African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Vol. 20 No. 1


VOL. 20 NO. 1 MARCH, 2021 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Effect of Different Rates of Urea Fertilizer on the Growth and Development of Zea Mays in South Eastern Region of Nigeria.


Kelechukwu Chris Egbucha

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike




This research was designed to study the effect of urea on the growth and development of maize at different rates of application in South Eastern region of Nigeria. Completely randomized block design was employed in the experimental setup, comprising four treatments replicated three times to give a total of 12 plots. Each plot had a total of nine maize stands making a total of 108 plant population. The treatments were applied at the rates of 100kg/ha, 150kg/ha and 200kg/ha three and seven weeks after planting. The control had no treatment application. Plant growth and development was assessed using plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of plants. Plant yield was assessed using fresh weight of cobs with husk, fresh weight of cobs without husk and the dry weight of cobs. The data collected from different treatment was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA and mean separation was done using LSD at (p˂0.05).The results were presented using the bar chart diagrams. The results shown by the bar chart with reference to the data collected indicated that urea applied at the rate of 100kg/ha, 150kg/ha and 200kg/ha improved the growth, development and yield of Zea mays L. but to varying degrees. The result revealed that the maximum vegetative growth was recorded from the treatment with the highest urea application (200kg/ha) followed by plots treated with 150kg/ha and 100kg/ha urea. Treatment application at the rate of 200kg/ha also produced highest result in yield of maize. Control had the lowest result at both growth and development stages. Hence, the study revealed that urea (46% N) had a significant increase (p˂0.05) on the plant growth, development and yield of maize of plants.

Keywords:  Growth teosinate, Urea, silking, chlorosis, senescense





Perceived Effects of Bush Burning on Arable Crop Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.


Barnabas B., Jibril S. A., and Abubakar, N.B

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248 Bauchi Nigeria




The study examined farmers’ perceived effects of bush burning on arable crop production in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state. Random sampling techniques were used in selecting 80 arable crop farmers across four (4) wards in the local government area namely; Birshi, Dawaki, Galambi, and Kangyare. Data were analysed using both descriptive statistics (frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (logit regression). The results of the study showed that majority (75.1%) of the famers were within the age range of 20-50 years of age. Furthermore, the result revealed that majority (63.1%) of the farmers were male. Furthermore, the results revealed that most (95%) of the farmers are literate. The result also revealed that most (96.3%) of the arable farmers perceived bush burning help to clear farm land for cultivation. The result showed that majority (86.3%) of the arable farmers perceived bush burning help in weed control. Furthermore, the result revealed that most (90.1%) of the arable farmers perceive that bush burning help to control pest and diseases. The result also showed that majority (88.8%) of the arable farmers perceive bush burning destroys soil microorganisms. Furthermore, the result revealed that most (92.6%) of the arable farmers perceive that bush burning increases the tendency for soil erosion and land degradation. The result also showed that majority (86.2%) the arable farmers perceived that bush fallowing should be encouraged to reduce the effect of bush burning. The also revealed that majority (77.5%) of the arable farmers perceived lack of herbicide and insecticide to control pest and disease as a constraint of farmers against bush burning. The result of logit regression analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the arable crop farmers on perceive effect of soil of bush burning, the result showed that educational qualification, years of experience, and marital status were found to be significant. The study concluded that despite the advantages farmers perceive they drive from bush burning, its effect on arable crop land remain higher among farmers in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state. The study furthermore, recommended that effort should be made to reduce indiscriminate bush burning, focus on alternative energy resource such as solar energy, planting of trees, as well as emphasize on extension service to create more awareness of its effect on agriculture and environment as a whole.

Keywords: Bush Burning, Arable crop, Perception.





Assessment of (Covid-19) Pandemic on Artisans Poverty Vulnerability in North Central of Nigeria


*Adamu Baba Abdullahi Ph.D; **Adamu David Ahmed; ***Ali William Butu; & ****Hamza Ahmed Musa

*Department of Geography, FCT College of Education Zuba – Abuja. **Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management, Federal University of Technology Minna, P.M.B 65, Minna. ***Department of Geography, Nigerian Army University Biu Borno State. ****Department of PHE, FCT College of Education Zuba, Abuja.



