and Ganjuwa local Government of Bauchi state. The Chemical compositions were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results showed SiO2 having dominance in all the sand samples of 65.23% and 59.90% for Rumba and Kafi sand samples respectively. American Foundry men’s Society (AFS) standard laboratory tests were used to determine the physico-mechanical properties. The result of Rumba and Kafi sand samples were found to be dark brown, sub-angular in shape with the following values; Clay content 14% and 20%, Grain fineness number 35.59 and 39.73GFN respectively, other physico-mechanical properties were determined at varying percentages of water which include; green compressive strength, dry compressive strength, permeability. thermal shock resistance and refractoriness. The results of physico-mechanical tests obtained indicated that both Rumba and Kafi natural sands are suitable for mould application in foundry for casting non-ferrous alloy; However, Kafi sand sample should be used with caution because of clay content above the recommended range for metal casting.

Keywords:    Dry compressive strength, Green Compressive strength, green fineness number, moisture content, clay content.

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AN APPRAISAL OF THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH AT THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA

 

MUSA BABA YM; & MANSUR MUHAMMAD MANSUR

General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State-Nigeria

 

Abstract

The credibility of the teaching Literature-in-English at some senior secondary schools in Nigeria has steadily been declining at an alarming rate as a chunk of the products of such schools, learning Literature-in-English appears not to be at it pick and not compete with other counterparts from around the world. In such vain addressing an appraisal of teaching Literature-in-English at the senior secondary schools in Nigeria that are embedded within the shores resulting in academic hindrance need to be carried out. As such, a descriptive study was carried out to appraise the problems of teaching Literature-in-English at the senior secondary schools in Nigeria. A survey of literature was done in order to understand the true nature of the problem and its effects. Several problems were indepthly reviewed. Challenges such as socio-economic and cultural factors, unavailability of qualified teachers, non-functional curriculum, lack of available and appropriate texts and resources, and gender construct issues in the two states are the factors responsible for the non-teaching of a Literature-in-English in Senior Secondary Schools in the study area.

Keywords:      Literature, Appraisal, Senior Secondary School, Callenges, Tertiary Institution.

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ON THE EFFECT OF DECREASING THE INTRA-SPECIFIC COEFFICIENT OF THE FIRST PLANT SPECIES ON THE BIODIVERSITY SCENARIO USING A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS METHOD

 

UDOH, N. ., EKAKA-A, E.

1Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

One of the scientific processes beyond the definition of a biodiversity index otherwise called the richness index depends on the numerical calculation of the quantification of a biodiversity scenario using a numerically efficient method called the ODE 45. We have observed in this present study that as the intra-specific coefficient is varied by 40%, 45%, 90%, 99% and 99.99%, the biodiversity scenario generally results to a biodiversity gain and by the variations of 101% and 105% the biodiversity gain which we have obtained changes to a biodiversity loss in which the expected biodiversity interval has occurred between the 99.99% variation of the intra-specific coefficient and the 101% of the same parameter value. The central concern of the loss of biodiversity gain (the loss improvement in yields) can be better monitored by using the unique bifurcation interval that we have discovered in this study. The results of this study is expected to benefit environmentalists, numerical mathematicians and the numerical simulators whose research activities involve the impact of climate change on the yields of plant species and related agricultural crops. The full novel results that we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed quantitatively. 

Keywords:     ODE 45, Intra-specific Coefficient, Biodiversity, Bifurcation, Competition.

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FACILE CYTOTOXIC AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF DOXORUBICIN ENCAPSULATED CACO3-NANOPARTICLES ON MCF-7 (BREAST CANCER) CELL-LINE

 

