African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management Vol. 19 No.4


VOL. 19 NO. 4 DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2896–1783



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


An Appraisal of Lagos State Housing Delivery Strategies: A Remedy to Lagos State Housing Challenges


OL Patunola-Ajayi

Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure.



The provision of adequate housing is one of the major roles of Government. In line with this, Governments have continued to adopt various housing policies and strategies in other to meet up with the herculean task of provision of adequate, affordable and sustainable housing for the populace as well as reducing housing deficit in the country. In line with the foregoing, the study examined Lagos State housing delivery strategies as a remedy to reducing housing challenges in Lagos State. The target populations for the study are the practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos as well as the officials of the Lagos State Ministry of Housing. Primary and secondary data were adopted for this study; primary data was collected through the administration of structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, weighted mean score and factor analysis. The secondary data was retrieved from the records of the Lagos State Ministry of Housing. The study revealed that the major challenges associated with housing delivery include unavailability of finance, mortgage and interest rate; high cost associated with land acquisition difficulty of access to land amongst others. The results of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity showed a value of 1286.389 with p = 0.000 and the KMO statistics was 0.767 while five (5) dimensions were identified which explained 73.452% of the total variance. The study further revealed that the major housing delivery strategies adopted by the Lagos State Government since the first National Development Plan include direct construction of housing; development of new towns through infrastructural development;  establishment of a building society, Lagos Building Investment Corporation (LBIC); introduction of Lagos Home Ownership Mortgage Scheme (LagosHoms); Rent-to-Own scheme; rental housing policies; outright payment schemes; affordable mass housing; equity partnership housing; mixed partnership amongst others. The details of the various housing estates been developed by the Lagos State Government in the different areas of Lagos State showed that the Government is still on the path towards reducing housing deficit through the provision of public housing to its teeming population.. It must be stated without doubt that the Government efforts alone cannot completely eradicate housing challenges as well as the provision of housing for its teeming population. Hence, the importance of investment by private investors, involvement of stakeholders in the public-private partnerships cannot be over-emphasized in ensuring adequate housing delivery.

Keywords: Housing, Housing Delivery, Housing Delivery Strategies, Housing Challenges, Lagos State.




Exploring the Challenges and Barriers in Accessing Financial Facilities by Small and Medium Construction Firms in Abuja, Nigeria

Turaki, Mohammed Nasir

Department of Building, Federal University of Technology. Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



This study sought to explore the challenges and barriers facing Small and Medium Construction Firms (SMCFs) in Abuja in their quest to access finance from financial institutions for their business purposes. This study was across-sectional survey that used semi-structured questionnaire to collect data from the sample. 50 questionnaires were distributed to construction firms in Abuja through a convenience sampling technique. The findings are that the key challenges that make it difficult for SMCFs to access finance include policy regulation, inadequate financial infrastructure, stringent collateral security requirement, and lack of institutional capacity of SMCF sector. The key barriers identified include informational barriers, lack of managerial skills with SMCFs. Limitations of the study have been noted and recommendations for developing innovative approaches to making finance accessible to SMCFs in Abuja have been discussed. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of financing construction firms in developing countries in general, and in Abuja in particular.

Keywords: Access, Challenges, Finance, Construction firms, Abuja.




Impact of Mix Ratios of Maize Cobs and Low-Density Polythene on the Mechanical Properties of Particleboards


Anselm E. O. Eneh; *Aaron Ango; & **Emmanuel E. Eneh

*Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Building, Ahmadu Bello Univer sity, Zaria.



The need to reduce plastic waste and sustain the environment, preserve forest resources and provide useful building and construction materials to replace wood is ever in the increase. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of mix ratios of maize cob and light density polythene (LDPE) on the mechanical strength of particleboards. This is with a view of recycling waste materials for application in various areas of building construction and other domestic uses, because most of the particleboards used in Nigeria are imported. The boards were produced with parameters and variables like pressing time, pressure, mixing and process temperatures, board thickness and maize cob particle size constant, while their mix ratios varied. Mix ratios evaluated are 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40 and 50:50, of maize cobs: LDPE, measured by weight percentages (wt %) and numerated as mix ratios 1 to 5. Their production would cut down; burning of LDPE, which will reduce the emission of Nitrogen and Sulphur oxides from LDPE into the atmosphere and drastically reduce the waste which is grossly abundant in the environment. The boards were produced under BS EN 312: 1996 (type P2) and ISO 15270:2008(en) and tested for tensile and bending strengths under BS EN 319: 1993 and BS EN 310: 1993, respectively. The outcomes meet conditions for use as formworks in building construction, furniture-making and wall partitions /panelling, where light weight construction is required.

