African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 19 No.2


VOL. 19 NO. 2 DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2010–1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


The Relationship between Electronic Commerce Dimensions on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises.


1Taofeeq Akanji Are; 2Bello Taofik Abidemi (PhD); 3Umar Shehu; & 4Ali Sirajo.

1Distance Learning Center, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State. 2,3,4Department of General Studies, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria.



The importance of Electronic commerce (E.C) to any business cannot be undermined due to the role it plays in improving businesses be it small, medium or large enterprises of any economy. Electronic commerce has facilitated the emergence of new strategies and business models in several industries in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. However, among many studies that have been conducted to investigate the factors that influences the adoption of e-commerce in both small and large businesses organizations, there is little or no empirical research that has examined the influence of e-commerce on business performance, especially in Kaduna Nigeria supermarkets after the technology has been implemented to the best of the researcher’s knowledge. Thus, this study aimed at examining impact of electronic commerce on business performance. Three hypotheses were formulated in a null form. Data were collected from owner/managers of SMEs in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 208 returned questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data processed on Smartpls2. Findings reveal that business to consumer, consumer to consumer and government to consumer have a positive significant relationship with SMEs performance. The study recommends that small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria should encourage more of electronic commerce (business to consumer, consumer to consumer and government to consumer). SMEs should effectively and efficiently adopt and implement electronic commerce very well. This is one of the highly commendable way to boost business performance that will guarantee sustainable competitive advantage. The study therefore concludes that that business to consumer, consumer to consumer and government to consumer have significant effect on SMEs performance in Kaduna state.

Keywords: business to business, consumer to consumer, government to consumer, Performance




Effects of Electricity Supply on the Performance of Rural Micro Enterprises in Kudan LGA, Kaduna State.


Abubakar Bashir Imam and Abubakar Aminu Abdullahi

Department of Geography Federal University Gashua, Yobe State



In Kudan LGA, several communities which have previously had access to electricity have recently suffered poor supply due to several factors which undermine the performance of the micro enterprises in the study area. The purpose of This paper is to examine the effect of electricity supply on the performance of micro enterprises in Kudan LGA. Two hundred and thirty micro entrepreneurs were used across the ten (10) wards of the LGA. The study used purposive sampling technique and data was obtained using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive such as percentage and inferential statistics method (correlation analysis). The study findings reveal that, electricity supply and production and performance of micro enterprises are positively correlated and significant with P value as .001 at 0.01 significant level. Another finding is that, the availability of electricity supply increases the profit and income of micro entrepreneurs. There is a direct link between access to electricity and financial prospects of micro enterprises in the study area.

Keywords: Electricity Supply and micro enterprises




Impact of Brexit on Real Estate Transaction in Contemporary Sub-Saharan African Policies for Sustainable Development


*Mansur Sulaiman; *Gbaje Helen Enehezeyi; & **Aliu Alhaji Akeem

*Department of Physical Planning & Development, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.



Sustainable development is the hub of global economic policy. It focuses on inclusive or broad-based growth sustained over time. It also places emphasizes on environmental, economic and social considerations of developing countries to have a fulfilled wellbeing. The account of Africa in terms of new sustainable development is inundated with good and bad. Bearing it in mind that Africa as a continent happens to be one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It is blessed with a favorable weather and large landmass for agriculture, couple with the needed large resources in terms of human and natural resources. Therefore, it follows that African is seen as land of outstanding. The different perspectives on the impact of Brexit on Africa are indicative of the global intellectual discussion. Nicholas Westcott, director of the Royal African Society, for example, holds that ‘for Africa and other developing countries, Brexit is a golden opportunity to secure better access, greater protection, and more aid from Britain (Westcottt, 2018),  although he admits that there are challenges. Mark Langan (2018) on the other hand, considers that Brexit, on balance, offers fewer opportunities for Commonwealth African nations’ trade position vis-à-vis European partners while opening up many potential hazards. It is argued that the short to mid-term consequences, through the direct impacts, are likely to be relatively minor, but for the longer-term, it warns that the indirect impacts could be more consequential, particularly with regard to how it could undermine self-reliance in processes of deep integration in Africa. The way to avoid this outcome, it is argued, is to redouble efforts to implement the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). In view of the foregoing the paper therefore assessed the impact of Brexit on real estate transaction in Sub Saharan African Policies for Sustainable development.

