African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 22 No. 2


VOL. 22 NO. 2 SEPTEMBER, 2021 ISSN: 2010 – 1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


A Critical Analysis of Azar’s ‘Protracted Social Conflict’ Model: Towards an Explanatory Discourse on Contemporary African Conflicts


Adekunle Ajisebiyawo (Ph.D); Collins Okonkwo (Ph.D); & Tunde Agara (Ph.D)

Department of Political Science & Public Administration, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State



The end of the cold war signified the triumph of western ideas of capitalism and liberalism against the forces and ideas of communism. There were celebrations and some intellectuals declared The End of History by which they meant that the era of grand conflict in the history of man has passed. The assumption was that there would be a harmonization of cultures and identities. This prediction and conceptualization of history have proved to be wrong. Today, there is no harmonization of cultures and conflict persists. Post-cold war conflict has not been motivated by grand ideologies anymore but by the differences in identities. This paper attempts a theoretical explanation of the types, manifestations and nature of conflict in Africa using the ‘Protracted Social Conflict’ (PSC) model by Edward Azar. The paper starts with an examination of the nature and typology of conflict, touching on the forms conflict in a state can take. The paper proceeds to the analysis of Azar’s PSC model in the context of African conflicts. The paper concludes that the PSC thesis provides a relevant framework for understanding Africa’s conflicts, especially those conflicts that have persisted over a long period of time.

Keywords: Protracted Social Conflict, Conflict theory, African Politics, African Conflict




Overcoming Educational Corruption as Panacea for Peace Building: The FG/ASUU Perspective


Oloyede, Funmilayo Lizzy PhD; Adesiyan, Victor PhD; & Osundina, Olasunkami PhD

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.



Universities have a critical role in supporting knowledge-driven economic growth and national development. Also, the generation of new knowledge is turning out to be a significant function of universities worldwide. However, it has been observed that challenges confronting the Nigerian University system are enormous, leading to industrial actions despite several policies and agreements between different staff bodies in the universities system and Federal Government. This work examines disputes arising as a result of the Federal Government of Nigeria non-implementation of agreements with The Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) despite the parties’ promises. The study also reveals other forms of corruptions in the academic sector. This study relied on secondary sources for information, and a desk review study was undertaken, while conflict theory was adopted as a guide.  The paper found rot in the universities system on the one hand, and corruption in the case of Federal Government in non-implementation of signed agreements on the other hand, as the significant causes of instability in the Nigerian Universities system. This paper, therefore, recommends that disputants should make use of more mediation with collective bargaining than negotiation. Better still, there is a need for early intervention of dispute resolution tools, where the agreement will be implemented amicably between parties involved.

Keywords: University, Collective Bargaining, Agreement, Corruption, Development.




Entrepreneurship Leadership and Sustainable Development


1Joseph Adeniyi Kolawole, 2Samuel Ibidapo Adeniyi and 3Dolapo Peter Olagoke

1Library, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji – Arakeji, Osun State 2Vice Chancellor Office, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria. 3Library, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji – Arakeji, Osun State



This paper focused on effect of entrepreneurship leadership on sustainable development. One hundred and twenty (120) enterprises were randomly selected from three senatorial districts in Ondo State which comprised of; Akure South, Akure North and Ondo Centre and the questionnaire used was distributed accordingly. The result revealed that entrepreneurship leadership style was positively significant on employees’ motivation as χ2-calculated of 56.453 was greater than the χ2-tabulated of 12.32. It was found that entrepreneurship leadership style was positively related to growth of enterprises. as χ2-calculated of 47.890 was greater than the χ2-tabulated of 12.321 at 5% critical level of significant. It was discovered that entrepreneurship leadership style had significant contribution on sustainable development as χ2-calculated for the test of 89.006 was greater than the χ2-tabulated of 12.321 at 5% critical level of significant. The study conclude that entrepreneurship style always affect sustainable development.

Keywords: Entrepreneur, Leadership, Sustainable, Development, Entrepreneurship Leadership Style




“Not Everything that can be Counted Counts, and not everything that Counts can be Counted”: Widening Gap between Scholars and Industry Practitioners in Nigeria.


Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu (PhD)

Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, P. M. B. 1154 Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria [Box 129 Lokoja, Kogi State Nigeria; Post code 760901, Lokoja, Nigeria]



It is now a song in Nigeria’s academic word to either published or perish”. it drives all faculty members and lecturers towards research and publication in reputable peer- reviewed “A” journals, Most especially in the universities. where the value of the publication is respected when it is in refereed “A” (4 star journals, preferably those which have achieved very high reputation. This paper is to examine the extent to which academic research papers must inform, educate, contribute to knowledge and entertain the practitioners who are engaged in practicals, in either management or business work (industry practitioner). There are evidences in the western world of Europe, America and Australiasia especially, and in Africa that our management and business journals are neither read nor recognized by the industry practitioners. This paper is a literature review and practical Research work which, recommends that a continuous practical interaction between the lecturers and practitioners is more rewording, and let the Academic research works of lecturers be used by industry practitioners and vice versa. Do the practitioners and government officials even read or consult management journals in Nigeria?. The consequences for academics and other writers is that if our papers are not read by practitioners in the subject area then there is no need writing them. We can use the research papers for professional career promotion in their place of employment, but should this be the only reason?.  We must try to write and publish our papers to meet the demands of academically related journals and publications, which will further our careers and also to use other outlets that are likely to be read by the industry practitioners. It is a somewhat difficult, but not an impossible task. The evidence from this paper especially from the United Kingdom, will lay semblance to what is obtainable in Nigeria. The readership of academic work most likely are disappointingly exclusive those in the academia. That if lecturers research writings must be useful, it must involve practical facts relevant to management managers, or industry practitioners who will invariably alter their reading habits to accommodate research writings. Managers must also contribute to research papers and journal articles, so as to make the journals attractive to bridge the marriage between the town and gown.

Keywords: Industry practitioners, Town, Gown, Academia Referred Journals , industry practitioners.




Assessement of off and on-Farm Income Diversification for Sustainable Livelihoods Amongs the Rural Women Dwellers in Mokwa Local Govwernment Area of Niger State, Nigeria.


1Mohammed, U., 2Umar I.S., 2Olaleye, R.S., 3Ahmad B.S, 4Mohammed, U., 1Umar, A.

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 3National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State. 4Niger State College of Education Minna.



The study was on Assessement of Off and On-Farm Income Diversification for Sustainable Livelihoods amongs the Rural Women Dwellers in Mokwa Local Govwernment area of Niger State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 187 of rural women. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview scheduled; and analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency), Livelihoods status index and Ordered Logit  regression Model. The result of Demographic characteristics revealed that age  (62.5%) and (35.5%) of the respondents had age of 21-30 years and 31-40 years respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35 years, the result of.marital status  also indicated that 66.1% of the respondents were married while 29.9% and 4% were single and widowed respectively. That 66.0% of the respondents had between 6-10 persons while 31 % had 11-15 person while 3% <6 persons. The mean household size of the respondents was 8.5 persons, 67.2% of the respondents had one forms of formal education and the other, 32.8% of the respondents had non-formal education. Also more than half (62.0%) of the respondents had monthly income between N35,000- N45,000 while 38.% had income of between N50,000 – N60,000. The mean monthly income of the respondents was N41309.02, indicating that majority of the rural women in the study area had monthly income that is above recommended minimum wage in Nigeria,  84.1% of the respondents had moderate livelihood while 12.5% had low livelihood. Also, only (3.4%) of the respondents had high livelihood. The result of ordered logit shows that coefficient of marital status on off and on-farm income (0.3439431) was positively significant at 10% level of probability, also the coefficient of education (0.1015516) was positively significant at 10% level of probability, implying that attainment of more formal education could expose rural women new ways of strategizing on how to improve their livelihood. It was recommended that rural women should diversify into other viable income generating activities in order to increase their livelihood status and Government policy that will create a suitable atmosphere for rural women to market their business should be implemented.

Keywords: Assessment, off and on-farm income, Livelihoods, Diversification, Rural women, Dwellers.