This study assesses the cynosure of Coronavirus Diseases Pandemic (Covid-19) on artisans poverty vulnerability in North Central States of Nigeria including the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The main objectives of this research was to examine the concept and nature of the Coronavirus disease and how the lockdown affects the artisans in the study area. Multistage sampling techniques were employed. Taro Yamane Formula were used in sample size selections. Multiple Linear Regression Model of Augment Dickey Fuller and Philip-Perron were used for data analysis. The time frame for the study was March – October, 2020. The result revealed that DW 2. 794211 implies that the Covid-19 exert great negative impacts on the artisans as they remain poorer and poorer due to the pandemic.

Keyword: Assessment, Covid-19  Pandemic, Artisan Poverty Vulnerability,       North Central,  Nigeria




Analysis of Land Use Land Cover changes in Ruma-Kukar Jangarai Forest Reserve Nigeria.


Naiya1, H.K, Ibrahim2, H, Matazu3, M.B., Musa4, H.; & Maiwada N.A

1Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Katsina 2Department of Geography, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina. 3Department of Geography, Federal University Dutsinma. 4Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina



This study examined the vegetation changed in Ruma-Kukar Jangarai Forest Reserve for the purpose of analysing the extent and the rate of change in the area. This was achieved through Land use land cover (LULC) mapping of the study area for the year 1972, 1992 and 2015. The    images were classified using supervised maximum likelihood classifier algorithm. The outcome of the study were the classified images of the study area at 1972, 1992 and 2015. The accuracy achieved were 84, 86 and 76% for the 1972, 1992 and 2015 images respectively. The LULC with major changes are settlement, dense vegetation, farmlands and water body. Settlement increased by 176%, dense vegetation decreased by 99.4%, farmland increased by 136%, water body decrease by 97.5%, The study recommended modelling the dynamic of the forest by including socio-economic activities among the parameters

Keywords: Forest Reserve, Geo-information, Remote-sensing Ruma-Kukar Jangarai and Vegetation.




Effects of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata) Production on the Empowerment of Women Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria


1Aneneokeakwa. J.E. (Ph.D); 2Oyibo, Ogheneakpobor; 3Chukwukelu, Ifeanyi; & 4Diabuah, S. C.

1Department of Home Economics, Federal College Of Education (Technical), Asaba 2,3,4Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College Of Education (Technical), Asaba.



The study ascertained the effects of sweet potato production on empowerment of women farmers in Delta State. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents for the study. The sample size consist of two hundred and fifty (250) sweet potato women farmers from 8 communities in the two (2) Agro-ecological zones of Delta State. The data collected were analyzed through the use of frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation The result found that sweet potato has immensely contributed to the income level of women farmers to a very large extent with grand mean score of 1.79. The major activities perform by sweet potato farmers include sweet potato farming, processing and marketing; respondents agreed that acquisition of farmland is a major problem to sweet potato production by women farmers among others. The following recommendations were made; that agricultural extension agencies should intensify efforts on creating awareness on improved   technological approaches to farming   especially to the women to support their efforts in sweet potatoes farming among others.

Keywords: Effect, Sweet potato, production, empowerment, women farmers




Antioxidative Effect of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatttus) Juice on Motility and Gross Morphology of Extended Boar Semen


*Oyeniran, J.O.; **Arire, E.O.; *Mohammed, A.; *Nuhu, S.H.; *Mijinyawa, A.; *Sanga, M.J.; & *Sani, A.

*Department of Animal Production and Technology, Federal     Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. **Department of Agricultural Technology, the Federal, Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti.



Boar semen preservation is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species which leads to reduction of sperm quality and decrease in fertilizing ability. The aim of this study was to replace conventional semen extender with watermelon juice (WMJ) and to determine the most effective dilution rate that will maintain the viability of the spermatozoa over a 48-hours extension period. Semen was collected from a boar at the piggery unit of the teaching and research farm University of Ibadan, Ibadan using the glove hand method.  The experiment was divided into five treatments with Beltsville Thawing Solution being replaced by WMJ at the following rate; 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Diluted semen  samples were stored at 170C and were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 hours for progressive  motility and morphology. The experimental design was a completely randomised Design; data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. The results showed that 50 % of BTS can be replaced by watermelon juice. However the effect of watermelon juice is inconclusive up to 48 hours of storage. This evaluation shows that extender developed with WMJ could be an extender of choice for a reliable short term preservation in swine artificial insemination programme.

Keywords: Boar, Watermelon Juice extension, Semen quality, Spermatozoa




An Analysis of the Sources of Capital and Labour Availability to Dry Season Rice Farmers In Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria.