Keywords: Low Density Polythene, Maize Cobs, Mechanical Strength, Mix ratios, Particleboards.




Effect of Rural Roads Network on Access to Rural Markets in Kudan LGA, Kaduna State


Aminu Abdullahi Abubakar, Bashir Imam Abubakar & Oluseyi John Akinola

Department of Geography Federal University Gashua, Yobe State



The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of rural roads network on access to rural markets in Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State. A total of 360 questionnaires were administered across the ten (10) wards of the LGA. Kudan LGA being a rural environment, the effects of rural roads network on access to rural markets is quite bewildering because of the conditions of the existing rural roads. Most of these roads become almost impassable, markets not holding on market days simply because of the nature of roads, level of road accessibility, road network and transport services are generally poor and inadequate in the study area. These have hindered the access to rural markets, marketing of agricultural produce and a greater restriction on mobility with attendant negative effects on the economy and general wellbeing of the people in the study area.  Other findings include poor road network and bad surface condition of roads, high cost of transport and overloading which compelled market patrons to make use of motorcycle as their major means of transport. A large numbers of market centres and even towns were found unconnected by Direct Motor-able Routes (DMR). The study therefore recommends provision of adequate funds for construction of good tarred roads and rehabilitation, community oriented approach to rural road development interventions that will improve the provision rural transport services and ensuring regular maintenance of the roads from time to time to influence the patronage of rural markets in Kudan LGA.

Keywords:  Rural Road Transport, Rural Market Patronage, Means of Transport




Procurement Preferences for Construction Plant and Equipment among Construction Firms in Jos Metropolis


Lawal Zubairu Adam1, Sani .U. Kunya2, Adama Lami Kawu3

Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi



The study was aimed at assessing the construction plant and equipment procurement preferences among construction firms in Jos metropolis. Data used for the study were gathered through the use of 65 returned questionnaires administered to construction sites in Jos metropolis. A random sampling technique was used in determining the sample. A sample size of 80 and a population size of 100 were used.  Descriptive statistics was used in the analysis. From the results it was observed that Most of the construction firms used the hire option in procuring their plant and equipment used in the construction processes. It was observed that the construction firms handling works in Jos metropolis execute mostly building construction works. It was recommended that Costs of equipment and plants (whether for hiring or purchasing) are generally high. To reduce construction costs, government should develop the local construction Equipment manufacturing sector. A National Centre for manufacturing of construction equipment should be established as a joint effort between government and other stakeholders in the construction industry.

Keywords: Preferences, Construction, Equipment, Construction Firms, Jos Metropolis.




Architectural Case Study as a Research Method- a Review


Musbau Bello Adewumi1; Kabiru Zakari2; & Dauda Ali Madu3

1The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2&3The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi Nigeria.



The case study research method has been adopted in the critical assessment of the values, limitations, ethical and practical issues that may arise in the research and findings of architecture. This review study adopts the compare and contrast of existing building typology that have importance role in architectural research. This methodology has developed within the social sciences. A first generation of case studies originated in anthropology, but this came under criticism during the era of logical positivism, a period when social science methodology became divided into two distinct types: quantitative and qualitative research. Case study research in architecture will transcend the bounds of what is conventionally considered a way of evidencing research by including artefacts, such as models, exhibitions or design process. One basic kind of design research is the study of a designers work from the first conception of an idea to a finished design. The case study approach allows, amongst other things, critical assessments, interventions, policy developments and programme-based service reforms to be studied in detail in a real-life context. Considering the frequency with which implementations of innovations are now taking place in research, the case study approach can, if carefully conceptualized and thoughtfully undertaken and reported, yield powerful insights into many important aspects of architectural project delivery.

Keywords: Context, Innovations, Methodology, Research, Service




Rainwater Harvesting RWH to Meet the Potable Water Supply of Resident in Tayi Village Minna, Niger State


1King, Rabiu 2Prof. Williams, Akanmu Paul

Department of Building, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Nigeria.