Financial Management Practices of Principals and Implementation of Education Laws in Secondary Schools in Nasarawa   State


Uwaleke, Gladys Chinelo Ph.D.; Yakubu Sani Ph.D; & Usman Stephen, Ph.D

Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management



This study examined the financial management practices of principals and implementation of education laws of secondary schools in Nasarawa State. Three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses were formulated and tested for the study. It adopted descriptive survey design. The Population sample of the study was Teachers and students representing 12% of the total Population were sampled from three southern districts using stratified random sampling. The structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect data for the study. The instrument used for the data collection of the study was a modified four point-Likert type questionnaire of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD).Frequency count and percentage were used to analyze the three research questions, while Chi-square test was used to test the three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that use of education law has a significant impact on principals procurement fund of secondary schools in Nasarawa state and use of education law has influence on principals utilization of funds for national cohesion and education laws has significant impact on principals financial record keeping practices of secondary schools in Nasarawa State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that government should allocate sufficient funds for the management of school. Also there should be sanction of school administrators involves in the acts for national cohesion.

Keywords: Financial Management Practices, Implementation, Education Law, National Cohesion.




Influence of Youtube Videos on Skills Acquisition among Youths in Ogun State, Nigeria


Akintayo, Babafemi J., Ekeh, Charles M., & Osunfisan, Anjolaoluwa O.

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



One of the fallouts of persistent economic downturns in the last few years has been the consistently high rate of unemployment in Nigeria, which has heightened the need for skills acquisition particularly amongst the teeming youths in the country. This study therefore investigated the influence of YouTube videos on skills acquisition among undergraduates in three universities in Ogun state. The study adopted the descriptive survey research method. Results revealed that participants were highly exposed (n=239, 100%) to YouTube contents through their mobile phones and other devices, and were highly aware of YouTube skills acquisition videos (x̅ = 3.88). However, it was discovered that awareness and exposure to YouTube videos had no positive influence on skills acquisition among youths in the study (R2= 0.040, β= -0.199, t = -2.896, p< 0.05). It was recommended that youths should take advantage of the opportunities available on YouTube to acquire needed skills as they dowload and view videos rather than spending most resources on entertainment.

Keywords: YouTube, skills acquisition, YouTube videos, awareness of YouTube videos, exposure to YouTube videos




Management Supervision and its Effects on Internal Control Efficiency in Tertiary Institutions in Mubi, Adamawa State


*Abubakar Mahmud Bello; **Abubakar Barkindo; & **Rose Ezekiel

*Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. **Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State



This research focused on Management Supervision and its Effects on Internal Control Efficiency in Tertiary Institutions In Mubi, Adamawa State. The purpose of this study is to find out whether Management Supervision significantly affects internal control efficiency in tertiary institutions in Mubi, Adamawa State. The study focused on Adamawa State University (ADSU), College of Health Technology (COHT) and the Federal Polytechnic Mubi (FPM) Adamawa State using a formulated model adopting management supervision as the independent variable while Internal control efficiency was adopted as a dependent variable on 30 respondents from the Adamawa State University, 20 respondents from the College of Health Technology and 50 respondents from the Federal Polytechnic in Mubi which gives a total of 100. Survey is the adopted research design. A hypothesis was formulated to test whether management supervision has a significant effect on Internal control efficiency in tertiary institutions in Mubi, Adamawa State. This study is anchored on statistical test of formulated hypothesis based on the Multiple Correlation Coefficient ‘r’ by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings from testing the hypothesis show that about 76.2% of the proportion of change in the internal control efficiency in tertiary institutions in Mubi is being predicted by management supervision. It was concluded that management supervision significantly affects internal control efficiency in tertiary institutions in Mubi. The study recommends that management supervision processes should be improved in terms of performance and target achievement so as to facilitate the increased efficiency of internal controls.

Keywords: Management supervision, Effects, Internal Controls, Efficiency, Tertiary Institutions




National Security and Development in Nigeria


Gideon, Victor Olorunfemi PhD; and Agaba, Adah Ekoja,

Human Capital Policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (Niser)



Security is synonymous to freedom from danger, fear and doubt among others.  Security relates to the presence of peace, safety, happiness and the protection of human and physical resources or the absence of crisis. Security can therefore be described as freedom from threat or violence which could lead to the loss of lives and property. Security is presently a major challenge all over Nigeria as both Nigerians and non-Nigerians are killed on daily basis and in their numbers. The United Nations building and the Police Headquarters at the Federal Capital were bombed. Though the government claims to be on top of the situation, the problem persists. There is a positive relationship between security and development.  National development cannot be realized when there is insecurity because security is essential for development.