Christopher Raymond and Godfrey Erickson Njiddari

Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola 



The Study analyzed the sources of capital and labour availability to dry season rice farmer in Fufore L.G.A. of Adamawa State. A total of five (5) wards were sampled out of the seven (7) wards that constitute the area. The specific objectives were to examine the socio economic characteristics, sources of finance and labour available to dry season farmers for rice production and identify the problems faced by them. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires and analyzed using frequencies, percentage scores and averages. 79% of the respondents were males while 21% were females, 55% of them were married, 30% single and 5% widowed. 40% of respondents were within the age range of 20 -30 years, 25% within the ages of 31–40 years. 20% within 41–50 years while 10% within 51-60 years, with 5% above 60 years. 51% had formal education while 49% had none. 24% of the respondents acquired land by inheritance, 21% acquire land by purchase, 52% through leasing, and 3% got it from their spouses. 40% of the respondents used hired labour as their source of labour, 35% of them used family members while 25% used both hired and family labour respectively. Hired labour was mostly used by respondents mainly due to the rigorous process and tedious work associated with rice production. Majority of them did not have access to institutional credit and majority of the respondents acquired land on rents, this could lead to a substantial decrease in adoption of rice production technologies since more money has to be involved in acquiring larger area of land for farming.The study therefore, recommended that farmers be encouraged to participate actively in farmers/social organizations and cooperatives societies to enable them to access extension services information on capacity building and training on rice value chain aimed disseminating new and sustainable technologies to bridge the gaps created by inadequate contacts with change agents. The present land law in the area should be reviewed to make land available for farmers who wish to embark on farming projects. The government should establish micro-finance and agricultural banks in such remote areas for farmers to access loans at minimal cost.

Keywords: Sources, Capital, Labour, Availability, Dry season.




Assessment of the Socio – Economic Factors Affecting the Adoption of Dairy Cattle Production Technologies Among Cattle Rearers in Sardauna LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria.


1Simon, B.P. 2Alam M.K, 3Hamidu, D. 4Madefa, L.T., & 5Akade, B 

1&2Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Taraba State College of agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education Yola, Adamawa State. 4Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, MAUTECH, Yola, Adamawa State. 5Department of Animal Health, Taraba State College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State.



The study assessed the socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of diary cattle production technologies among cattle rearers in Sardauna Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from seventy (70) respondents using purposive and random sampling techniques and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that majority (71.43%) of the respondents were male and 78.57% of the respondents are in there productive years. Also, 85.72% of the respondents had no access to extension services, the major diary cattle production technologies were identified as: cross breeding, artificial insemination and improved breeds. The multiple regression results show that: sex, age, marital status, education and farming experience were the major determinants of adoption of diary cattle production technologies in the study area. The major constraints to the adoption of diary cattle production technologies were identified as: inadequate and high cost of the technologies, inadequate infrastructural facilities, inadequate extension agents among others. Recommendations were made that cattle rearers should form cooperatives in order to access credit facilities from financial institutions. Also awareness should be created in the study area on the availability of the diary cattle production and utilization.   

Keywords: Dairy Cattle, Cattle Rearers, Cattle, Economic, Adoption, Production, Technology




Nutrient Composition and Physical Properties of Local and Improved Pearlmillet Cultivars (Pennisetum Glaucum) Flour


*Itiat, J. F. And Grace, J.

Department of Home Economics, Federal College of Education (Tech), Gusau, Zamfara State.



Good nutrition is a basic human right. However, most nutrients from commonly consumed foods are lost due to the processing methods used. Thus, the relationship between food, nutrition and health should be reinforced through improvement in the processing methods. The cultivars used were Zango, Ex-bornu and Supper-sosat.  Proximate composition, carbohydrate fractions, energy values, vitamins, minerals, functional properties, dietary fibre, antinutrient were analysed using standard methods. Super-sosat cultivar flour significantly (p<0.05) had a high ash (1.6±0.00%), protein (14.03±0.01%), amylose (16.54±0.34%), total sugars (2.75±0.01%), sodium (37.50±0.01%) and bulk density (0.91±0.01%) when compared with Zango and Ex-bornu cultivars. Supper-sosat flour was higher significantly (p<0.05) in vitamin B1 (0.46±0.00%) and vitamin B3 (3.29±0.01%) but significantly (p<0.05) lower in energy value (373.32±0.56%), Tannins (0.60±0.00%), soluble dietary fibre (7.47±0.05) and insoluble dietary fibre (2.36±0.08). This study has shown that the new cultivar could be a potential source of protein where plant is the main source of protein. The low tannin content is an indicator of nutrients bioavailability and high B-group vitamin for energy metabolism. Low energy value and high fibre respectively makes it a good vehicle for satiety in adult with overweight. The new cultivar (Super-sosat) flour with high protein content may be of advantage where animal protein is scares. 

