African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 20 No. 2


VOL. 20 NO. 2 MARCH, 2021 ISSN: 2010 – 1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


An Assessment of the Spatial Accessibility to Maternal Healthcare in Okene Local Government Area, Kogi State, Nigeria


Adenyuma, Mercy Ovaioza; & Dakyes S.P. 

Department of Geography & Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.



Access to quality Maternal healthcare ensures that human population does not go extinct and this has made it a globally accepted theme and this is evident in the goal three (3) target five(5) of the sustainable development goals ignited in the 21st century. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which women of childbearing age (15-49) can potentially get to good maternal health care services by examining distributional pattern of available secondary health care facilities in Okene .The Krejcie & Morgan formula was used in determining the sample size and the questionnaire was administered using the systematic sampling procedure. A handheld GPS device was used to take the locations of functional secondary healthcare centres in the Study area. This study found that the potential accessibility of hospitals is poor in the study area. This study recommends the reactivation of primary healthcare centres so as to bring quality healthcare closer to the people with a view to improve their efficiency through provision of drugs, better infrastructure and skilled personnel staffing.

Keywords: Spatial Accessibility; Maternal healthcare; Healthcare facilities




An Improved Drug Verification System for Nafdac


B.O Omijeh And 2B.O Raheem

Centre for Information and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.



Drugs are being counterfeited on a daily basis, which is a big threat to the health sector of the nation. This research is geared towards the authentication of Pharmaceutical products; to mitigate the increasing number of counterfeit drugs in the country; and to also verify expired drugs as well. The technology employed is the Quick Response (QR) code technology: a 2-dimensional matrix barcode which like its ancestor the barcode could be scan directly into machine code with a higher response time, and more data storage space, depending on the version of code used. The study proposes a system where every Pharmaceutical product producer could generate QR codes for their products, to make important product data available such as: Manufacturer Name, Product Name, Production date, and expiry date.  The system does not only generate QR codes for manufacturers it grants consumers the ability to verify products with their phones by scanning the QR code with the aid of an Application Programming Interface (API) which enables smartphone cameras to access the QR libraries necessary for code scanning. The System is software based; utilizing web application and a database technology for which the product QR codes are generated and stored respectively. The only requirement of this system is an internet enabled smartphone or laptop with a camera to scan the QR code with; this entails that users can apply this system from anywhere and with any web browser.

Keywords; QR code technology, Barcode, Application programming Interface.




Determining the knowledge and practice of employee on their safety at work in hospital


*Adamu Mohammed; **Hashimu Umar; ***Abdullahi Mohammed Jawa; & ****Maam Kyari,

*Local government Education Authority potiskum yobe state. **Bill and Melinda Gate College of Health and Technology Ningi Dept of Community Health P.O. Box 57 ***Ministry of Home Affairs Information and Culture Overseeing Ministry of Budget and Economic Planning Yobe State ****Maam Kyari College of Nursing and Midwifery Maiduguri FAIPH.



The assessment the knowledge, and practice of employees on their safety, the area of study was at Potiskum General Hospital in Yobe state Northern Nigeria, definition , safety measures, determine factors that will improve safety measures of employees, roles of employers towards ensuring safety of employees establishing mechanism for safety feedback the significant of this study is to ensure safety by the safety of health care  providers carried out via a five point Likert scale format was used as the questionnaire design with a total of 384 samples that are selected for the study the instruments using a convenient sampling techniques. According to Njodi and Bwala,(2004).  Convenience sampling technique was chosen for convenience sake of the study unit that happened to be available at the time of data collection. The data was collected from the respondents and analyzed using computer software of spss and the result was tabulated therefore the study recommend that awareness of should be created on employees roles to have a good work and feedback.

Keywords: SPSS, Likert-scale, Safety, Employee, Hospital.




The Teaching of Christian Religious Studies as Way of Improving, Moral Standard in Nigeria Society


*Wadam Z.S.; *Adamu E. R.; & **Samson I. M

*Department of Arts Education Faculty Of Education University Of Jos, Plateau State. **Department Of Religion And Phylosophy, Faculty Of Arts, University Of Jos.



The paper is designed to show the Christian religious studies teachers as moral model in the society or community. The research also tries to point out the role of Christian religious teacher as a edible mark, which every person in the community is expected to copy issues on the call and motivation of the Christian religious teachers are taken into consideration, their attitudes attributes to both old and young people in the community and the students at large. The paper also focuses attention on the moralities of the Christian religious teacher, his answers to the spiritual role in the school, in the church to have represented the pattern of his work as a moral leader. However, other important role the Christian religious teachers are expected to wipe out morally and instituted the fear of God into the minds of children, while his students would immolate his good lifestyle.