HAMIDU AHMED1, 3; ALHAJI ZUBAIRJAJI2

1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Malaysia 2Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 3Department of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant disease of women globally. Aragonite calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Ar-CC-NPs) are a renowned Nano carrier for anticancer delivery. The study aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Doxorubicin-Aragonite Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles (DOX-Ar-CC-NPs) on MCF-7 cancer cells and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Hence, giving an insight into how Ar-CC-NPs influence efficient drug target delivery and improve therapeutic index. Ar-CC-NPs was synthesized using novel biomolecules from cheaply available sea water cockleshell and characterized for particle geometry using electron microscopy. The cytotoxic effect of DOX-Ar-CC-NPs was determined using superoxide dismutase analysis for cell membrane integrity, and flow cytometry, fluorescent imaging, and electron microscopy were used for apoptotic evaluation. Dose-dependent cell viability was recorded in DOX-Ar-CC-NPs and DOX treated MCF-7 cells. The DOX-Ar-CC-NPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability when compared with DOX alone (p<0.05). Cellular apoptosis, oxidative stress markers and cellular uptake evaluation showed a similar trend. The results clearly showed that DOX-Ar-CC-NPs induced necrosis through endocytosis. Conversely, treatment with DOX-Ar-CC-NPs significantly decreased the elevated level of superoxide dismutase 2 compared to untreated MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, membrane blebbing’s and apoptotic bodies were observed on ultra-structurally, when treated with DOX-Ar-CC-NPs, it reveals that breast cancer cells treated with  DOX-Ar-CC-NPs, are capable of inducing apoptosis. This study revealed the ability of Ar-CC-NPs to optimize the ability of DOX to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells thus, emphasizing the high potency of Ar-CC-NPs understudy in drug delivery. 

Keywords:      Apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, Cancer, Drug Delivery, MCF-7 Cell Line

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FAITH AND REASON IN AFRICAN CHRISTIANITY: LESSON FOR CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA

 

AYEGUNLE, ISAAC OLUSOLA

Christian Religious Studies Department, College Of Education, Ikere –Ekiti.

 

Abstract

Christianity has always been connoted as a religion of faith. Africans accepted Christianity and absorbed along with it a lot of Western ideologies which led to the extinction of some of African indigenous values. This paper takes a look at faith and reason in African Christianity. Issues like reason and reasoning; inseparability of faith and reason; relating faith and reason; essentiality of reason in African Christianity are studied in the paper. It concluded that though we accept God by faith, yet, we need to apply reason in our practice of religion and the exercise of faith.

Keywords:    Faith, Reason, African Christianity

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EFFECTIVE URBAN MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE: A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN SECURITY IN NIGERIA

                                       

1KEFAS ISA, 2MOSES Z. WANDA AND 3GIDEON JAFIYA

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State

 

Abstract

Insecurity has become a major challenge in Nigeria to the extent that the comfort of living, working and recreating in safety is eluding in most Nigerian Urban centers. The impact of the security situation seems to pervade ripple effects on several aspects of lives of the people, extending from human lives, properties, food security, politics, economy, health, education and morals. It therefore behooves a new approach rather than the application of entirely military approach to conflict resolution. This paper reviews the current security situation with the view to explore other policy options (Effective Urban management and governance) to address security challenges. Archival research strategy was adopted in which administrative records and documentations form the major source of data. The paper draws largely on research findings and other academic literature. The Paper identified Religions sentiment/fanaticism, ethnic conflict, political disagreement, poverty, institutional failure, and absence of basic urban infrastructural facilities, as the major impediment militating against sustainable urban security in Nigeria. It recommends the adoption of an integrated frame work for urban management which will involve all the stakeholders responsible for urban management and governance. Reviving of the existing urban development and management policies to cope with the current security situation in the country should be considered speedily.

Keywords: Urban governance, urban management, Urban Security, Urban Violence

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ASSESSMENT OF ADMINISTRATORS’ INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISORY PRACTICES FOR ATTAINMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE FCT

 

*IFEATU, OBIANUJU GERALDINE; & **OKWUEZE, NJIDEKA RHODA

*National Space Research and Development Centre, Airport Road Lugbe, Abuja. **Kubwa 3 Model Primary School, FHA Kubwa, Fct, Abuja.