Keywords: Pennisetum glaucum, Super-sosat, Ex-bornu, Zango, Local cultivars and Improved-cultivar.




Perceived Effects on Levels of Hygienic Practices, Health-Care Expenditure, Productive Time for Agricultural Activities and Children School Attendances among the Rural Farmers in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State


1Mohammed, U.; 2Umar I.S.; 2Olaleye, R.S.; 2Salihu S.I.; & 3 Mohammed U.

1Department of Planning Research and Statistics, Niger State Ministry of Agriculture, Minna. 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology, Minna 3Niger State College of Education Minna.



The study Assessed Perceived Effects on Levels of Hygienic Practices, Health-Care Expenditure, and Productive Time for Agricultural Activities and Children School Attendances among the Rural Farmers in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State. Multi-stage sampling techniques was used to select 311 of rural populace. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview scheduled and analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage, frequency and mean). The mean age of the respondents was 46 years while the mean household size was 9.0 persons Also, the mean years of experience was 20.8 years while 41.4% of the respondents had primary education. The mean household N175,500.00. Further findings revealed that 90.8% agreed that perceived adoption had effect on level of hygienic practices. The most serious constraints to adoption of recommended practices were bad attitude (94.8%) and lack of credit facilities (89.7%). It is recommended that environmental health workers should be strengthened to enforce sanctions on noncompliance with adoption of recommended practices and efforts should be made by stake holders to sustain this channel of sensitization. 

Keywords: Perceived; Effect; Hygienic; Practices




Assessment of the Use of Municipal Solid Waste by Rice Farmers in Ayamelum L.G.A of Anambra State for Food Security and Improved Nutrition


Chukwukelu, Ifeanyi .S.;  And Obhiokhenan, Ambrose .A. (Ph.D)

1Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, Delta State. 2National Productivity Centre Calabar, Cross River State.



The study aimed at assessing the use of municipal solid waste by rice farmers in Ayamelum. L.G.A  for food security and improved nutrition. The specific objectives of the study includes; to ascertain the perception of extension agents on the use of Municipal solid waste, determine rice farmer’s level of awareness and use of Municipal solid waste and identify challenges of composting municipal solid waste by farmers. The research adopted descriptive survey design. The population comprise of 300 registered rice farmers in “Omor” one of the communities in Ayamelum L.G.A of Anambra State, 125 registered rice farmers and 25 extension workers were randomly selected for the research. A four point scale type of questionnaire made up of 18 items was used to gather information from respondents. Date collected from respondents were analyzed using mean a criterion mean of 2.50 was set for decision on the research questions. Finding indicates that rice farmers in the area of study do not use  municipal solid waste as their major source of plant nutrient because they are not aware of the advantages of MSW over chemical fertilizer also lack of skills required in formulating MSW is one of the challengers rice farmers in the area of study face in using MSW. It was recommended that extension workers explore every avenue such as farmer’s co-operative society meeting, village meetings and one on one visit to farmers to educate them on the advantages of MSW and how to formulate it. 

Keywords: Municipal solid, waste, food, security Nutrition and rice farmers.




Determination of Appropriate Placement Method of Poultry Droppings and Harvesting Frequency on Performance of Malabar Spinach (Basella Rubra) in Oyo, Oyo State


Taofeek Boladale Salami

Department of Agricultural Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational and Technical Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, PMB 1010, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.



A lot of experiments have been conducted on rate of fertilizer application on various crops but information was scanty on the placement method especially on Basella rubra.  Thus this experiment was conducted to determine appropriate placement method of poultry droppings and frequency of harvesting on yield of B. rubra at Oyo, Oyo State.  The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design with three replications.  The treatments were T1 – Total harvesting, No application; T2 – Total harvesting, mixed application; T3 – Total harvesting, surface application; T4 – Every 2 week harvesting, no application; T5 – Every 2 week harvesting, mixed application; T6 – Every 2 week, surface application; T7 – Every 3 week, no application; T8 – Every 3 week, mixed application; T9 – Every 3 week, surface application.  In the course of the experiment, observations were made and data were collected at 5 and 6 weeks after treatment and data were also collected on frequencies of harvesting on total harvest, every 2 week harvest and every 3 week harvest.  The significant means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level of probability.  It was revealed that T9(H2P2) that is every 3 week harvesting, surface application performed best when compared with other treatments.