Keywords: Brexit, Africa, Sustainable development, Real Estate, African Policies.




Nigeria’s Creative Industry (Nollywood) in the Quest for Economic Diversification and New Sustainable Development


Azeez Akinwumi Sesan (PhD)

Department of English and Literature, American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola, Adamawa State



The concept of paper examined the way Nollywood can make meaningful contributions to the on-going quest for sustainable development in Nigeria. To repositioned Nollywood for sustainable development in Nigeria, the Ministry should outside of the box and collaborate with other relevant government agencies and parastatal to prevent financial leakages in Nollywood. If properly managed with committed dedication, Nollywood can contribute meaningfully to the achievement of sustainable development in Nigeria. Adequate and workable data base and prevention of financial leakages in the industry will go a very long way to make Nollywood become economically vibrant and relevant to the on-going discourse on sustainable development. This paper deducted that sustainable development in Nigeria should involve human capital development, moral development, infrastructural development and socio-economic development. To achieve all the forms of development and the government of Nigeria should operate all inclusive economy.

Keywords: Creative, Industry, Economic, Diversification, Sustainable Development.




An Overview of International Business: A Developmental tool for Nigeria Economic Growth


1Iliya Bawa, PhD; 2Salisu Iyal Ahmed; and 3Adebayo Theresa Yemisi

1&3Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State – Nigeria. 2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa – Nigeria



International business which is expected to result to economic growth across the globe has led to a gap between the poor and rich countries and  this gab is growing very fast. It been a while the Gross Domestic Product of Nigeria is inadequate and this has resulted to poor standard of living and unimproved condition of living compare to some developed countries. The study objective is to examine international business activities for Nigeria economic growth. The study adopts a quantitative research methodology. Secondary data source from the CBN statistical bulletin for the period of 2002 – 2018 was used for the analysis. Using Augmented Dickey – Fuller unit root test, it shows that foreign direct investment outflow, foreign direct investment inflow, total import, total trade and balance of trade are stationary at 1st and 2nd different level of differencing, while the levels of the differencing show that Gross Domestic Product and total export are non-stationary after second differencing. Using correlation test the result show that GDP is positively and significantly related to foreign direct investment inflow, foreign direct investment outflow, total trade, total import and total export. But balance of trade is insignificantly related to Gross Domestic Product. The results of regression analysis when economic growth proxy as Gross Domestic Product (Dependent Variable) and foreign direct investment inflow, foreign direct investment outflow, total import, balance of trade, total trade and total export proxy as international business (independent variables) shows that all the independent variables are positively and significantly related to Gross Domestic Product except total export which was found to be negatively related to Gross Domestic Product. Base on these findings the study recommended that government should provide dependable and transparent conditions for firms and ease the way of doing business whether domestic or foreign and also encourage export so as to help domestic companies compete globally and boost the economic output for sustainable development of the country.

Keyword: International business, Gross Domestic Product, Economic Growth, Globalization, foreign direct investment.




Current Innovations in Library and Information Services during Covid 19 Pandemic


Abdullahi Sarki; & Hauwa Usman Bappah

Isa Kaita Library, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



This paper discusses the current innovations in Library and Information Services during COVID – 19 pandemic. The paper x – rays the contribution of libraries, librarians and information professionals to the global response and fight against COVID – 19 pandemic. It further explained that the availability of relevant information during pandemics helps in reducing anxiety among the public, which is important in the prevention of new infections. Virtual and remote services offered during the COVID – 19 pandemic were highlighted. The paper concluded that all types of libraries contributed immensely to the fight against the COVID – 19 pandemic by meeting the information needs of various stakeholders, hence the need to support libraries with adequate funds to enable them function effectively and efficiently.

Keywords: Innovations, Library, Information Services, COVID – 19, Pandemic.




Challenges Facing Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria: An Empirical Review


*Balogun Bamidele Bode; **Olatoro Fatai

*Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (CED), Kebbi State Polytechnic, Dakingari. **Nigeria Customs Service, Bill Clinton Drive, Abuja.