Keywords: Teaching, Christian religious studies, way of improving, moral standard, Nigeria society




Exponential Estimation of Non-Linear Integro –Differential Delay Equations


Nwaoburu, A.O.

Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt



A non-linear delay integro-differential equation was put into consideration,  that exhibit events in their natural setting more than any other system with an estimation of an exact solution to the system. The results were quiet impressive for any model of such kind.

Keywords: Exponential estimation, non-linear integro-differential equations, Lotka-Volterra delay      equations.




Descriptive Statistics Analysis of 36 years Rainfall Events of Port Harcourt, Nigeria


*Johnson, D.V; *Gobo, A.E; *Ngerebara, O.D.; & **Ekaka-a, E.N.

*Institute of Geosciences and Environmental Management, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



Analysis of Monthly Rainfall events of Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 1981 to 2016 (36 years) was carried out with the use of Descriptive Statistics. Monthly Mean, standard deviation SD, Range and Total yearly rainfall were obtained. Results obtained showed that the lowest mean monthly rainfall value was 136mm and was obtained in 1983 while the highest mean monthly rainfall occurred in 2007 with a value of 232.58mm. The standard deviation for the period ranged from 123.17mm for 1983 to 170.51mm for year 2007. Monthly rainfall Range varies from 262.9mm for 2001 to 563.4mm for 1990. Total yearly rainfall has the least value of 1632.0mm in 1983 and the highest value of 2790.9mm in 2007. Rainfall is an important factor in an area while considering possibility of flood, engagement in all forms of agriculture and in design and fabrication of engineering structures for flood reduction and effective drainage system like canals, culverts, dams, runoff water collectors. Also in agricultural activities like irrigation, planting and cultivation. Rainfall analysis allow for understanding of expected future rainfall pattern, volume, trend for peaks and lows in order to put in place good flood mitigation measures including insurance of building properties and agricultural products. Effective flood management, including good mitigation measures involves wide knowledge of rainfall data and analysis for the area under consideration.

Keywords: Rainfall Event, Descriptive statistics, Analysis, flood, mitigation measures.




Fiscal Federalism: The problem of Revenue Allocation in Nigeria.


Dr Anthony Emhenya Iyoha

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.



Revenue allocation under a federal system of government creates complex problems. The complexity stems from the distinctive nature of federalism as a form of government in which the legislative, executive and judicial functions or powers of the states are shared amongst the three tier of government. Data for the study are primary from secondary sources such as articles, textbooks, lecture notes, journals, newspapers and academic research projects. The data collected in the course of this study, the data here were based on formulated hypothesis in order to assist in solving the research problem. To achieve the objectives questionnaire was structured in an open-closed index format of 3 point like scale “agreed, undecided and controversial issue among the units of government concerning revenue allocation to ascertain if revenue allocation formula is the problem behind revenue allocation in Nigeria and to determine whether ethnicity is associated with problem of revenue allocation in Nigeria. It was recommended that these is need to resolve the imbalance between assigned functions and tax powers of various tiers of government, this is because, the five principles currently applied in the horizontal revenue allocation formula are far from acceptable to all the stakeholders. There is usually a lack of correspondence between the spending responsibility and the tax power/revenue source assigned to difference levels of government

Keywords: federalism, Fiscal Federalism, Revenue Allocation, Politics of revenue Allocation , Intergovernmental relation




Insecurity Challenges in Nigeria:  Causes and Implication for Food Production and Nutrition


Adubi Amos Oladimeji

School of Science, Department of Biology, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate



The problem of insecurity both in human and food are the major confrontation in Nigeria. Insecurity of human led to food insecurity. The problems were created from Boko Haram and Fulani herdsmen activities. As the Fulani herders were unleashing violence across the country, so was the Boko Haram sect terrorizing the north-eastern geopolitical zone of the country. The findings from the paper revealed that land resources, mischiefs, grazing animals by under-aged children and influx of foreign herdsmen are the major causes of conflict between farmers and herdsmen. Based on the information gathered, persistent attacks on farmlands are among the reasons for low productivity of farm produce. The implications are low financial income and increase in prices of food items and socio-economic development. This situation if not addressed, could result into hunger and poverty for average households. In order to settle the problem of food insecurity, this paper encourages that, rather than create grazing routes and reserves for Fulani herders outside their states of origin, the federal and, more importantly, the state governments of Fulani states should make livestock production a sedentary occupation. They should cite ranches in Fulani states and on lands owned or leased (not seized) by the Fulani and confine cattle breeding within the enclosed areas.  