In semi-arid cities like Tayi-village at Bosso local government area of Niger state, facing aridity and shortage of potable water supply to meet the needs of increasing population, it is a major challenge to  the residents in the studied area. This is due to the lack of conventional or municipal water supply systems, there is a need to establish alternatives for an adequate water management program. It is against this backdrop that this study is aimed at rainwater harvesting RWH to meet the potable water supply of residents in the study area. At field survey 358 household which comprises of three and two bedroom bungalows were surveyed, this was achieved through personal observation on the household head for the study area. The monthly volume of rainwater harvestable from roof areas (VR, m3) with household roof areas (Hra) of 45 m2, 50 m2, 100 m2 and 200 m2 was calculated. From these considerations, the estimations of the harvestable rainwater showed that households with Hra of 45 m2 and 50 m2 would depend on the water supply system  part of the year. However, households with Hra of 100 m2 and 200 m2 could store enough water to meet their water demand. Therefore recommended that Rainwater Harvest System has proven to be an effective intervention for the perennial water shortage at household level in Tayi-village. The study revealed that RWH technology is a viable and reliable water supply option in both urban and rural areas for domestic purposes.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting RWH, potable water supply of resident in Tayi village Minna, Niger state.




An Assessment of the Challenges of the Architectural Profession for Its Implication to the Architectural Technology Curriculum in Nigeria


Ndandok, Christy Thyeno1; Arc. Zemo, Stephen Audu2; & Mustapha, Muhammed Aliyu3

Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic.



The architectural profession is one that is growing and evolving all over the world, Nigeria therefore is no exception to this. Developments in science and technology, socio-economic and cultural needs in the country have had tremendous impact on the architectural practice and education. A review of the architectural technology curriculum is therefore a great necessity in order to remain relevant in today’s society.  In order to review the curriculum appropriately, there is a need to understand the challenges faced by the architectural profession. Through literature review, the study assesses the various challenges to the architectural profession in Nigeria and identifies its implications to the architectural technology curriculum. The study also considers how this information facilitates the review of the Architectural technology Curriculum. The paper concludes by stating that the curriculum is not in synergy with the present day society and its issues, and that it is these societal issues that result in the current challenges experienced in the architectural practice/proffesion. The paper suggest that the review of the architectural technology curriculum will help to create a paradigm shift in the value system for polytechnic education in Nigeria which will contribute intensely to socio-economic development in Nigeria by placing the technical education in its right place.

Keywords: Curriculum, Architectural Technology, Architectural Profession, Architectural Education and Architectural Challenges.




Development of Cadastral Information System for Effective and Sustainable Land Management


Zakari, Danladi; Surv. Ahmed, Babayo; Adamu Makama Pindiga; & Abubakar Abdulkadir

Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechic Bauchi, Bauchi State



A parcel based land information system of part of Fadaman Mada was carried out successfully by encoding into a computer. The results are in digital form and were queried using different criteria to demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the cadastral information system. Among the various results obtained are composite maps of the study area, digitized cadastral map of same area showing beacons, parcels numbering as well as a sample of a parcel table created in ArcGIS 9.2 version, updated digitized map of part of fadaman mada layout plan,  comprehensive database of study area (spatial and attributes database), query on all parcels that are distorted illegally, query on all parcels that are not distorted, query on parcel information by location and other results presented is the attribute information from land files and the parcel table comprising the beacon numbers, coordinates and height of each corner point of a parcel of land including area in hectares of each parcel and their locations. The cadastral map comprised of 515 plots of Land which are distinguished by different colours, the boundary of the map is clearly indicated in red colour.

Keywords: Cadastre, planning administration, land development, parcel based information and land transactions




Problems of Transit Routes in Yola Town


Francis Pwa’akori Vorondo; & Abubakar Buba Bindir

Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Adamawa State Polytecnic.