This paper examines the challenges facing entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. The study uses secondary data by reviewing existing literature related to the subject matter. The finding reveal that entrepreneurship development in Nigeria is faced with numerous challenges among which includes; inadequate capital, government policies, lack of awareness of business opportunities, inadequate infrastructural facilities to mention but a few. The study concludes that government at all level should set aside certain percentage of their budget annually as loan and grants to existing and prospective entrepreneurs at a subsidize rate. The federal government should come out with sound economic policies that will revive the falling economic trend in the country by putting up structures that will aid entrepreneurship activities. The study therefore, recommends that the government should enact law and enforce such law to protect the indigenous entrepreneurs within the country so that they will be able to compete favorably with their foreign counterparts.

Keywords: Challenges, Entrepreneurship, Development, Nigeria, Entrepreneurs, Government.




The Relevance of Human Capacity Development towards Sustainable Health, Safety and Environmental Management


Mercy Osato, Omoifo-Irefo

Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, PMB 20, Effurun, Delta State.



The significant role of effective Human Capacity Development (HCD) in enhancing the achievement of corporate targets has garnered attention overtime. This recognition has led to investments in Human Capital Development (HCD) Programs like education and trainings for employees by their management. However, the holistic relevance of HCD towards sustainable health, safety and environmental management within organizations remains a grey area which necessitates a befitting research. This research attempts to fill this apparent gap in extant literature. It was discovered that there is the tendency for people to be emotionally and actively driven to synergize towards achievement of sustainability objectives set out by institutions that are committed to enhancing their skills, potentials, capabilities and freedom to make informed decisions. Likewise, it was revealed that the implementation of HCD culture and programs is currently more prevalent within workplaces in developed countries. Developmental agencies like the European Commission, OECD and UN still have quite some work to do in their bid to encourage the implementation of HCD within the global workplace, because the implementation of HCD programs is evidently more prevalent within workplaces in developed countries. The management of companies within developing countries is also enjoined to invest in HCD programs to bridge the existing gap with their developed counterparts.

Keywords: Human Capacity, Development, Health, Safety, Environment, Sustainability




A Review of Solar-Wind Hybrid System for Power Generation in Nigeria


Sani Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.



Sustainable energy development in Nigeria is the key to the stability of the country, in terms of viable economy, social order and political stability. Many indigenous researchers have investigated the availability of renewable energy resources in Nigeria with a view to establish their viability in country. The development and proper use of renewable energy should be giving high priority, especially now that issues of climate change and global warming are among the most critical issues discussed by the governments and other stakeholders in the country. The renewable energy resources in Nigeria are as enormous as they are diverse. However, the problem lies with the level of utilization which is very low. The potential of renewable energy resources in Nigeria is about 1.5 times that of conventional energy resources in terms of energy. In view of this, Nigeria must focus on the development of renewable and sustainable source. This paper present the review of literature carried out on different types of solar and wind energy system and combined for electricity generation. The overall aim is to utilize the presented literature for developing the proposed further work.  

Keywords: Review, Solar-Wind, Hybrid System, Power, Generation.




Exploring the Feasibility of Climate Control in Building Using Geothermal Energy in Kaduna, Nigeria


Hamisu Usman; M. M. Aliyu; and Aminu Hamisu Kura

Renewable Energy and Technology Unit (RETU), Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



Globally, climate control in buildings, both residential and commercial, represents a very significant percentage of total electricity consumption. Given that to date the bulk of this energy is from fossil fuels, any technology that is able to reduce this consumption will contribute in no small measure to the reduction of Green House Gases emission into the atmosphere which contributes to global warming. This research work seeks to determine the Geothermal temperature profile of Kaduna up to a depth of 10m to obtain the necessary data required to design climate control systems for residential and commercial buildings, that do not require phase change and use 80% less energy than conventional air-conditioning. In this work, the analyses of soil temperature at fifth depth (1m, 2m, 4m, 6m and 10m) for a well were simulated in MATLAB software. The work shows that the temperature at 7m above becomes constant, which means thermal heat can be harness for effective use in households and other buildings.

Keywords: Climate control, Geothermal, Temperature, energy and utilization




Software Quality: A Case for Regression Testing


Victor Iboyi

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu



Building software with high quality parametrically requires not less than 50% of time allocated to Testing. Software engineering principles suggest that software Testing takes huge chunk of the entire software budget. This means that prerogative is given to Software testing in every Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The practical experiences of many organizations cited in this paper give reasons why software testing cannot be overemphasized in Software engineering as the quality, reputation, and integrity of any software is determined by the rigours of test cases the software is able to pass. However, worthy of note is that despite many software passing various white box and black box testing, bugs are surprisingly found during alpha and beta tests. This paper reviews the reasons for emergence of such bugs and proffers practical ways of going live with high quality software using regression testing.