Keywords: National, Security, Challenges, Development, Nigeria.




Suitability of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Locust Beans Waste Ash and Alkaline Activated Metakaolin as a Replacement for Cement in Concrete


Adejoh Benjamin Ochola1, Joshua Abimiku2, Pogu Joshua Hirpaya3

1.2Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic. 3Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



This study is aimed at investigating the compressive strength of concrete using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, locust beans waste ash (LBWA) and alkaline activated metakaolin as cementious materials in replacement for cement in concrete using two grades of concrete; grade 20 and 25. The concrete cube samples cast contained; control (0%) 5%, 10% and 15% of the cementious materials. the cube samples were cast, cured and tested at 7days, 14days. 21days and 28days. Although, the results of this study have shown a significant reduction in compressive strength of concrete utilizing SCBA LBWA and metakaolin than normal concrete, However, the results shows that SCBA LBWA and metakaolin of 5% & 10% replacement can be used for the different grades of concrete, while 15% replacement of LBWA and metakaolin can be used in road kerbs, concrete blocks, non-bearing concrete walls, Light Weight Concrete, precast units (partition walls, concrete blocks for Architectural applications and some cases of slabs on soil, culverts, sidewalks, drive ways), foundation pads for machinery, etc. and are thereby recommended.

Keywords: Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Locust beans waste ash, metakaolin, Cementious material, Compressive strength, light weight concrete.




Attaining Energy Optimization in Commercial Buildings in Nigeria


Ubong Okpon Esen; Efanga Otu Efanga; Uduak Okon Jeremiah; Timothy Effiong Edem; & Ekerete Udo Umoh

Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State



Many commercial buildings today were built with less attention towards minimization of energy consumption. This therefore has led to high cost in resources being expended on the management of energy consumption in these buildings. Many proprietors of commercial buildings spend much resources to ensure customers’ convenience and comfort in terms of lighting and cooling. The study investigates the influence of energy optimization measures on cost minimization for proprietors of commercial buildings for effective service delivery in Uyo. Two research purpose, questions and hypotheses were used to guide the study. The study adopted an architectural research design. The population of the study consist of five commercial buildings (Crunchies eatry, De-choice mall, Tropicana entertainment center, Nteps shopping mall and Big Daddy) situated at the heart of the town with an observed load capacity of people. A simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the mall while purposive sampling were used to identify the capacity of people that could actually occupy the building. An instrument titled energy optimization measures which consisted of heat, cooling, and lighting was used for data collection and decision making. Data analysis were done using temperature (heat/cooling) and light rays formular. The result of the findings indicates that energy maximization measures [in heat/cooling and lighting] could be used to minimize energy cost in commercial building in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It was recommended among others that proprietors of commercial building should consult architects and services engineers building designs that would help them to consume less electrical energy for the purpose of maximizing cost of running their day to day businesses.

Keywords:  Energy optimization, cooling, heat, lighting, cost minimization




Expert Information for Determining and Ranking of Risk Factors of Drug Use/Abuse


Liman, Sale Awalu

Department of General Studies, School of Administrative and Business Studies, Numan, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



The study attempts to develop an Analytic Hierarchy Process Model using expert’s information for identifying and ranking of risk factors of drug use/abuse The data was obtained using questionnaire from experts on drug use/abuse after a pilot survey was conducted in the study area in order to identify factors that are peculiar to the area, which as a result an additional factor was identified which was not reported in the existing literature that is, almajiri school system. Eight risk factors were compared based on Saaty pair wise comparison by the study groups (NDLEA staff, Drug users/abusers, Health practitioners and parents). The results indicated as follows: Environment (0.217), Individual (0.170), Parents (0.159), School (0.107), Peer pressure group (0.86), Religiosity (0.103), Poverty (0.085), Almajiri System of School (0.075).Both its consistency index and ratio are less than 1, meeting the theoretical requirement of AHP. The study recommends further research to be conducted by varying parameters used in this study to be able to validates the model leading to generalization of the model and incorporating into the model participation through internet and analysis through computer programming/coding is a prospect worth further studies

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Experts, Almajiri, Drug use/abuse, Peer pressure group




Microbiological Quality Assessment of Kunun-Zaki Sold in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Campus. Adamawa State Nigeria


*Wafari1, U. U and Ta’awu1, K. G

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.