 

Abstract

This study is an assessment of administrators’ instructional supervisory practices for attainment of quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. Five research questions guided the study and five null hypotheses formulated. A descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. Population for this study comprised 3,339 secondary school teachers which constituted 1,660 male and 1,679 female teachers respectively in 62 public secondary schools from the 6 Area Councils in the FCT, Abuja. The sample size for this study consisted of 334 teachers (166 male & 168 female teachers) from 31 public secondary schools within the 6 Area Councils in the FCT, selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. 10% of the male and female teachers and 50% of the secondary schools’ population were drawn for sampling. The instrument used for data collection was a 25-item questionnaire titled “Administrators’ Instructional Supervisory Practices for Quality Assurance Questionnaire (AISPQAQ)” developed by the researchers. Validity and reliability of the instrument were established. Data gathered were analyzed using mean scores which were rated at 2.50 and standard deviation in order to answer the research questions, while the hypotheses formulated were tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among other things that the secondary school administrators did not sufficiently apply majority of the instructional supervisory practices such as the classroom visitation and observation, individual-teacher conference, demonstration teaching, inter-school visitation and clinical instructional supervisory practices, for attainment of quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. Hence, no significant difference exists between mean ratings of male and female secondary school teachers on all the administrators’ instructional supervisory practices for attainment of quality assurance in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory. From the findings of this study recommendations were made and among them included that: school administrators should apply sufficient classroom visitation and observation instructional supervisory practices through walk-through practices, constant discussions with teachers and constructively criticizing teachers’ classroom activities for attainment of quality assurance in secondary schools in the FCT.

Keywords:     Administrators, Instructional, Supervisory, Practices, Attainment, Quality Assurance, Secondary Schools

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ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO PUBLIC HOUSING DELIVERY IN BIRNIN KEBBI TOWN

 

ADEBAYO, OYEKANMI OLUWOLE; USMAN, BELLO SA’AD; & ABDULAZEEZ, SHAKIRAT REMILEKUN

Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Housing demand is usually propelled by the will, desire, aspiration and intention of Government, individual or household to acquire a house. This research aimed at analysing the Economic constraints to public housing delivery in Birnin kebbi town, the methodology deployed comprised of both primary and secondary data sources, the target population include the property Investors, Kebbi state Housing Corporation and kebbi state property Investment Company and a total of Nine questionnaires were administered and retrieved. The research revealed that there is fluctuation in the supply of houses from year to year and also there is no impact of economic constraints on the housing delivery in the study area. The study recommended that government should formulate a policy that will bring the interest rate to single digit so as to encourage prospective real estate investors.

Keywords:     Economic constraint, Housing Delivery, Housing Need and Housing Supply

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SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH AND LOCUST BEANS WASTE ASH AS A REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE

 

ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA1, ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD AHMADU2, ABDULLAHI BALARABE BALA3.

Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic.

 

Abstract

This study is aimed at investigating the compressive strength of concrete using Sugarcane Bagasse ash (SCBA) and Locust Beans Waste Ash (LBWA) as a replacement for cement in concrete using two grades of concrete; grade 20, and 30 respectively. The concrete cube cast was; control (0%) 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% respectively, the cube was cast, cured and tested at 7days, 14days, and 28days. Although, the results of this study have shown a significant reduction in compressive strength of concrete utilizing SCBA & LBWA than normal concrete, it can be concluded that, optimum amount of sugarcane bagasse ash incorporated with Locust beans waste ash that can be replaced with cement is maximum of 6% by weight without any admixtures.

Keywords:   Cementious material, Compressive strength, concrete, Sugarcane Bagasse ash, Locust Beans Waste Ash, Pozzolana

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PARAMETRIC SIMULATION AND EXERGY ANALYSIS OF A 30W ETHANOL FUEL CELL: THEORITICAL APPROACH

 

EMENIRU DANIEL C1,3, OGORO ZINO BRIGHT2, OSAZEE OGBEIFUN E.2, OWUTUAMOR FREDRICK T.2, OLAWALE ADEGBOYEGA S.3, OGUCHE JOHN ENEMONA3

1Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa state, Nigeria 2Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa state 3Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Ethanol has the potential of being an abundant biofuel considering raw materials and indigenous technology available. Due to its oxidation tendency, higher energy density, nontoxic and environmental affability, etc., studies have accord and intensify preference and suitability in the use of ethanol in fuel cells. Hence, this work adopts a theoretical approach in the simulation and exergy analysis of a 30W ethanol fuel cell. While making empirically considerable assumptions on the layers’ thicknesses and other parameters, the simulation considers 1atm. and 65oC operating condition. Fixed and standard parameters from literature were applied in the mathematical expressions and models describing the over-potentials, energy and power generation and, the efficiencies inherent of the simulation. Voltage loss due to transport contributes about 80% of the 0.1211 V total over-potential that culminates to the 3.633W irreversible power. The exergy analysis of the simulated 95% Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell (DEFC) gave 89% cell efficiency for the generation of 3,050 kJ energy, 33.80 W ideal power and 30.28W useful power in a 90 seconds operation at a 1.1267V potential was to develop birthrate monitoring system. To achieve this aim, the study set as its objectives to; ascertain the birth record system of the understudied hospitals, develop a platform for birth information, design a module that computes birth statistics and to integrate the birth information platform with the birth statistics module. The Rapid Application Development (RAD) was used to develop the study. The Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOAaD) was used to analyze and design this system. The Hyper-Preprocessor (PHP) and MYSQL were used as tools to implementing the system. The MYSQL was used to develop a centralized web-based database. Birth rate monitoring information system was developed. The system was tested and deployed. The result showed that using the proposed system makes data entry and information retrieval easier and simple compared to the existing system.

Keywords:     Fuel cells, ethanol, simulation, Voltage loss, efficiency, exergy.

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LIBRARY OF THE MODERN TIME

 

*AUWAL IDRIS; & **ALIYU NASIRU MUHAMMAD

*Dept. of Library & Information Sciences, A.D Rufai College of Education & Legal Studies, Misau, Bauchi State. **Abu Ali Library, ASCOE, Azare, Bauchi State

 

Abstract

The paper dwells on the general concepts of library and its numerous and divergent users, it also explain various library service base on the information needs of its users, that constantly patronize the library and further categorized the users. The paper as well talks on the sudden changes of libraries from traditional to digital services. It also highlights current trends in librarianship in the 21st century, as well as elating its impact on information communication technology (ICT). The paper also identified various advantages and challenges. It also summarized the contents of the paper and concludes as well as making recommendations.

Keywords:     Library, Modern, Automated, Digital, Virtual

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INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF CERCOSPORA LEAFSPOT OF GROUNDNUT AS INFLUENCE BY INOCULUM LEVELS IN MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

1NGWAMDAI, N.A AND 2TUTI, N. Z.

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35 Mubi Adamawa State. 2Department of Horticultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35 Mubi Adamawa State.

 

Abstract

The Study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi to determine the influence of different inoculum concentrations of Cercospora. arachidiocola causal organism of Cercospora Leafspot (CLS) on the incidence, severity and yield components of groundnuts during the 2016 cropping season. Five inoculum concentrations (T1=107spore/ml, T2=106spore/ml, T3=105spore/ml, T4=104spore/ml, T5=103spore/ml) were prepared by serial dilution technique and T6=Distilled water which serves as control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four (4) times. Results obtained revealed that plants inoculated with 104spore/ml suspensions of the inoculums recorded the highest incidence (100%) and severity (57.77%) of the disease at 10 WAS and also the lowest yields of haulms (108 kgha-1), pods (202.20 kg/ha-1) and 170.62 kg/ha of groundnut seeds while significantly lower incidence (27.74%), severity (5.77%) and higher yields of haulms (262.66 kg/ha-1), pods 299.22 kg/ha-1 and seeds (240.51 kg/ha-1) were recorded against the control (T6).This study have therefore demonstrated the influence of inoculum concentration of 104 spore/ml in giving higher incidence and severity of CLS disease in the study area. Further studies should be conducted by incorporating more groundnut cultivars using different inoculum concentrations with a view to determine their susceptibility in other locations.