Keywords: SDLC, Software quality, Regression Testing, bugs, defects




The History of Some Relogio-Ecnomiscrises in Nigeria


Ahmed Waziri

A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies Misau Bauchi State



This concrete paper is going to be giving a brief incidence of the crisis that involves religion, ethnic, Tribal, political or social-cultural, violence, riots of Religious and other related Crises in Nigeria after independence. History is the body of record that generations rely on, It is a document that normally tells what had happen in the past, and also is a light that brings into current situation, It is also. Like Literature that help to understanding the contemporary conditions of today and tomorrow or current and the future situation.

Keywords: religion, politics, crisis, economics, contemporary, riot, controversy, disturbances, erupted, provocation, conference




Affordable-Sustainable-Innovative Housing Technologies and Solution for Nigeria


Kabiru Zakari; Dauda Ali Madu; & Ogwuche Henry Audu

The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi Nigeria.



The rapid rate of urbanization, economic and population growth in Nigeria, estimated at 2.6% per annum are the key factors that have put a lot of  pressure on  housing demand and investment. Consequently, the housing deficit has recently been estimated to be up to a backlog of about 22 million units. In order to attain a sustainable economic development in the Nigeria housing sector, this study is aimed at developing an affordable/sustainable pedagogical framework for innovative housing delivery. The study adopts a mixed method approach, as well as, using a case study of an existing model. The result of the framework is a model for affordable housing delivery with 30% savings that can be used towards the provision of affordable water and electricity. The significance of this model is its uniqueness as the Siamese triplet of achieving affordable housing in Nigeria with modular system of construction, using 3 in 1 components of fibre glass + concrete IBS for columns, beams and Walls.

Keywords: Development, sustainable, innovative, urbanization




Awakening For 21st Century Challenges And Opportunities With The Use Of ICT Based Virtual Assistive Technology To Teach Early Childhood Education Of Children With Learning Challenges In Pandemic Challenged Society


1I.K. Ojuope; 2A.O. Adetunmbi; & 3O.E. Oyinloye

1Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, Ekiti State Univerversity, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.



COVID 19 Corona virus pandemic disease has brought about the challenge of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based virtual Technology in teaching and learning systems. The use of ICT in education is nothing new, but the question is where the limit is when the use of ICT does not have the desired effect, classroom delivery with the use of modern technology is still very low in Nigeria. From the report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons carry a significant proportion of the world’s population, about 15%, as a result of differences in educational standard to the normal individuals, they are rarely seen as contributor to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the Learning Challenged children access to education, this is as a result of several challenges they face in learning and comprehension. Most schools curricula were developed without considering the fact that, different categories of students including people living with learning challenges will also make use of them. This was never put into consideration during the requirement specification of those curriculum. This paper focuses on the use of ICT based virtual assistive Technology to teach  early childhood education children with learning challenges most especially during this COVID 19 pandemic challenges. This will enhance the learning ability of this category of Students and also motivate their desire to learn. This research work was carried in one of the government school for handicap children in Nigeria. From the learning ability testing of the research, it was discovered that the students learn faster and easier with the use of ICT base assistive technology than normal classroom learning. As a result of this, this paper focus on comparing level of efficiency of the ICT base virtual reality assistive technology over normal classroom learning for these categories of Students.

Keywords: Early-Childhood, Education, Pandemic Disease, Intellectual Challenges, Virtual Reality, Assistive Technology, ICT, Teaching, Learning.




Statistical Relations of Sustainable Real Estate Development and Its Implications on Investment in Green Building in Lagos Metropolis


Adeleke, M. A., Muritala, A. O.

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki



The real estate industry has a significant influence on the environment, economy and the society. A number of benefits are associated with the development of sustainable buildings. Sustainable building or real estate construction enables an ethical, viable and practical response to resource consumption and environmental impact. It creates an economic sense on a life cycle costing basis. This paper aims at examining the impact of sustainable real estate development (SRED) on investment in green buildings, in the real estate sector. It is pertinent to examine how participants in the market filter and scrutinize relevant sets of information and integrate it into an existing framework of investment. For this purpose, the study adopted a quantitative approach, and applied a questionnaire survey strategy. Primary data were collected by distributing survey questionnaire among 103 real estate investors, in Lagos Island, Ikeja and Lagos Mainland. The information, collected from survey were analyzed with the use statistical techniques, specifically regression analysis, factor analysis, descriptive statistics, as well as reliability test. It revealed four benefits associated with SRED, which include higher building value (HBV), productivity gains (PG), cost savings (CS), and environmental gains (EG). The study also finds a significant positive impact of HBV, PG, and EG on dependent variable of Investment in green buildings (IN) at 10% significance level. The study suggests that there is a need to enhance awareness about, and focus on the benefits of sustainable real estate development (SRED) and green buildings.