Kunun zaki is a traditional fermented non-alcoholic drink that has been widely accepted as a nutritional drink by Nigerians particularly in the northern region. Kunun zaki is served as a food complement, to quench taste and as a refresher. This study evaluated the microbiological quality of kunun zaki drinks sold in Federal Polytechnic Mubi, campus. Triplicate samples were obtained in 12 different locations. Standard microbiological procedures were employed. The results showed that the mean aerobic colony count ranged from (4.123 ± 0.11log10 CFU/mL to 4.897 ± 0.020log10 CFU/mL). Mean ACC of kunun zaki from these points were significantly different from each other (p<0.05). The mean staphylococcus aureus count ranged between (3.460 ± 0.15log10 CFU/mL to 4.742 ± 0.06log10 CFU/mL) and were statistically different (p<0.05). E.coli counts ranged between 3.504 ± 0.035log10 CFU/mL to 4.783±0.02log10 CFU/mL. All the twelve samples were higher than the standard values of 2log10 CFU/mL. The fungal counts ranged between 2.13 ± 0.07log10 CFU/mL to 2.93 ± 0.04log10 CFU/mL, and the counts was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Eight (8) fungal genera with 11 species were observed. The pH value ranged between 3.537 ± 0.152 to 4.313 ± 0.103 which suggest acidity. It is recommended that further research be conducted in other part of Nigeria using other pathogens, other types of foods/or beverages and other food service establishment to establish a comprehensive profile of microbial risks/or safety of various food products. To mitigate the effects of the natural presence of microbes in the food chain, the application of Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) allows a minimization in the contamination to satisfactory levels.

Keywords: kunun zaki, Microbiological, quality, pH, fermented, assessment.




Strategies of Combating Insurgency in Northeastern Nigeria: Responses from an Empirical Study


Adam Shaaba Ahmed1, Ibrahim Ghide Adamu2, Jibril, T. Abdulkadir Ph.D3

1Department of Social Studies, Federal College of Education, Katsina 2Department of Social Development, Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam 3Department of Educational Psychology & Counselling, Federal College of Education, Kontagora



The controversy surrounding the issue of negotiation with terrorists as well as the idea of ripeness as a condition for peace dialogue has been dominant in peace and conflict resolution literature. This study seeks to find out whether the right moment to initiate peace talks with Boko Haram (BH) insurgent has come. Two Northeastern States of Bornu and Yobe were randomly selected for the study.  The sample of the study was 306 respondents randomly picked from the six tertiar institutions in the two States. The instrument for data collection was a self-designed questionnaire titled Strategies of combating Boko Haram insurgency in Northeastern Nigeria Questionnaire” which was validated by three experts from Social Studies Department, Federal College of Education, Katsina, Social Development Department, Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam and Psychology and Counselling Department, Federal College of Education, Kontagora respectively. A reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained. From the result of the study, it was discovered that negotiation strategy cannot be used to address the issue of insurgency in the Northeastern part of Nigeria. The findings from the study also showed that BH is not planning to restore Islamimc Shariah in Nigeria.  Short term measures which include economic empowerment and human capital development of Nigerian youth, addressing grievances underlying the crisis and denial of insurgents operating space among others were some of the recommendations made.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Peace initiative, Negotiation, Conflict, Ripeness, Insurgency




Comparative Study of Academic Achievement among Undergraduate English Education and Science Education Students in Selected G.S.T Courses in F.C.E Yola


Hafsatu Nuhu: & Haruna Danjuma

Department of General Studies, Federal College of Education, Yola



This paper is aimed at discovering the gap or differences between the performance of English Education and Science Education in one selected G.S.T course. The work was carried out in Adamawa state, Yola Northeast. The school is Federal College of Education, Yola Degree Programme Affiliated to University of Maiduguri. The results were analyzed using the results of Science Education and English Education performance from 2014 to 2017. Only on some selected GST courses. The summary of the results has shown that there are significant difference in performance or achievement of English education students and science education students in GST course. Based on the findings, it was recommended that much attention should be given to science education students.