Keywords: Insecurity, Challenges, Food, Nutrition, Boko Haram, Fulani herdsmen




Almajiri/Tsangaya and Allo School System; Its Impacts and Contribution in Sustainable Developmant of our Modern Society


*Muhammad Mujtaba Abdulkadir PhD; & **Ibrahim Dahiru Idriss

*A.D. Rufa’i College of Legal and Islamic Studies Misau, Bauchi State **Federal College of Education Technical Potiskum Yobe State



Early scholars of Islamic and Arabic teaching and learning had often established fully traditional educational activities, based on their time and ability. This was attributed to what they have rendered to their Ummah and how they secured the classical mode of Islamic, Arabic and Qur’anic teaching, in spite all challenges. their effort assisted in planting the art of Qur’anic schools and Islamic/Arabic scholarship in the whole Northern Nigeria prior to and after Shaykh Uthman bn Foduye’s Jihad, till today their endeavors is been witnessed through Tsangaya, Allo school and Zaure system of education by using non formal syllabus and equipment as was depict in the scenery and the mode of teaching and learning in Tsangaya/Zaure classical activities. Till today the system is functioning and it had led to establishing more institution of Qur’anic and Islamarabic learning and remains a legacy generation after generation which today modern Tahfiz schools were establshed.

Keywords: Almajiri, Tsangaya, sustainability, development and modern Society




Industrial Policy Reforms: Toward Achieving Industrialization for Nigeria


*Izuegbu Uchenna Christian; *Ahuchaogu Ndubuisi; & **Nworu Chinwendu

*Consultancy and Business Development Dept. National Productivity Centre, Imo State Office. **Corporate Affairs and Information Department, National Productivity Centre, Imo State Office.



As an instrument of economic development, industrialisation provides new services to individuals and businesses, helps sustain man, breaks chain of dependency, creates employment and raises living standard.  Sustained industrial growth requires good policies. So, to strengthen the industrial sector in Nigeria, the government has developed several industrial policies, plans and strategies. However, since 1980s, Nigeria’s industrial sector has continued to be structurally weak and exhibit declining capacity utilization. The sector mostly has negative growth rates and contributes less to economic growth. This study therefore examined the impact of industrial policy reforms in enhancing industrialization process in Nigeria. The study used time series data from 1981 to 2016. It is anchored on endogenous growth model. Data was analysed using statistical technique of multiple regression model and model estimation is based on econometric method of ordinary least square. Data were sourced from World Bank, Central Bank of Nigeria, etc. ADF and Johansen co-integration tests indicated that the variables were stationary and co-integrated. Granger causality tests result show that there is no Granger causality between policy reforms and industrial growth. The ECM results indicated an adjustment speed of 31.3 %. Policy reforms, institutional quality, and imports were found to insignificantly contribute to industrial growth in Nigeria. The study concludes that policy reforms are not effective to engender significant industrial growth in Nigeria. It recommends that henceforth, policies should be inclusive, investment enhancing and efficiently implemented. Policies developed should also focus on enhancing contract enforcements, security and other good institutional qualities.

Keywords: Industrial policy, institutional quality, industrialization, industrial sector, economic development, industrial growth, capacity utilization.




Techno-Economic Analysis of Hybrid Solar-Wind Energy System for Electricity Generation in Nigeria.


Sani Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. Nasarawa State.



This paper presents technical and economic assessment of a hybrid solar-wind energy system for electricity generation in rural area of the country. Research shows that, the northern part of the country has ample renewable resources availability and with a strong political will, optimal utilization of these renewable resources (solar and wind) can be actualized. Result shows that Hybrid Solar Power System (HSWPS) can be considered as a viable option for the energy market especially in Nigeria. Researchers, industrialist, policy makers and Nigeria government should therefore seize this opportunity in developing a sustainable energy through utilization of abundant renewable energy resources in the country. This study also shown that the mean annual wind speed and solar radiation for the location ranged from 2.31m/s for Warri to 3.52m/s for Maiduguri and 4.53kwh/m2  for Warri to 5.92kwh/m2 for Maiduguri, respectively.