Keywords: sustainable real estate development, green buildings, sustainable investment, building value, productivity gains, environmental gains, cost savings.




Urbanisation and Sustainable Development of Abuja City, Nigeria.


1Uduak Okon Jeremiah; 2Efanga Otu Efanga; 3Ubokobong Nsongurua Essiet; & 4Uduakobong Victor Jimmy

1Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua. 2Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua. 4Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic Ikot Osurua



Rapid urban population growth in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa has brought a host of problems along with it. The fiscal, infrastructural and social conditions in these urban centers have been incapable of providing a decent standard of living for their residents, aggravated by high birth rates and a steady rise in the level of rural-urban migration. With a population of approximately 188 million and an international human development index ( HDI) of 152 in 188 listed countries, Nigeria’s urban centers are plagued by weak stability, epileptic power and water supply, poor sanitation, health problems , high construction costs among other problems (NPC 2017). This qualitative study builds on current knowledge about the emerging problems facing Nigeria’s urban environment with an emphasis on Abuja, Nigeria’s Federal Capital as a primary event. This paper also analyzes some of these longstanding problems, their interrelationships and how they intensify the Nigerian government’s failure to overcome them. In addition, the conclusion sets out a solution to these challenges with guidance on the process of unraveling Abuja City’s dynamic corporation problems for sustainable growth.

Keywords: Urbanisation, Sustainability, Development, Challenges, Abuja City




Risk Management on Agribusiness in Saki West Local Government


Sikiru, Isiaka Olawale; Oyesiji, Yinusa Kolawole; Oladeji Emmanuel Olayinka; & Ige, Michael Adekunle

Banking and Finance Department. The Oke- Ogun polytechnic, Saki.



Despite the necessity for agribusiness owners to assume risks since profitability is highly dependent on risk exposure, it is of note that high exposure to risk may lead to financial business collapse. This paper investigate on Risk management on agribusiness in Saki West Local Government, The data used in this study is primary in nature and collected with the aid of structured questionnaires and analyzed with the frequency and percentage distribution method. The study found that risk management is a key aspect in the management of agribusinesses and it determines for the success of the business, the most preferred risk reduction strategy among the agribusiness owners is diversification and recommends that agribusiness owners should continually maintain a sound risk management process and employ more than one risk reduction strategy in their businesses.

Keyword: Agribusiness, Diversification, Management, Insurance, Risk,




Hydrocarbon Pollution and Impact of Crude Oil Theft in the Niger Delta: Legal and Socio-Economic Dimension


*Eric Omo Enakireru, PhD & **Irene Airen Aigbe

*Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe- Oghara. **Department of Business   Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin.



The key environmental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its petroleum industry, crude oil pollution, the environment, crude oil spills, gas flaring, oil theft, vandalism and pipeline explosion. Oil pollution and its impact on the people of the Niger Delta are complex and diverse. Oil pollution is only one of the various environmental problems facing the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The article was approached by employing the doctrinal method. This has been achieved by examining, analysing and considering the internet, Lexis or Westlaw, legislations, treaties, historical records and case reports.The Federal Government has enacted plethora of laws and regulations in combating the menace of crude oil theft. The article examined the efficacy of the Nigeria laws and regulations, the challenges of crude oil theft, the endemic consequences of oil spillage in the Niger Delta environment, the socio-economic effect of crude oil theft, the lack of sincerity of purposes of the Nigeria government in tackling crude oil theft, The article noted in its findings that there are significant numbers of national and international environmental laws poised at combating the widespread and dangerous consequences of the impact of hydrocarbon pollution in Nigeria Therefore, the article recommended proactive measures and effective environmental legislative and institutional framework in order to improve on petroleum industry regulations.