Keywords: Comparative, Achievement, Undergraduate, Education, Science.




Impact of the National Fadama Projects on the Capacity of the Beneficiaries for Sustainable Livelihoods in Katsina State


*Dr. Sani Maiunguwa; & **Dr. J. O. Adefila

*Geography Department, Isa Kaita College of Education, PMB 5007, Dutsinma Katsina State, Nigeria **Geography Department, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria



As one of the many strategies that use agriculture to drive the economy along the path of sustainable growth, the federal government, in partnership with state governments, local governments and peasants, and with the support of the World Bank, initiated the national Fadama programme, the aim of which is to leverage the unique characteristics of the vast wetlands in the country to promote year-round farming in order to sustain the livelihoods of the farmers and boost domestic food supply. The scope of Phases I and II of the Fadama programme from 2000 to 2008 was characterized by a strong emphasis on arable farming. The scope was extended in Phase III to encompass sustainable rural livelihoods by promoting diversification into non-farm economic activities. This study sets out to examine the extent to which the Fadama programme has been able to develop the capacity of smallholder farmers for sustainable livelihoods in Katsina State. The data used for the study were gathered in field surveys using two sets of structured questionnaires amongst sampled groups of beneficiaries and officials of the Fadama programme in the State. The key areas of Fadama intervention to communities include; Asset development, Agricultural inputs, infrastructural development and Capacity building. The achievements of the Project were observed in the improvement of the Beneficiaries’ capacity to diversify within and outside agriculture. Eleven (11) different types of 1900 subprojects were executed to the completion level. However the average monthly income of the Beneficiary FUG members was found to be generally low and varied as most could be said to be within the poverty line. This is because income was found to be constrained by household size which induced family and community responsibilities. Nonetheless improving access to factors of production which Fadama project had made the Beneficiaries to achieve also translate into income improvement, self empowerment, by enabling the poor especially women and landless to become economic agents of change, they made laudable investments to improve their livelihood activities. However, most Beneficiaries are poor farmers and are constantly held back by prices that are too low to be remunerative and too volatile to consider continuous   investments. Climatic variations, diseases and pest, vulnerability in interactions with commercial operators, difficulty in entering remunerative value chains and markets and in freely choosing and appropriating suitable technologies are every day challenges. Thus the study recommends that Fadama effort to diversify the Katsina State’ economy by supporting off-farm activities in villages and rural growth centers need to be accompanied by measures to strengthen the rural-urban linkages. These require that rural growth centers be promoted in the context of rural development. while appropriate measure to create mass purchasing power in urban areas through promotion of labour intensive activities and an enabling environment for small-scale informal activities and cottage industries are crucial for the enhancement of market and income opportunities for producers. This requires provision and or rehabilitation of social and economic infrastructures.

Keywords: Fadama, Smallholder, Beneficiaries, Sustainability, Livelihoods.




Problems Concerning the Teaching and Learning of Secondary Schools Mathematics in Adamawa State; Issues and Prospects


Abubakar Abdullah

General Studies Education Department, Federal College of Education, Yola



Mathematics is quite rich in concepts which directly translate to proper life skills. The importance of mathematics to everyday living cannot be over emphasized. The mathematics curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools is developed and structured around four major concepts: Number and Numeration, Algebraic processes, Geometry and Menstruation and everyday statistics. Mathematics is an important pillar of the future and helps to develop human thinking and man’s comfort. Teaching mathematics is a process which aims to present mathematics for the students in an easy and acceptable method. Mathematics gives the teacher a bigger role in guiding and organizing the learning process, to encourage the students to learn. It is important to identify students who experience difficulties to learning as early as possible. This research investigates teachers ‘challenges in mathematics teaching, and Students challenges in learning.

Keywords: Problems Concerning Teaching Learnin Secondary Mathematics  Adamawa




Examination of Practitioners’ Awareness of Sustainability in the Construction Industry in Yobe State.


*Mohammed Bukar Girgiri; *Zakariyyah Bolaji Olatunde; & **Abdulazeez Hakeem Omilola

*Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria.