Keywords:     Cercospora, Inoculum concentration, incidence, severity and Groundnut.

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ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF UTILIZING SOLID-WASTE GENERATED IN GOMBE-METROPOLIS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION

 

*ISAH, MOHAMMED *AHMED, CHINADE ABDULLAHI; *ISTIFANUS, VICTOR; & **ADAMU, SANI JAURO,

*Department of Environmental Management Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Planning, Research & Statistics, Ministry of Environment & Forest Resources, PMB 0188 Gombe (Moenv.Gm.Gov.Ng), Gombe State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The result of the assessment for the economic sustainability of utilizing solid waste generated in Gombe metropolis for renewable energy production shows that INEX dumpsite has the Power Generation Capacity of 361,963.2 kWh/day at a Capital Cost of N259,220,000.00 and needs Operation and Maintenance Cost of N5,580,000.00 per year, and can generate Revenue of N43,203,333.3 per year with a Net Present Value of N4,122,621.3 per year, the Internal Rate of Return will be at 14%, and have a Pay Back Period of 6.8years. While the GOSEPA dumpsite has the Power Generation Capacity of 77,613.8 kWh/day at a Capital Cost of N133,088,000.00 and needs Operation and Maintenance Cost of N2,856,000.00 per year, and can generate Revenue of N22,181,333.3 per year with a Net Present Value of N2,116,623.2 per year, the Internal Rate of Return will be at 14% and have a Pay Back Period of 6.8years. Furthermore, the result of the economic assessment of electricity generation from the two dumpsites through solid waste incineration shows that the Net Present Value is positive at electricity cost of N29.8/kWh, and the cost is comparable with a study by (Amoo et al., 2013) who found out that electrical power generation using incineration plant could provide electricity at a cost of N32.5/kWh in Lagos and Nsukka. The result therefore implies that investment is profitable at N29.8/kWh in Gombe metropolis. The research recommends that INEX cleaners and Gombe State government should establish waste-to-energy plant at the two dumpsites (INEX and GOSEPA) for providing base load renewable electrical power in the State.

Keywords:     Economic Sustainability, Generated in Gombe Metropolis, Renewable Energy Production, Utilizing Solid Waste

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INVESTIGATING THE OPTIMALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTIALLY BALANCED LATTICE DESIGNS WITH THREE ASSOCIATE CLASSES

 

MURTALA MUHAMMAD SALIHU, SYLVESTER CHIGOZIE NWAOSU AND ENOBONG FRANCIS UDOUMOH

Department of Mathematics/Statistics/ Computer Science, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Partially Balanced Lattice Designs (PBLD) is a subclass of Incomplete Block Designs which are similar to the Balanced Lattices only that they allows for more flexible choice of the number of replications, the PBLD requires that the  number of treatments must be a perfect square and that Block size k must be equal to the square root of these treatments number.  Balanced Lattice Design require the number of replications to be . They exist for certain parameters. They require large number of replications, which consumes logistics, time and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the Optimality Criteria for a Partially Balanced Lattice Designs with three associate classes. The A-, D-, and G- optimality criteria were studied. These approaches demonstrated in our study involving sixty-four treatments. The results show that D-optimality has the highest values of  while A- and G- Optimality have and  respectively. It means that D- criteria is more optimal than A- and G- criteria. In the same manner, the efficiencies of this Design were considered by maximizing the information matrix; the results are  for A-, D-, and G-efficiency respectively, D-efficiency Criteria also show better result when compared to A- and G- efficiency. Hence, the results indicate that Partially Balanced Lattice Designs with four replications possess D-Optimality Criteria. It is therefore recommended here that for studies in Partial Lattice Designs, D- Optimality is better when a researcher is interested in square Lattice Designs. Agriculture researchers, sample surveyors and plant breeders should use Partial Lattice Designs to test a large number of entries that are compare directly for selection, it is cost effective in experimental Designs and improve efficiency. It also serves as reference material for researchers who wishes to carryout research on Partial Lattices.

Keywords: optimality criteria, efficiency criteria, association scheme, replication and lattices,

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