The study was carried out to explore the problem of Transit Routes in Yola Town. The study specifically sought to find the problems of Transit Routes. It was conducted in Adamawa State, Yola South Local Government Area, Yola Town. This study use survey research design to collect and analyse. The data was collected through questionnaires, all these were applied to elicit opinion of all selected respondents. The information from all the questionnaires was presented in figures and percentages in tables. The findings of the study revealed that most of the road where peeling, road sign not available, road full of potholes, no drainage in most of the routes. The researchers concluded that Transportation is one of the great nation building forces, which can help in diversifying services and recommended that drainages should be constructed alongside of all routes in Yola Town, more Keke-Napep should be provided by government, and road sign should also be provided where necessary on the routes.

Keywords: Explore, Transit routes, Potholes, Drainages, Transportation.




Empirical Study on Factors Militating Sound Property Maintenance Practice in Nigeria: Plateau Specialist Hospital, Jos in Viewpoint


1Adeniyi Gbenga; 2Esv Adeleke, Moses Adegbile; 3Esv Oyeleke, Oyediran Olufemi; & 4Sum Hezekiah Habila:

1Department of Surveying & Geo-informatics, Federal University of    Technology, Minna, P.M.B 65, Niger State. Nigeria. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. 3Department of Surveying & Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. 4Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



Maintenance of hospital buildings is one of the complex subjects in the field of  property management contributing to this is the complex nature of hospital buildings, the delicate mechanical and electrical systems and inadequate maintenance budgets. The qualities of the physical environment in which patients receive care affect patient recovery rate, staff satisfaction and organization productivity. In Nigeria, Maintenance is given very little priority. Public properties in Nigeria have suffered long period of poor maintenance culture which makes the properties to become obsolete earlier than necessary and inhabitable when compare with private properties. A more progressive attitude should be to conserve the existing building stock through proper maintenance because it is a major national asset. This study examined the property maintenance practice in Plateau Specialist Hospital Jos with a view to ascertain its effectiveness. The study adopted a quantitative approach. Questionnaire were designed and properly administered to Eighty respondents comprises of maintenance staff for the collection of primary data used in this study. Respondents were surveyed employing census sampling technique to generate data on condition of building elements, current management practice and factors affecting management practice. The data collected was subjected to descriptive statistics, frequency tables, weighted mean score and percentage analysis. The study revealed that there exist many hitches that affect effective maintenance of Plateau Specialist Hospital Jos notable of these are inadequate provision of funds for maintenance, lack of maintenance policy, lack of well-trained maintenance personnel, lack of timely response to maintenance request corruption, misuse of facilities by occupants. Also, there is no adequate staff to meet up with maintenance management of the hospital. It was recommended that there should adequate funding, a well structure maintenance policy and the staff should be guided with such policy to improve the maintenance management, immediate attention should carry out on emergency maintenance, and user should be guided with the usage of properties. Adequate and regular inspection of the facilities in the hospital should be done from time to time to arrest any unforeseen circumstances and avoid any major breakdowns.

Keywords: Property, Property Maintenance, Maintenance Practice, Jos, Nigeria.




Reducing Overcrowding in Nigerian Prisons: A Correctional Architectural Approach, Case Studies of Afikpo, Okigwe and Owerri Correctional Facilities


Cheche, Kalu Kalu; Nwabuna, Nwokedi Patrick; & Ikpa, Ochea Uduma.

Department of Architectural Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal polytechnic Uwanna.



Designs cannot be created in a vacuum but is the result of solving clearly defined problems as expressed in the brief. The creation of the brief through intense discussion with client and deep understanding of the social and penal issues is as important a job for the architect as the actual design work that follows. A prison is neither expected to be exactly a bed of roses as inmates are there for penal purposes nor supposed to be a bed of thorns and thistles meant to snuff life out of the occupants. The prison as an institution does not attract a great deal of public attention, yet it remains a vital part of the structure of any civil society. The apparent neglect of this group of individuals and the conditions of the public prisons and other institutions mandated to manage this system can over time pose significant challenges to the well-being of the society at large. The primary goal of corrections in prison facilities is safety for the community and for those housed and working within the facilities. Correction in overcrowded environment is an impossible task and in recent years Prison overcrowding has become a serious problem indeed. The aim of this paper is to suggest ways overcrowding can be reduced in spaces occupied by inmates with a view to facilitate correction and bring to the fore the architect’s role in prison design in reducing overcrowding and enhancing reformation. The objective includes; x-raying the evolution of prison architecture and the relationship between overcrowding and architectural space and suggesting a design approach that reduces overcrowding and facilitates reformation. This research will be carried out through critical and in-depth study of books, periodicals, internet sources, statistical data mainly from Nigeria shall be obtained and applied, reports from government and relevant bodies or agencies shall be consulted other related literature and case studies will be carried out. Results shows that design approach have always played vital role in reducing overcrowding and could provide a veritable solution to inmate rehabilitation and correction.