The attention of practitioners, researchers, and policy maker has been drawn to the concept of sustainability in construction industry because of its level of adoption. This is attributed to low level of its awareness in Nigerian. This study therefore evaluates the level of construction practitioners’ awareness of sustainability in construction in Yobe state. The research employed quantitative survey approach. Data was collected from a sample of 162 construction practitioners using stratified random sampling with the aid of structured questionnaires administered on site and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that construction practitioners have moderately low level of awareness on sustainability. The study also revealed that, there is correlational relationship between the level of professionals’ awareness of sustainable construction, frequency of conference attendance, concept of sustainability in educational curricula, sustainable construction policy and firm’s commitment to sustainability. However the concept of sustainable construction in educational curricula has significant causal effect on the level of sustainable construction awareness. The study therefore recommended that practitioners should acquaint themselves with sustainability in construction through attending seminars, workshops and conferences. Professional bodies and government should do more in creating awareness on sustainability in construction.

Keywords: Practitioners, Awareness, Sustainability, Construction Industry.




The Role of Textile and Polymer Industries in the Development and Growth on Nigerian Economy


1A.Y. Abdulazeez; 2 S.M. Nasir; & 3Y. Yakubu Lams

Department of Textile Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria.



Nigeria is currently being faced with serious economic challenges going into recession twice in the last five years, it’s economy largely dependent on the oil sector and a problem of high level of youth unemployment. There is an urgent need to diversify the economy in order to avoid complete collapse of the economy when faced with consistent decline of oil price in the oil market especially during the recent COVID-19 pandemic where oil prices crashed down and led so many countries to recession including Nigeria. The revival and growth of textile and polymer industries in the manufacturing sector is essential and crucial if Nigeria is to foster structural changes to boost and secure the economy. The Nigerian textile and polymer industries have in the past contributed positively to the economy of the country. These sectors play a vital role in the development of Nigerian economy in the 1980s and were major foreign exchange earners after agriculture, it was the largest employer of labour after the government with about 600,000 and 700,000 workforces with thousands of cotton farmers, suppliers and traders (Webmaster,2016). This paper identifies the problems that lead to the decline and eventual comatose state of the textile manufacturing sector in Nigeria. The paper also stresses the huge contribution textile and polymer industries will add to the whole economy in terms of GDP growth, employment and other aspects of socio- economic development if revived to its full potential.

Keywords: Textile, polymer, Socio-Economy, Covid-19, Employment, Recession.




Going Beyond Training to Achieving Development: A Possibility for Adding Value for Organizational Success


Okeke Raymond Njelita; Chukwuezi Franklin Nzubechukwu; & Osuagwu Charles Chibueze

Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo



Training without development has remained a major challenge facing organizations in their bid to acquire long term knowledge that will match the modern day changes in their industry environment. As remaining fixed to yesterday’s skills and methods of manufacturing, tools, techniques, mind sets and attitudes is a prescription for failure. This places a great burden on organizations’ human capital – skills, knowledge and ideas possess by employees.  Using a large sample size of Six Hundred and Ten (610) respondents the questionnaire was in line with 5 points Likert scale. The correlation coefficient statistics was to establish significance. The findings of the work are that the correlation coefficient of training without development is statistically significant. The findings show significant effects of training without development on employee adaptability. The work concluded that training without development hinders employee capacity to adapt to industrial changes.

Keywords: Training without development, employee adaptability, industrial environment, organizational changes, management




Strengthening Technical and Vocational Education for Socioeconomic Development


Musa Haladu; & Umar Mohammed

Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe state



The paper title ‘Strengthening Technical and Vocational Education for Socioeconomic Development in Nigeria’. Examined Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria with a view to strengthening it for Stimulation of Socioeconomic Development. This was achieved through: explaining the concept of socioeconomic development, examining the features and disposition of technical and vocational education in Nigeria and propose measures for strengthening technical and vocational education. The study adopted qualitative method that relied purely on literature materials that included reports, journals, conference and seminar papers as well as internet materials. The main findings of the paper included; Inadequate political will to support the programme in Nigeria, Inadequate qualified lecturers and instructors, Inadequate infrastructure, Inadequate funding, Unsuitable learning environment, Substandard libraries, Below standard curriculum as well as Inadequate awareness on the importance of technical and vocational education in socioeconomic development in the country. The paper recommended provision of adequate political will, Introduction of technical and vocational education in all stages of education in the country. Planning in all activities of technical and vocational education, Adequate funding, Inclusiveness, Employing adequate qualified personnel, Training and retraining personnel, Alliance, collaboration and networking, Continuous research and utilization of result, Publicity and enlightenment, Promoting stakeholders participation as well as Moral and spiritual development in the strengthening of technical and vocational education to stimulate socioeconomic development in the country.