Keywords: oil pollution, environmental degradation, regulations, oil theft, spills, gas flaring and Niger delta of Nigeria




Building Accountability and Inclusive Institutions through IPSAS for Entrepreneurial Sustainable Development in Developing World


Akpelu, Azunna E.; & Obiah, Mmadubuike Emmanuel

Department of Accountancy, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo



The paper x-rayed the importance of building accountability and inclusive institutions through International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) for entrepreneurial sustainable development in developing world. The study is a non-empirical study, therefore, Narrative-Textual Case Study (NTCS) method and content analysis were adopted. The findings revealed that IPSAS will be a veritable tool for building accountability in developing world and an inclusive institutions should that must involve all spheres of public sector, particularly the National Assembly should be promoted. The paper concluded that IPSAS has a significant relationship with accountability, thus, should be enhanced by adopting and implementing IPSAS and enforced accountability in a manner that encourages public officers to improve effectiveness in public financial management rather than enthrone corruption in the discharge of public functions. There is also a positive significant between accountability and good governance in developing world. The study recommended that IPSAS implementation demands that public officials to act consistently with the ethical standards and the values, policies, strategies, expectations and outcomes of the public sector entity, etc. Further research on this topic on empirical can encourage field data presentation and analysis, so prospective researchers can venture into it.

Keywords: Accountability, IPSAS, Public Sector, Sustainable Development




Characterization of Bacteria from Washed and Unwashed Vegetable Samples with Respective Impact on Disease Outbreaks


1Ihum, Temitope A.; and 2Efunwole Omonike O.

1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute Ilorin, Kwara State 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Osun State Polytechnic Iree.



It has become imperative to assess the effect of washing food produce especially fruits due to disease outbreaks ravaging the last decade with accompanied increase in mortality and morbidity rate. In this study fruit and vegetable samples including Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), Pear (Pyrus communis L.), Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.), Apple (Malus domestica L.) and Tangarine  (Citrus reticulate  L.) were purchased from five different markets namely; Wurukum, Modern, North bank, Wadata and High level in Markurdi, Benue State.  A part of the sample (fruits and vegetables) was washed for 1minutes under running tap water while the other part was left unwashed. Highest bacterial load for washed Tomatoes was 5.3 ± 0.5 x 106 CFU/g while that for Cucumber samples (Cucumis sativus) was recorded as 4.2 ± 1.8 x 106. In the same vein highest bacterial load of 6.3 ± 0.5 x 106 CFU/g and 4.5 ± 1.8 x 106 CFU/g was recorded for washed  Pear (Pyrus communis L.), and Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) samples respectively while washed Apple (Malus domestica L.) and Tangarine  (Citrus reticulate  L.) samples had the highest bacterial load of 6.0 ± 2.7 x 106 CFU/g and 4.2 ± 3.2 x 106 respectively. Lowest and highest bacteria load of 2.5 ± 1.2×108 and 8.4 ± 1.3×109 CFU/g was recorded for unwashed tomato and cucumber samples respectively. Using biochemical tests bacteria isolates from fruits and vegetable samples were identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Further confirmation of bacteria isolates using 16S rDNA gene sequencing confirmed them as S. aureus CIP 9973, P. carotovorum Pec1, E. cloacae AS10, K. aerogenes OFM28, P. mirabilis UPMSD3, E. coli 2013C-3342. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum was not present on washed fruits and vegetable samples. Washing of food produce especially fruits and vegetables which make up for more than 90% of human daily consumption has become extremely important to curtain and curtail the effect of disease outbreaks in these times.

Keywords: Charcterization, Bacteria, Unwashed, Vegetable, Samples, Disease Outbreaks.




Establishment of Second Order Controls Using Network Adjustment Methods of Observation with Differential Global Positioning System (GPS)


Abubakar Abdulkadir; Surv. Ahmed, Babayo; Adamu Makama Pindiga; & Zakari, Danladi

Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechic Bauchi, Bauchi State



The importance of survey controls cannot be over emphasized as a index for both structural and boundary control mechanism in any meaningful development projects. However, the establishment of these controls can be extremely difficult if it is done exclusively by classical method. The traditional and old system of control extension (classical) has failed to live up to the requirement of the existing needs. Non utilization or absence of these survey controls in the demarcation of boundary properties, right of ways, sewage lines, monitoring and execution of design plans by planning authorities lead to the emergence of unhealthy environment and of course security threats to human coexistence. Therefore the significance of using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) that solved the challenges of control establishment effectively and accurately within a define time frame is breakthrough in surveying and mapping. Network adjustment methods of observation in static mode of observation was use to capture data of eight new control points using sokia GNSS receiver GRX1 to establish second order controls in the study area, processed and adjust the data using sokia spectrum office. Geodetic connection was made to first order control point at Bauchi Airport (ITRF), DNBA 00. and control map of the study area was produced in arc GIS environment. The accuracies were assessed and reliability of the triangulation networks were determined within the 95% confidence level. we recommend that the control points established  meet the required accuracy as such they can be used for research purpose, student practical, property survey and other engineering works

Keywords: Control establishment, GPS Planning, Baseline Network post processing and adjustment.




Appraising Legal Reforms in Public Procurement in Nigeria: Observance and Enforcement of the Public Procurement Act, 2007


Aniekan J. Mendie

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.



The robust socio-economic development of a country indubitably depends in a significant way on effective legal regulation of practice of public procurement of goods, works and services. Public procurement in essence, entails expenditure of money, scarce resource in a manner determined by a framework of legal rules and regulations to achieve value which promotes manifest development of a country. In the country, Nigeria, the geographical scope of this paper, practice of public procurement of goods, works and services is not yielding the best value for money, inspite of the reforms introduced by the Public Procurement Act 2007, the principal statutory framework for its regulation. The Public Procurement Act, 2007 as reformative as it is, exists in the midst of abuses, such as bribery and corruption, inflation of contract sums, over-invoicing and procurement of low quality goods, works and services. There are also abuses in the forms of embezzlement of contract mobilization fees and abandonment of contract works. These abuses and many more that would be mentioned in course of development of the body of this paper, kindle the concern to critically appraise the Nigerian Public Procurement Act, 2007 to evaluate its observance and enforcement in the process of practice of procurement in the public sector. The paper draws data from primary legal source such as the Public Procurement Act, 2007 and depends on academic journal and internet materials for secondary data. In analyzing material data, the paper adopts doctrinal methodology popular for critical evaluation of rules, principles and opinions in legal research. In the end, the paper finds that the extant law for public procurement in the framework of Public Procurement Act, 2007 exists with laudable innovations aimed at ensuring accountability, probity and transparency in the procurement process in Nigeria, but the observance and enforcement of the law is grossly low. Thus, the low observance and enforcement of legal rules and regulations in the procurement process account for the widespread abuses mentioned above. To that extent, the paper recommends strict observance and effective enforcement of rules and principles outlined in the Procurement Act in order to achieve value for money for the promotion of socio-economic well-being of the country. 

Keywords: Appraising, Reforms, Public procurement, Procurement Act, Observance, Enforcement, Nigeria.




Espousal of Facilities Management for Achieving African Sustainable Development


1Esv Oyeleke, Oyediran Olufemi; 2Esv Olowoleru Olaitan Adedeji; & 3Sum Hezekiah Habila

1Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



Africa’s opportunities are vast and its challenges are persistent. Home to the world’s largest free trade area and a 1.2 billion-person market, the continent is creating an entirely new development path, harnessing the potential of its resources and people. Sustainable Development refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, with services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterizes technical structures such as housing, roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications etc sustainable development further encompasses “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. Several long-standing challenges remain and are holding back progress. Around 640 million people currently live without electricity in Africa, 210 million of which are in fragile and conflict-affected countries.  Public debt levels and debt risk are rising, which might jeopardize debt sustainability in some countries; the availability of good jobs has not kept pace with the number of entrants in the labor force; fragility is costing the subcontinent a half of a percentage point of growth per year; and gender gaps persist and are keeping the continent from reaching its full growth and innovation potential. More than 416 million Africans still live in extreme poverty. However, all these coupled together can bring about the provision of good and affordable housing necessary for the smooth operation of a nation. Sustainable development has always played a key role in integrating economies within a region. Well developed and efficient infrastructure is essential for a regional economic development and growth. Infrastructure development is at its lowest ebb in developing nations because of dearth of fund.  Among the challenges of African development is lack of proper actualization and implementation of facility management practice. Facilities Management practice when implemented will transform Africa economies into self-sufficient developed nations in the 21st Century. The benefits of increased and rapid infrastructure development are evident in the successful economic development of the newly-industrialized nations of China, India, Mexico, South Africa and Brazil. It thus become vital for the less industrialized, third world communities to ensure increased investments in infrastructural development in order to bridge the economic gap from the highly industrialized and developed nations of the globe. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it will require innovative steps to boost productivity in Africa countries. The impact of shortage of infrastructure in Africa nations can be reduced through the espousal of facility management Practice. African nations must see facilities management as a tool for development and conscientiously embrace it. This paper assessed the roles of facilities management in development of Africa nations for achieving sustainable development.