Keywords: prison, overcrowding, reformation, design, Architecture.




Papercrete Hollow Blocks as an Alternative to Waste Management in Nigeria


Olorunfemi K.O., Abdulkadir.A, Naallah A.,

Department of Civil Engineering, Kwara Starte Polytechnic, Ilorin.



This paper provides an analytical view of the papercrete block in terms of waste paper composition in the country with recycling materials, by the method of mixing of paper, sand, and cements with mix ratio 1:6 and different percentages of paper; 20%,40%,60% and 80% respectively. It determines the effect of papercrete on the compressive strength of hardened blocks at 7, 14, and 21 days of curing. It was observed that the compressive strength of individual papercrete blocks ranges between  to . These values fall below the standard prescribed for load bearing blocks (NIS 87: 2000), Which specified that the lowest compressive strength of individual load bearing blocks shall not be less than , in a small building projects, Papercrete is being used as an in-fill wall in conjunction with structural steel beams or other load-bearing elements, therefore it suitable for non-load bearing blocks.   

Keyword: Papercrete, Hollow blocks, Compressive Strength, In-fill wall, Waste management.




An Assessment of Psychosocial Impacts of Flood in Nigeria


*Edidiong Usip; & **Uduak Jimmy

*Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic **Department of Quantity Survey, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic



Besides the visible impacts of flood such as destruction of buildings, infrastructure, farmlands and fatality, psychological symptoms are commonly observed during/ after such events, and these include grief, stress reactions, anxiety, emotional instability, trauma, and post traumatic stress disorder. This work aimed at assessing psychosocial impacts of flood occurrence in Itu L. G. A. of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The objectives include: 1. Identification of frequency of flood occurrence in the communities, 2. Assessment of the severity of flood in the communities 3. Assessment of the level of stress exposure during/after flood. 4. Assessment of the psychosocial impact of flood in the area. Survey research design was adopted for this work, utilizing questionnaires, interview and observations as primary sources of data and other secondary sources. Relative Effective Index and percentages used for analysis disclosed that stress, grief and anxiety are experienced during/after flood, revealing that flood has psychosocial impacts in the communities investigated. 

Keywords: flood disaster, psychosocial Impact, stress, grief/ anxiety




Awareness and Readiness in the Use of Building Information Modelling as a Tool in Facilities Management Services in High-Rise Commercial Buildings in Abuja, Nigeria


Suyudi Zubairu Jambil

Faculty of Environmental Technology Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi State Nigeria.



Facility owners’ can realise the essential benefit on construction project by using BIM procedures and tools to streamline the delivery of a qualitative and efficient performing building. BIM creates collaborative processes among project participants, enhancing project delivery process by reducing errors and project variations and leading to project time and cost achievement. Previous studies have shown that BIM is not a new concept, and that its implementation is becoming an increasingly essential entity in the efficiency and effectiveness of the construction project in many parts of the world. The key challenges in the current practice to comprise building operational lifecycle management. Many of them revolve around information collection, retrieval and sharing. Therefore, one of the key problem attributed to the use of BIM to manage facility is the lack of awareness on the use of BIM by facilities managers especially in the developing country, thus necessitated the study to be conducted in order to create the much needed awareness and readiness on the usage, benefit and challenges of BIM as a tool in FM services with particular emphasis on the high-rise commercial building in Abuja, Nigeria. A quantitative research methodology was employed in assessing the level of awareness and readiness in the use of BIM as a tool in FM services in high-rise commercial buildings in Abuja, Nigeria. Several benefits and challenges of BIM in FM services were assessed and the relationships between awareness and readiness, etc. It is therefore recommended that to have much needed awareness, construction project participants especially Facilities Managers and professional bodies should create awareness through workshops/seminars/conferences.

Keywords: Awareness, Benefit, BIM, FM, Nigeria.