Keywords: Techno-economic, Hybrid renewable energy, solar radiation, wind speed,  sustainable development, renewable energy sources, electric load.




A Comparative Analisis of English and Karekare Synonyms


Ibrahim Hamma; & Shafi’u Sule

*School of Langugaes, A.D Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies Misau, Bauchi State **College of Education and Legal Studies Nguru, Yobe State



The paper attempts to make a comparative analysis of English and Karekare Synonyms with the focus on absolute and near synonyms. The framework used for the data analysis is Lyons (1968). Lyons (1968) suggests three criteria which are used to consider synonyms as absolute or near. The former refers to the total and complete synonyms. A notion absolute is based on the assumption that complete equivalence and total interchangeability are necessarily connected, (Lyons 1968: 448). While the later means synonyms that are not interchangeable in all contexts. The paper reveals that the languages almost share the same applications of synonyms based on the data analysis. 

Keywords: Comparative, Analisis, English, Karekare, Synonyms.




Multilingual Franca in Nigeria’s Senior Secondary Education: Its Sociological Implications


*Akinpelu Isaac Oyelami; & **Odekunbi Sunday Kehinde

*Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria **Oyo State College Education, Lanlate, Oyo state, Nigeria



Having observed that speaking another language apart from English in the school premises is frown at by both the educated and the uneducated parents because of their positive attitude to English, this paper is out to advocate for the use of multilingual franca in secondary schools with the belief that it will have sociological implications of making it easy for students who pass through the system to go to any country in the world where the languages are spoken for higher education, since they would have, at least, fairly mastered the languages at the secondary school, helping them to appreciate other people’s cultures and getting jobs that require competence in more than one international languages. We talk about the extremely multilingual nature of Nigeria, the teaching of one other foreign language in secondary school in addition to the students’ mother tongue and English, as well as the concepts of lingual franca and senior secondary education. We finally recommend that federal government should encourage the use of multilingual franca among secondary school students by providing qualified teachers for the teaching of both the major Nigerian and the foreign languages and should do everything within their power to see that the policy is implemented, among others.

Keywords: Multilingual franca, Cross-cultural, cultural education, mother-tongue




Relationship between Nomophobia and Facebook Addiction among Students in Health Training Institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria


*Isah Sani Alhaji; **Ramatu Dalhatu; & ***Abdullahi Sabo Muhammad, PhD

*Niger State Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), **Kaduna State College of Nursing and Midwifery, Tudun Wada, Kaduna. ***Department of Primary Health Care Education, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



The main purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between Nomophobia and Facebook Addiction among students in health training institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Seven null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two structured self-reporting tools that are internationally validated were adopted and used as instruments for data collection. They are Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) developed by Yildirim and Correia (2015) and Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) developed by Andreassen, et al., (2012). The former consist of 20-items whole the latter had 18-items with composite internal consistency reliability of .857 and .901 determined by Cronbach alpha method. Data was collected from 348 health students from Kaduna State College of Midwifery and Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Zaria. The findings revealed that out of the seven hypotheses, four produced statistical significance, while three were not significant. Nomophobia was significantly high, while Facebook Addiction was significantly low. Independent variables contributed towards the prediction of both Nomophobia and Facebook Addiction, while there was no significant difference between gender, and Nomophobia and Facebook Addiction as well as there was no relationship between the dependent variables. Finally recommendations were offered towards controlling Nomophobia and Facebook Addiction among the health-related students. 

Keywords: Relationship, Nomophobia, Facebook Addiction, students, health institutions.




Achieving Industrial Sustainability through Rural Entrepreneurship Development in Abia State, Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence.


Ajunwa Felix Ogechi

Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters, Abuja



The paper examines the role of entrepreneurial activity as an engine for sustainable industrial transformation in rural areas with particular reference to Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed to randomly select a sample of 544 respondents for the study. The result suggests a number of rural communities are into different entrepreneurial activity. This include 28% venturing into agribusiness enterprises, 24% into non-agric. business enterprises and 18% into professional entrepreneurial services. However, there are about 30% of the respondents who do not engage in any entrepreneurial activity, meaning they are categorise as non-entrepreneurs. Using multinomial logistic regression model, the study reveals that the main factors driving the probability of rural entrepreneurs engaging in various entrepreneurial activity such agribusiness enterprises, non-agric. business enterprises and professional entrepreneurial services include age, gender, education, annual income, skill training, access to credit, membership of an organization, savings, and asset ownership. On the basis of these findings, the paper suggests the need to improve productivity of entrepreneurs through education, entrepreneurship training and skill development. For this, we also suggest setting up of a more comprehensive skill acquisition and empowerment centres in different senatorial zones and sub-centres in many rural areas to encourage entrepreneurship development.