Keywords: Facilities Management, Sustainable Development, Sub Saharan African, Sub Saharan African Resources, Africa Development.




Federalism and Restructuring towards Unleashing African Resources for Sustainable Development in Nigeria


*Jamiyal Nathan Dauda; *Hassan Ishaq Abubakar; **Adamu Hassan Shinga; **Yunusa Sabo Mohammed; & **Yakubu Garba Tabitha

*Department of General Studies, Gombe State Polytechnic, Bajoga. **Department of Public Administration, Gombe State Polytechnic, Bajoga.



Nigeria has settled for federal system of government which allows for division of powers and jurisdictions among the levels of government that made up the federation. There have been a lot of lapses in the Nigerian federalism which have given rise to patriotic calls for restructuring of the system. Nigeria is a country that is in need of restructuring. This paper looks at the concept of restructuring in relationship with the practice of federalism in Nigeria towards unleashing the resources the country is blessed with. Nigeria has undergone a long process of restructuring in terms of the number of geo-political administrative areas called states or regions constituting the country. This process is popularly referred to as “state creation”, that is the process whereby new geo-political units/constituents known as “states” in most federations are created out of existing or old ones. The outcome of this process is usually an increase in the number of states constituting the Nigerian federation. The paper revealed that some of the challenges facing Nigerian federalism are; revenue sharing formula among the tiers, state creation, resource control and power sharing. This all have cumulated in placing the democratic rule in the country at a disadvantaged position. The paper adopted the structural-functionalist theory. Consequently, the dividends of democracy have seized to reach the hands of the common people. It is on the bases of this some policy recommendations were made.

Keywords: Federalism, Sustainable, Restructuring, Development, African Resources.




Socio-Economic Characteristics of Maize Farmers in Bauchi State, Nigeria


1Babuga, U. S., 2Garba, A. and 3Dandawo, H.

1Department of Agriculture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agric Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria.



This research was carried out to examine the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in Bauchi State. The objective is to determine the socio economic characteristics of the respondents and to investigate maize famers access to extension services and regulatory of extension contact. Also to identify constraints and challenge faced by extension workers in the study area and to make recommendation for effective extension activities towards sustainable maize production. Information and data were collected from the study area through questionnaire administered to seventy five randomly selected respondents across the four districts of the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics consisting of frequency, and percentages. It was found that majority (56.0%) of the respondents attended primary schools. Majority (60.0%) of the respondent had farm size ranging between 1-3 hectares. Majority (42.7%) of the respondents had size of land set aside for maize cultivation. The major pre-requisite for the improvement of extension activities through adequate training. Adequate agricultural credit to maize farmers at low interest rate will improve maize production. Timely supply of farm inputs should be ensured in the study area by the relevant bodies. 

Keywords: socio-economic characteristics, maize, farmers and Bauchi State.




Papaya Seed Oil as Potential Source for Bio-Fuel Production


Manmasun Ndagi Abubakar; & Habibu Uthman

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.



The Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO) was extracted by solvent process. The physicochemical characteristics of the oil were studied. The seed has an oil yield of 31.60% which is commercially sustainable. The CPSO was analysed for specific gravity (0.94), viscosity at 40 0C (49.20 cp), iodine value (53.80 g/100g), and saponification value (158.60 mg/g), peroxide value (6.70 m mol/kg), calorific value (44.37 MJ/kg) and free fatty acid (0.34) using standard methods.  Fatty acid profile of the oil indicted it is highly unsaturated (67.4%), this implies that the unsaturated fatty acid of the seed oil is more than the saturated one. The implication of this is that the oil will not solidify easily when applied in engines but will flow as oil and not fat. Thus, it can be concluded that the seed can be utilized for the extraction of oil which can be used as feedstock for bio-fuel production. 

Key words: Carica papaya seed, solvent extraction, fatty acid, physicochemical properties.




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