Major Constraints Affecting the Sustainability of Construction in Akwa Ibom State, Nigerian


Itoro E. Udo & Nsikak E. Udo

Department of Quantity Surveying, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic



The accomplishment of sustainable process within the built environment has taken over the state of construction. As far as construction continues in this modern era, sustainable practices will continue to be an important necessity. Most countries on the world have been faced with frequent challenges when adopting sustainable constructional practices and Akwa Ibom State is not an exception. This study, therefore investigates the factors impeding the acceptance of sustainable construction in Nigeria. The aim of this study was achieved by seeking the opinion of various construction professional within Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for this study and the data collection was analysed using descriptive statistics. Finding from the study revealed that inadequate knowledge and lack of expertise in sustainable construction practices are the greatest constraints faced in the bid to adopt sustainable construction. The study concluded that if attaining full sustainability is the goal of the Nigeria Construction Industry professional bodies and relevant government agencies must organise workshops and training to educate construction professionals on their practicable roles on delivering sustainable development. Furthermore, experts in the field of sustainable construction preferably from countries which have fully adopted the concept should be invited to be part of some construction projects so as to provide on-site guidance and mentorship for local professionals.

Keywords: Sustainable construction; Nigeria construction industry; Construction professionals; Sustainable development.




Assessment of Solid Waste Management at Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic (Upe Main Campus) Zaria


(1)J. U. Joel; (2) B. Manzuma; (3) A. Abdulwasiu; (4) Y. Bahago; and (5) Y.S. Muhammad

(1,3,4 & 5)Dept. Of Building Tech. Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. (2) Dept. Of Building, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.



The management of solid waste has become a problem to the environment and has remain a growing one. The provision of strategies to deal with this perennial issue is therefore necessary. Solid waste dumpsites are on the increase at various parts of the institution due to the lack of secure landfill and used of several solid waste disposal methods. The study was aimed at assessing the solid waste management at Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria UPE main Campus with the viewed to advocating measures to improve solid waste management. The research design utilized was field survey using questionnaire and photographing for primary data. A convenience sampling method was used on the study population; with sample size of 118 questionnaire comprising staff and students. The study shows that garbage 16.98% and plastic material 14.15% are the least type of solid waste; paper 41.51%  and pure water packaged 27.36% are the major solid waste type. 26.42% of the respondents indicated that inadequate funding of waste management practices constituted the major factor militating against solid waste management, on the level of agreement on the use of solid waste, mean score of 3.16 to 4.16 above cut off mark suggest that it could be effectively used for economic and sustainable development. Reducing the activities that unnecessary generate waste with 51.89% was the method appropriate to produce less waste. Funding of solid waste management practices should be improved and sustained to promote a safe and healthy environment.

Keyword: Waste Management, Solid Waste, Environment, Strategies, Disposal




Integrated Approach to the Effects of Heuristics on Real Estate Investment Decisions for Sustainable Development in Lagos Metropolis.


1Adeleke, M. A.; 1Muritala, A. O.; 1Ajibade, N. A.; & 2Onifade, A. O.

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 2Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.



Investment decisions are deemed as a deliberate and rational process based on availability of information. Though at times people are usually found to hold little information but yet end up making general decisions. Heuristics factors are simple rules of thumb which explain how people make decisions, arrive at judgments and solve problems when faced with complex situations or in cases where the available information is incomplete. This study sought at assessing the influence of the heuristic factors on real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. The study was guided by Heuristic theory. A census of 126 registered real estate investors from Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland and Ikeja was undertaken. Primary data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire composed of closed ended questions. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.7 was used to ascertain test of the reliability of the data collection instrument. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to analyze data with the help of statistical package. Inferential statistics was also carried out to establish the nature of the relationship that exists between heuristic factors and real estate investment. Data was interpreted with the help of 0.05 significance P-values. Model fitness R2, ANOVA statistics and regression coefficient were generated. Prior to running a regression model, normality test was conducted. The study findings indicated heuristics factors have a positive and statistically significant relationship with real estate investment in Lagos Metropolis. This study concludes that real estate investors in Lagos Metropolis sometimes do not make investment decisions rationally but are influenced by heuristic biased decisions. The study recommends that Lagos State Government should establish a mechanism to ensure that the prices of real estate in specific regions are availed to enable investors evaluate price changes as it may influence their decision to buy or sell the investment

Keywords: Heuristics, real estate investments, decision making, Lagos Metropolis, sustainability.