Keywords:  Malabar spinach, Basella rubra, frequency, placement, surface and mixed.




A Review of Seed Certification Procedures, Prospect and Policies in Nigeria


*Chimdi G. O.; & **Jibrin, M.S.

*Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. **Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Seed certification is to maintain and make available to the public, through certification, high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kind and varieties so grown and distributed as to ensure genetic identity and genetic purity. This paper reviewed the seed certification procedures, prospect and policies in Nigeria. Certified seed is the starting point to a successful crop as well as an important risk management tool. Clean seed, Varietal purity, guaranteed quality assurance, access to new opportunities, new genetics, improved traits like better yield, better deal on crop insurance, maximum use of other inputs, access to premium markets and trace ability are the importance of seed certification.

Keywords:  Review, Seed Certification, Procedures, Prospect and Policies.




Inhibitory Activity of Cell Free and Neutralized Cell Free Supernatant of Lactobacillus Isolates against Food Spoilage Bacteria


Ihum, T.A.; Kurrah, I.A.; Rahaman, M.O.; & Oledibe, C.F.

Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State.



When Lactobacillus isolates compete for nutrients, their metabolites which  often include active antimicrobials such as lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and the peptide bacteriocins can. Inhibitory activity of Cell free supernatant (CFS) and Neutralized Cell free Supernatant (NCFS) of Lactobacillus isolates against selected food spoilage bacteria was determined. Lactobacillus species used in the study was isolated from cow milk and locust bean samples. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolates from vegetable samples using 16S rDNA gene sequencing confirmed them as S. aureus CIP 9973, P. carotovorum Pec1, E. cloacae AS10, K. aerogenes OFM28, P. mirabilis UPMSD3, E. coli 2013C-3342, L. plantarum NRIC 0383 and L. plantarum NCU116. Neutralized cell free supernatant of L. plantarum exhibited strong inhibitory activity against S. aureus and E. cloacea, Similarly NCFS of L. casei strongly inhibited the growth of S. aureus while no inhibition was observed on the growth of E. coli, K. aerogenes and P. carotovorum. On the other hand NCFS of L. acidophilus was able to inhibit the growth of all six test bacteria with strong inhibition observed on the growth of K.        The CFS of all three Lactobacillus isolates showed varying degrees of inhibition on the isolates from the different vegetable samples with CFS of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus showing strong zones of inhibition on the growth of K. aerogenes and E. cloacae, no inhibition zone was observed on the growth of P. carotovorum using CFS of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus. Cell free supernatant of L. casei inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. cloacae, K. aerogenes, P. mirabilis and E. coli. No inhibition was observed on the growth of P. carotovorum when CFS of L. casei was used. The CFS and NCFS of Lactobacillus isolates can be utilized as alternate inhibitory agent against food spoilage bacteria.

Keywords: Inhibitory, Activity, Neutralized, Supernatant, Lactobacillus.




Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Methods on the Functional Properties of Yam Flour


Echem Franklyn Ndukay

Food Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra state.



This study investigated the effect of storage methods on some of the functional properties of yam flour obtained from two varieties of yam stored in two different methods. The two yam varieties used were: Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata (that is white yam and water yam) with a view of providing information that will enhance their end use. The yam varieties were stored in the barn and in the house for 4-12 weeks, weighed, chipped/peeled under running water, dried under the sun, milled into yam flour. The yam flour samples of each month of storage of the two different storage methods were analyzed for the swelling capacity (sc) gelatinization point (Temperature) (GP/T), fat absorption capacity (FAC), water absorption capacity (WAC) and bulk density (BD) the results of this study shows that the tuber weight decreased with time of storage. Generally the white yam of both storage method had more weight loss than the water yam. Also weight loss were more in the barn than in the house storage. The water absorption capacity of the  yam varieties did not differ under barn but differed at in house storage. The swelling capacity were somehow. The difference of both storage conditions bulk density showed significant difference. The fat absorption capacity did not show much difference. The swelling capacity was observed not to be influenced / affected by the two storage conditions, lastly, signs of deterioration was noticed in some of the tubers under the two storage methods. The result of this study shows that the yam stored in house were better than those stored in the barn. Therefore any yam intend for further processing should be stored in the warehouse since their sample flours proved it. These will enhance and extend shelf life and avail yam and its product at all seasons.