 Keywords: Industrial sustainability, Entrepreneurship development, Rural, Transformation, agribusiness, Multinomial logistic regression, Abia State, Nigeria




Determination of Level of Noise Pollution in Industrial Estates in Kano, Kano State


Olabimtan Samuel Olugbenga; & Atsor Anenge Joseph

Department of Physics, Federal College of Edu. (Tech.), P.M.B 3473 Bichi, Kano State.



Measurement of environmental noise at the industrial areas of Bompai, Sharada and Gundunwawa in Kano state was carried out with the aid of a sound level meter. The results obtained showed that the equivalent noise pressure level (leq) at Bompai, Sharada and Gundunwawa were 73.5dBA, 76.1dBA and 68.4dBA respectively. These values are high compared to that recorded at Bayero University Kano (BUK) New Site, which was used as control in this study. The equivalent noise pressure level at BUK New Site was 56.4dBA. These values, when compared to the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency of Nigeria permissible noise recommendation of less than 85dBA for 8 hours exposure time (NESREA, 2009), are still within the permissible level. However, compared to the world Health Organization, 1980 recommendation of 75dBA and International Standards Organization on sound, (1SO, 1996) recommendation of 70dBA, values obtained at Bompai is higher than ISO recommendations and that of Sharada higher than both WHO and ISO recommendations. Immediate and future implications of these were discussed and appropriate recommendations made for control and further research work in this field.

Keywords: Determination, Level, Noise, Pollution, Industrial.




Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) combined with Bit-Level Embedding for Securing Cloud Data


*Ishaq Muhammed; *Fatima Ahmed Abubakar; *Atika Ahmad Jibrin; *Amatullah Yahaya Aliyu; *Suberu Yusuf; & **Umar Saidu Abashe  

*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Computer Science Department. **Department of Multimedia Technology, Katsina State Institute of Technology and Management, Katsina (Nigeria)



Cloud computing has emerged as a computing paradigm and has gotten much attention in the last years known to handle systems with large-scale services shared between vast numbers of users. It provides enormous storage for data and computing power to users over the Internet. Data security is one of the most important issues in cloud computing and it is associated with the high growth of data. There are many techniques developed and implemented to provide security of data each having its own merit and demerit. These techniques provided various encryption/decryption and hiding methods. In this Paper, we propose a combination of these techniques to provide a high level of security to cloud data, Advanced Encryption Standard as Symmetric Algorithm in Cryptography combined with Bit- Level Embedding as Text Steganography to serve as a cover medium considering that AES works fast on both software and hardware while Text steganography has less data redundant.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Symmetric, Encryption, Decryption, Cryptography, Text Steganography.




Survey of Dentralization of Police System and Insecurity in Nigeria


Prof. David Oladimeji Alao (PhD); & Akoji, Richard Oklagba

Department of Political Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State



The rising spate of insecurity in Nigeria occasioned by incessant killings, kidnappings, cultism, terrorism, armed banditry and police brutality is a reason for the decentralization of police system in Nigeria. Hence, this paper assessed the decentralization of police system and police as panacea for insecurity in Nigeria. The study applied quantitative and qualitative methods; data was obtained from primary and secondary sources. The quantitative data was obtained through administration of 388 questionnaires to the respondents in Borno, Yobe, Benue, Plateau, Lagos and Ogun States representing the 36 states of Nigeria by applying purposive sampling techniques. Findings showed that 208 (53.6%) of the respondents were male while 180 (46.4%) of the respondents were female 235 (60.5%) of the respondents agreed that Decentralizing police system is the panacea to insecurity in Nigeria while 153 (39.4%) disagreed that Decentralizing police system is the panacea to insecurity in Nigeria. The paper recommends decentralization of police system with strict supervision and control of the state governors. This study will be of immense benefits to all tiers of government Nigeria Police Force and the researchers in the field of security and public administration

Keywords: Decentralization, Police-operation, Capability, Insecurity, Nigeria.




Influence of opinion leaders on voting decisions of urban and rural electorates in the 2019 gubernatorial election in South-west, Nigeria.


Dr. Ojomo, Olusegun; and Amos, Kolawole

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State.