Assessment of Methods of Determining Compensation on Acquired Lands for Infrastructural Facilities in Nigeria.


Busari, Adeyemi Maruph; & Olatunde, Bolaji Zakariyyah

Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



Compulsory land acquisition has generated a lot of crises over the years. The bone of contention being the failure of the acquiring authority to pay adequate compensation, claiming its operations are guided by the provisions of the law. These controversies are having adverse effect on developmental objectives of the government, provision of infrastructural facilities and by extension the Nation that is in deficit of infrastructures. Therefore, this study examines if the problem causing the controversies lies with methods of assessment prescribed by law. Triangulation research method was adopted to achieve the objectives of this study. The research relied on multiple instruments adapted for data collection such as existing literatures, structured questionnaires administered on claimants, real estate professionals and interview with the government’s representatives saddled with the responsibility of acquiring land and determining the quantum of compensation payable for dualisation of Kano-Maiduguri road project, in Yobe state. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study discovered among other findings that the prescribed method of assessment by the Act does not in any way conform to the principles and conventional methods of valuation and it negates the principle of equivalence which requires that claimants should not be better off or worse off after the acquisition. This therefore implies that the government needs to introduce a new land policy that would completely eliminate the tensions usually associated with the issue of compulsory acquisition and compensation and conform to the international best practices.   

Keywords: Assessment, Methods, Compensation, Acquired land, Infrastructural Facilities   




Analysis of Topographic Patterns of Greater Yola using Geographic Information System (GIS)


1Tanko Binibonori Salihu, 1Suleiman Mohammed Daji and 2Gambo Hyellagunacha Gundri

1Department of Urban and Regional, Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Modibbo Adama University Technology, Yola, Adamawa State.



By combination of digital elevation models (DEM) with digital geological maps within GIS environment, it is possible to detect the topographic analysis in relation to the site analysis of the study area. This technique has been demonstrated on Jimeta metropolitan DEM map. From a topographic point of view, large relief defines mountains essentially. Thus, (DEM) usually form the base data for any mountain geo-information system and any spatial model. The DEM is the digital representation of continuous changes of relief within space (Burrough 1986,). Information generated from the DEM is of critical importance within many GIS applications and is used to produce contours and many other types of information including; indivisibility, slope, profiles, watersheds, aspect and the concavity and convexity of a surface. Shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) help in obtaining digital elevation models on a near global scale.

Keywords: Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) contour, topography, hill shade




Correlation between House Hold Income and House Rent in Bauchi


Mr. Dadi Haruna; Surv. Sunday O. Abah; & Surv. Kashimga Johnson

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.



This paper examines the concept of housing affordability in Yelwa, Bauchi metropolis. 200 questionnaires were administered to the people that reside in the study area. The study found that there is a significant relationship between household income and the amount of money paid for rent. The study further revealed that 74 % of the household spends more than 30 % of their household income on accommodation while 26 % spends less than 30 % of their household income on housing. This percentage is above the universally acceptable standard. This shows that housing is not affordable in the study area.

Keywords: affordable, market, income, household, finance.




Prediction of the Corrosion Rate of Galvanized Iron Roofing Material Based on Grey System Theory Model.


Issa, A. K.; Tikau, M. I; & Aaron J. Zira

Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria.



The rate at which corrosion penetrate the roofing material has been a difficult phenomenon to be predicted, many techniques/models such as mathematical model, deterministic model, probability model have been adopted/developed by many researchers in this regard.  These models depend on the individual parameters that usually cause corrosion, which means that, large amounts of data are highly needed before the prediction can be done. This always require a series of experiments and time consuming. Grey system theory model is known with ability to deal with few data and it is then introduced and employed in this work to predict the corrosion rate of galvanized iron roofing sheet. The corrosion rate data gotten from the experiment performed in Adamawa State Nigeria are fed into the grey system theory for prediction. Comparison graph was drawn to determine the reliability of the model. The results showed that, measurement data and forecast data have the same trend, which indicate the suitability of the model in the prediction of corrosion rate of the material

Keywords: Corrosion, Grey, Model, Prediction, Original



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