Keywords: Storage, yam, Barn, Farm, Flour and in house




Proximate Analysis and Anti-Ulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Moringa Oleifera


Hamisu Abdu1, Ashiru Garba A.2

1Department of Polymer Technology, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 2 Federal College of Education Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria



Moringa oleifera is a native tree which has been reported to have medicinal properties. The leaves and the seeds were traditionally reported for the treatment of peltic ulcers. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the proximate analysis and anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaves. The results of proximate analysis in methanolic Moringa oleifera leaves extract shows relatively low moisture content (7.36%) and low protein content (6.99%), however, it shows high carbohydrate content (45.60%) and high fibre content (21.28%). The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, Saponin, Alkaloids, Steroids and terpenoids. The anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was evaluated in swiss albino mice against aspirin induced peptic ulcer. After the administration of the methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera, the acute toxicity was determined by oral administering a single dose of 2,000 mg/kg orally to swiss albino mice which was observed within an hour post-dosing and once daily for a period of 2 weeks. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves shows a significant (p<0.01) anti-ulcer activity in a dose dependent manner as well as significant (p<0.01) reduction in the ulcer index when compared to control group, the antiulcer activity results was relatively comparable to the positive control.. This dose did not produce mortality or acute signs of toxicity throughout the observation period. Our study shows that Moringa oleifera leaves has considerable antiulcer activity. These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera leaves possess antiulcer potential which may contribute to its ethnomedicinal uses.    

Keywords; Proximate analysis, Phytochemical screening, Anti-ulcer activity, Moringa oleifera.




Soil Exchangeable Cations and Aluminium in of Mangrove Soil of Akwa Ibom State


1Etukudoh, Ndarake Emmanuel and 2Gbarabe, Roland

1Department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Akwa Ibom State University, Oruk Anam Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 2Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Romula, Rivers state. Nigeria.



This study is to determine the soil exchangeable cations and Al3+ in mangrove swamp soil of Akwa Ibom State. Exchangeable cations and Al3+ will be measure by ammonium acetate and potassium chloride. Three soil samples is randomly take at Ikot Abasi Local Government Area to determine organic carbon %, PH, Electrical conductivity, total Nitrogen, exchangeable bases, % Al saturation, and particle size. Results show Kcl extracted more Al3+, and Mg than Ammonium acetate. The soil is high in % base saturation whose values ranged from 70.55-88.16% in surface and 51.82-81.16% in sub-surface layers. The soil is saline in nature because its electrical conductivity value is above 1ds/m. These soils have more than 50% sand on the average are classified as loamy sand.

Keywords: Exchangeable, Cations, Aluminium, Mangrove, Soil.




Climate Change in Poultry Production System – A Review


Ahaotu, E.O1, Osuji, F.C2,  Ibe, L.C2 and Singh, R.R4

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria 2Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 3Department   of Livestock Production Management, Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and AH, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India.



Due to the tremendous growth and unpredictable figures of production in Nigerian poultry sector, there are several problems affecting growth of the industry, among which are environmental challenges which imposes severe stress on birds thus leading to reduced performance. Invariably, reviewing the impacts of heat stress on poultry production seems to be the main research area in the present study. The purpose of this article therefore is to review the seasonal fluctuations and its detrimental effects on poultry production systems.

Keywords: Poultry production, Seasonal Fluctuations, Environmental Challenges, Management.




Agroforestry Systems; Towards Sufficiency and Sustainability in Organic Farming in the Nigerian Savanna Ecosystem


Akwarandu, Karachi E.1, Alaji, Deborah G.1, Amshi, Ahmed M.1, Babagana, Mohammed G.2, Ahmed, Salisu B.3., Goni, Mohammed2, Maigana Goni2, Ali Mohammed2

1Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba 2Agricultural Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba 3Basic Science Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba.



The savanna biome of Nigeria, which is agriculturally strategic due to its high level of food productivity, is fast being degraded partly due to climatic variability, and majorly due to impacts of human livelihood, especially farming technologies and cultures. For sufficient and sustainable production of food, organic farming, which integrates trees and woody perennials in various combinations on farms, is here introduced and discussed. This paper showcases the various advantages of organic farming and agroforestry on crop yield, crop quality, soil health and environment and human health. Some techniques for application of these methods are also discussed.

Keywords: Per-Capita Land, Slash and Burn, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Security, Food Sufficiency, Land Hunger.




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