Keywords: Development, Education, Strengthening, Socioeconomic, Technical and Vocational.




An Analytical Basis for China’s Human Capital Development Boom: Lessons for Nigeria


Suhaibu Mohammed; & Kabiru Musa

Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto-Nigeria



Human capital development—a human-centered approach to development that empowers people with quality education, training, and skills to enhance their capabilities and socio-economic development—is the new development indicator that First World countries adopt to skyrocket their social and economic development. Through the application of Reflections on Human Development, a classical developmental theory developed by Mahbub Ul Haq (1995), we studied the meaning, characteristics, and the impact of Haq’s human development paradigm in terms of its contribution to the socio-economic growth of developing countries, including its impact in creating an enabling environment and boosting human capital in Chinese society. In this paper, we summarize our findings of the Chinese human capital development boom through qualitative data analysis and suggest critical lessons that Nigeria should adopt to facilitate its human capital development.

Keywords: Human Development, Human Capital Development, China, Nigeria, Mahbub Ul Haq, Sociology.




Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria: Evidence from the Nigerian Commercial Bank and MTN Nigeria


Obimma Jolet Adanma

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State



Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) has been a highly cotemporary and contextual issue to all stakeholders including the government, the corporate organization itself, and the general public. The public contended that the payment of taxes and the fulfilment of other civic rights are enough grounds to have the liberty to take back from the society in terms of CSR undertaken by other stakeholders. Most corporate organizations are concerned about what they can take out of the society, and de-emphasized the need to give back to the society (their host communities). This attitude often renders the entire community uninhabitable. However, the general belief is that both business and the economy and the society gain when firms actively strive to be socially responsible; that is, the business organizations gain in enhanced reputation, while economy and society gains from the social projects executed by the business organization. This study is therefore, intended to consider the imperative and benefits of CSR on the Nigeria economic development. The perceived gap supposedly created is harnessed and investigated for possible resolution, using the banking and communication industries as a case study. The research approach is both descriptive and analytical. Data collected for this study are from both primary and secondary sources, relying heavily on the relevant information available from both banking and communication sectors, and other sources. Tests were conducted using both regression and correlation analysis. The regression result reveals a strong and significant relationship between CSR and Societal Progress such that the relationship between CSR and Societal Progress is statistically significant. It is thus concluded that CSR plays a significant role in Societal Progressiveness in terms of environmental and economic growth. The study recommends that, while improvement in the depth of participation by banking and telecommunication industries in economic and environmental development is desirable, they are encouraged to close ranks and forge common interest in addressing certain social responsibilities, especially those bothering on security and technological advancement of the polity.

Keywords: Sustainable, Economic, Development, Nigerian Commercial Bank, MTN.




Housing Price Determinants in Bauchi State, Nigeria


*Ilekoin Olutoba Ayodele; **Salawu Olukayode Adewuyi; & ***Fatima Nuhammaed Abubarkar

*Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Estate Management Department, Abubarkar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi ***Quantity Survey Department, Abubarkar Tatari Ali Politechnic, Bauchi



There has been considerable rise in housing price all over the world in the recent decades, there is need to monitor the movement in housing price as it may not be sustainable in the long run. This paper focuses on 13 factors that drive housing price in Bauchi state, Nigeria.  The research  found that Population(ranked 1), number of houses (ranked 2) ,interest rate (ranked 3) and location(ranked 4)  are   the  drivers of  housing price in the long run in the study area.  The impact of Gross Domestic Product( ranked 11), number selling (ranked 10), housing affordability ( ranked 9),new building(ranked 8) , economic growth (ranked 7) do  not significantly  determine the movement of  housing price  in the study area.

Keywords: Housing, price, construction, determinants, factors, Bauchi




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