African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agric. Technology Vol. 17 No.1


VOL. 17 NO.1 MARCH, 2020 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Water use Efficiency of Pearl Millet Variety (Pennisteum Glaucum L Walp) in Sahelian Savanna of Nigeria


A. Bassi & J.W. Wabekwa

Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri – Nigeria.



An experiment was conducted 2015 cropping seasons in the North East of Nigeria to examined water use of pearl millet varieties. The crops were grown on a sandy loam soil in spatial arrangement typical of husbandry practices of the region. The soil is characterized by rapid drainage and low water holding capacity. The results showed that pearl millet plant ,single leaf area,  number of tillers, per plant were  higher for SOSAT-C-88 than ZATIP or LACRI-9702-1C. Panicle diameter, panicle weight, grain yield per ha and straw yield were higher for SOSAT-C-88 than the other varieties.Results indicated that SOSAT-C-88 increase water use rate over LACRI-9702-IC and ZATIP variety as transpiration by this variety may be substituting for soil evaporation. Root zone water storage of was sufficient to maintain a long duration variety ZATIP that was able to make use of water that otherwise would have been lost to drainage during the dry season. As they was no evidence of water stress up to pearl millet harvest. SOSAT-C-88 variety increased the efficiency of utilization of soil water and produced higher growth and yield components. It is concluded that water supply may not be the most limiting constraints on crop production in such conditions.

Keywords: Pearl millet variety, water, soil depth, soil profile




Rural Stagnation and the Role of Funding Agencies in Development of Nigeria: A Review Paper.


Aliyu M.K. And Qasim, O.A. Bala .A, Al-Mustapha A, A.Haruna

Department of Agricultural Extension, Nigerian Agricultural Extension and Liaison Services (NAERLS), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.



The paper sets to examine critically the causes of the rural stagnation and the role of rural funding agencies in Nigeria.  A survey of the past  policies on rural  development  programmes by Nigerian Government and funding agencies  such as the World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) and the River Basin Development Authority, which are the  ‘core’ of’  Nigeria  agricultural  and  rural  development programmes,  reveals  clearly  that  the  programmes were based  on  International Technology  Transfer  (ITT), which were rather counterproductive and  deficient  in  many  ways. First, it disregards the felt needs of the rural dwellers and secondly, it enforces development from above. In other words, all the past policies and programmes cannot help in achieving the desired rural development objectives. The study used content development to review existing literatures to discuss the subject matter and  then concludes with some recommendations amongst which were; an integrated community development approach, shifting from the wholesale importation of foreign technologies and models that have not proved effectively beneficial to the needs of the rural populace to action research, development of indigenous technological base through experimentation and adaptation and the creation of Rural Development Plan Implementation Review Centres (RDPIRCs) and Research-Extension–Farmer Input Linkage System (REFILS);  in rural communities where implementation takes place. Going by these would bring the desired sustainable developments in the rural communities of Nigeria.

Keywords:  Rural Stagnation, funding agencies, development.




Biomass Estimation and Proximate Composition of Herbage at Moreh Grazing Land in Kware Local Government Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria.


Na-Allah, Y. and Akoh, J. J.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria



This research evaluated herbage yield and Proximate Composition of pasture at Moreh grazing land in Kware Local Government Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria.  Ten random samples of pasture were collected using 1.0 m2 quadrate thrown within the rangeland area and herbage yield were determined. About 1.5kg representative sample was taken for each sample.  Oven dried to determine the moisture and dry contents of the sample. The dried samples was then prepared and used for proximate composition. Result obtained showed that Moreh grazing land produced 19,200kg/ha and 6,160 kg/ha of fresh herbage and dry matter yield respectively. The herbage obtain the following proximate composition Dry matter (32.47%), ash (10.50%), organic (89.50%), Crude protein (7.70%), Ether Extract (1.50%), Crude Fibre (43.00%) and Nitrogen Free Extract (37.00%). In conclusion, The Moreh grazing land produce substantial herbage at 6.2 t/ha during the late raining season (September to October) and It is  recommended that proper grazing management should be maintain at Moreh grazing to sustain this potential. Lack of quantitative information on biomass estimation and chemical composition, gives more challenge and  management regime for  increased  productivity  is  a  hindrance  to estimating the  herbage  support  to  the ruminants depending entirely on natural forages throughout the year. There is therefore a need to carry out a study to quantify biomass estimation and chemical composition.

Keywords: Proximate Composition; Kware; Herbage yield; Moreh grazing land; Crude Fibre




Effects of Fertilizer Rates on Growth Parameters of Centrosema (Centrosema Pubescens) In Mubi Region of Adamawa State, Nigeria.