The successful conduct of elections in a democratic society depends largely on the flow of information about the candidates as it will determine the voting decisions of electorates. Opinion leaders are key sources of such information. Past studies revealed that opinion leaders are influential at swaying voting decisions of the electorate. The type of strategies used to influence voting decisions and the extent of their influence on voting decisions of electorate have however not been established by existing studies. Significant efforts have also not been made by existing studies to compare the influence of opinion leaders on the voting decisions of urban and rural electorates. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study comprised all 11,897,401 registered voters in the three sampled states in South-west, Nigeria. A sample size of 1,067 was obtained. The multistage sampling technique was used for the study. The result showed that the extent to which opinion leadership influenced voting decisions was low for both urban ( =3.33) and rural (x=3.31) The study also discovered that appeal to ethnic and religious sentiments was a strategy that opinion leaders used highly in the urban areas (x=3.53), while it used to a low extent in the rural areas (x=3.35). The study concluded that the extent of influence of opinion leaders was not as significant as generally perceived to be among urban and rural electorates. The study recommended that opinion leaders should evolve better strategies in order to significantly influence the voting decisions of urban and rural electorates.

Keywords: Opinion leadership influence, Opinion leadership strategies, voting decisions, Urban and rural electorates.




Effects of Aggregate Size on Concrete Strength


*Baba Babangida, Sagir Yusuf Abdullahi, Bukata Yakubu Gizaki, Muhammad Sulaiman

Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic PMB 0094, Wunti Dada, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This paper examines the effects of aggregate size on concrete strength. Concrete is a composite material made of aggregates bonded together by liquid cement which hardens over time. Compressive strength of concrete can be affected by many factors including water to cement ratio, aggregate size, degree of compaction and shape. Aggregate gradation plays an important role in concrete mixing. The fine and coarse aggregates generally occupy 60% to 75% of the concrete volume (70% to 85% by mass) and strongly influence the concrete’s freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy. Materials used was Portland cement, Granite aggregates are crushed had rock of granular structure, being the most common on earth. Granite rock comes from magma that erupted on the ground surface and then hardened. The results shows the weight retain for 2mm were 39g and 95.13g percentage passing 103g weight retain for 1.18mm and 2.38g for 1.0mm respectively. It was concluded that the aggregate size and gradation affect workability of fresh concrete and compressive strength of hardened concrete, workability of concrete made from uniform size aggregates decreases as the aggregate size increases, compressive strength of concrete made from uniform size aggregates increases with increase in aggregate size. It was also recommended that for a concrete beam, 10mm, 20mm 30mm coarse aggregate size could be adopted as they give appreciable compressive strength. Further research be carry out to investigate the use of appropriate  aggregate  gradation  procedure  for blending  aggregate  for  concrete  used  for  highway  pavement  and  its  effect  on  compressive  strength  of concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, aggregate, strength, Portland and apparatus




Spatial Distribution of Commercial Charcoal Production Activities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


AS Ekpo1; H. K. Ayuba2 and N. D. Marcus3

1&2Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi. 3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi.



The contribution of wood fuel and its derivative (charcoal) gotten from forested woodlands, to rural economies and the energy requirements of developing nations cannot be underscored. However, the rate of dependence on savannah woodlands for commercial charcoal production (CCP) has exposed the forests to degradation. This paper assessed the spatial distribution of commercial charcoal production in Nasarawa State with the aim of enhancing availability of quantitative information about some of its key elements, such as the spatial and temporal dynamics of the process. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of study locations and point data of kiln location was acquired through reconnaissance and field survey using Germin 76 handheld GPS receiver. The point data was imported into ArcGIS 10.2.2 and analysed using the Density tool located in the Spatial Analyst Toolbox. It was further overlaid on the Global Forest Change (GFC) map to compare the relationship between tree cover loss and the commercial charcoal activity in the study area. Result shows that 188 active kilns were identified and mapped. Majority (70.21%) of the identified charcoal kilns overlaid locations of tree cover loss (change) between 2001 and 2018 as indicated on Global Forest Change map. It was concluded that commercial charcoal production is making a significant contribution to tree cover loss in Nasarawa State, hence the need to look into the activity, particularly in Karu LGA so as to device means of making the production sustainable. Reforestation programmes/projects should be introduced and encouraged among the producers and associated dealers so as to safeguard indigenous tree species from extinction and protect natural ecological system of plants as well.

Keywords: Spatial, Commercial, Charcoal, Kiln, Savannah, Woodland.




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