Babale, D.M., Sukamkari., B.Y., Sunyasemeni, E., Biyasa, J. & S. Amos.

Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.



A field trial was carried out in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria in 2019 to investigate effects of fertilizer rates on growth parameters of Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens) as it affects the average plant heights, leaf and branch numbers, biomass and dry matter yields at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after planting. The experimental design used was Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments consisting of fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) application rates of 0, 30, 40 and 50 Kg/ha replicated four times designated as treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The results indicated that fertilizer rates showed statistically significant variation (p<0.05) in plant heights, leaf and branch numbers, biomass and dry matter yields at the various periods of measurements. However, at 3 weeks after planting the values for leaf numbers showed no statistical significant (p>0.05) difference. It can be concluded that utilization of fertilizer for production of Centrosema forage is important for farmer, youth/ unemployed groups and investors who are interested in forage production. It is also recommended that cost- benefit analysis be conducted through hay or silage making applied on animals to determine responses.

Keywords: Growth rates, Centrosema, Fertilizer rates, Mubi region.




Impact of Tungan-Kawo Irrigation Scheme on Rice Production in Wushishi Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria


Ibrahim Jalaludeen S., M. B. Yunusa PhD & M.A. Emigilati PhD

Department of Geography Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria



This study seek to examine the impact of Tungan-kawo irrigation scheme on rice production in Wushishi Local Government Area, Niger state, Nigeria. Tara Yamane’s sampling technique was used to derive 400 farmers/respondents from the population of the study. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which was subjected to analysis using frequencies, percentages and Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient of multiple regression analysis. From a response rate of 91.75% deduced, about 66.8% of the farmers were between the age of 18 to 38 years. This portends an indication that there is opportunity for more active years in agricultural activities. The study revealed that 93% of respondents were male. The marital status of farmers involved in the study indicated that 92.1% were married. The level of educational qualification of respondents was highly appreciated as a substantial number of them had formal education, where 52.9% had tertiary education. 87.5% of the respondents embrace farming as a major occupation. Within the demographic characteristics of the farmers, 70.0% of respondents had household size of 6 to 10. Farmers average experience in paddy production was recorded to be 11-20 years while findings showed that ownership type of land cultivated was majorly through inheritance and rentage with an average farm size of 5 acres. It was recorded that 62% of respondents cultivated rice thrice annually and most of these farmers harvested 4 to 7mt per acre. 90% of the farmers reported to had been visited by agricultural extension workers but majority of the farmers lamented to had no access to credit facility. Averagely, most of the farmers recorded to had an estimated income within the range of ₦ 1,000,000 to ₦ 2,000,000 per annum. Moreso, the vulnerability index of the farmers relative to the irrigation scheme indicated that 33.6% of the household were lowly vulnerable, 65.9% were moderately vulnerable and 1.1% were highly vulnerable. It was also reported that 98.6% used improved seedlings in order to enhance crop yield. All the farmers agreed to the usage of fertilizer. Study further indicated that there was a moderate positive correlation between rice irrigation farming and livelihood of the communities. Sustainable management of infrastructures, availability of industrialized processing mills, sufficient energy and patronage of domestically produced rice will result to poverty reduction and subsequently, increase in household income.

Keywords: Impact, Tungan-kawo, Irrigation farming, Rice (paddy) production, Wushishi, Nigeria.




Contaminant Status of Waste Dump Site in Mubi Metropolis of Adamawa State-Nigeria


Elihu, A., Mshelia, Z B and Rufus, P

Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi. Adamawa State-Nigeria



Municipal waste dumps significantly increases ground water vulnerability and pollution risk. Various processes of contaminant transport such as advection and hydrodynamic dispersion transport leachates from dumpsites to ground water. Ground water and soil samples collected from Kolere and Wuro Gude waste dumpsite in Mubi revealed the following chemical and microbial concentrations above WHO /EU guidelines for potable water, lead (Pb) 0.01mg/l, copper (Cu) 2.0mg/L, Zinc (Zn) 3.0mg/L, manganese (Mn) 0.5mg/L, compared to result obtained Lead (Pb) 9.61mg/L, Manganese (Mn) 11.84mg/l. Zinc (Zn) 3.14mg/L and total microbial count 156±0.00. These indicate probable pollution and thus pose risks to human health and the environment. Most highly hazardous substances present in these contaminated water are colourless, ordourless and highly dangerous when ingested even in very minute concentrations. Bioaccumulation of hazardous substances within human tissues as a result of chronic ingestion of these ground waters poses serious risks to human health and environment; as certain endocrine disruption effects have been attributable to their ingestion.    

Keywords: Contaminants Status, Waste Dumpsite, Heavy metals, Mubi Metropolis and Adamawa State.




Analysis of Spatio-temporal Trend and Rate of Change in Rainfall in Parts of North Central States, Nigeria.


Musa1, Y. M. Suleiman2 and T. I. Yahaya2

1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria 2Federal University of Technology, Minna



Rainfall variability and change, its impacts and the associated vulnerabilities is a growing concern across the globe. It is believed to be one of the greatest impediments for achieving food security and sustainable crop production globally. The study utilized 30 years Climate Prediction Center, Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Non-parametric test, Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator (β) to investigate the spatio-temporal trend and rate of change in rainfall over the study area. he monthly rainfall charactristics shows signficant downward trend at the onset period in May at 0.05 and 0.1 alpha values in Lokoja and Abuja while at the cessation period in October, signficant upward trend at 0.5 alpha value was detected in Lafia stations. The rate of the significant upward trend in the seasonal rainfall were 4.56 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of September, 3.72 mm yr-1 at Lokoja in the month of October and 6.06 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of October, respectively. The study established that the lowest coefficient of variation in seasonal rainfall occurred in Ilorin at 20.36% while the highest occurred in Lafia station at 37.79%. The result of annual Coefficient of variation also shows that Ilorin station has the lowest variation at 17.82% and the highest was found in Lafia at 37.7%. It is established that changes in rainfall pattern have impact on crop production. The study therefore recommend mainstreaming of farming calendar into the changing climate regime to ensure improved crop yield.

Keywords:  Analysis, Spatio-temporal, Change, Rainfall, North Central States, Nigeria.




Outsourcing Strategies in Fashion Designing Among Young Graduates in Odeda Local Government, Abeokuta, Ogun State.


*Akinyele Samuel Taiwo **Akinyele Esther Feyisayo & ***Babatunde, Temitope Mabel

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, College of Management Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University, Faith City,  Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria ***Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, College of Management Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria



This research critically examine how outsourcing strategies contributes to the survival of fashion designing among young graduates in Odeda Local Government of Ogun State. The study has four specific objectives  which examined the impact of culture on the dynamism of fashion designing, to investigate the relationship between behavior and identity in fashion designing, examine the influence of quality education of fashion entrepreneurs on their creativity, assess the extent to which technological advancement affects innovation. Data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire from 122 respondents. The statistical tools used for data analysis were correlation and regression analysis. The determinants of outsourcing strategy were fashion, identity, quality education and innovation. Although, while outsourcing strategy was one of the significant determinant of survival of fashion designing. It is therefore recommended that the organization should embark on continuous different outsourcing strategies to enhance their performance. Correlation and Regression results showed the mean age, marital status, year of work experience, educational qualification and organization.56.6% were female,57.4% were male. ANOVA showed the significant (p<0.05) relationship between fashion and culture. Correlation showed the significant (p<0.01) relationship between identity and behaviour with positive coefficient of 0.251. ANOVA showed the significant (p<0.05) significant relationship between creativity and quality education. Correlation also showed the significant (p<0.01) relationship between innovation and technological advancement with a positive correlation coefficient of 0.221. In conclusion, the study shows the relevance of culture, behavior, quality education and technology on fashion designing among young graduates in the study area.

Keywords: Creativity,  Culture, Fashion designing, Quality education ,  Innovation, Youth graduates




Assessment of Management Strategies Adopted by Farmers for Handling Tomato in Kura and Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano State


Dunama Wazis, Ibrahim Muhammad Abdul & Ojuekaiye Ekundayo Olusegun

Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute Kano, No.1 Batawa Close, Off Hadejia Road, P.M.B. 3032 Kano State.



This study assessed the management strategies adopted by farmers for handling tomato in Kura and Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano State. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 farmers who participated, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) was used to analyze data collected from the study. 64.6% of the respondents are within the age range of 26-45, showing that the farmers are in their youth and they fall into the active age of the average life expectancy of a Nigerian. Despite their years of experience, the study reveals that farmers in the study area still lack proper pre-harvest and post-harvest knowledge of handling tomato, as both pre-harvest and post-harvest activities play a role in the low return on investment the farmers are facing.  Lack of effective and affordable pesticide/insecticide, proper modern storage technique and good water canal/drainage were major challenges for the farmers, sun drying is so far the accepted means of preserving the tomatoes although it exposes them to dirt and contamination. In conclusion, at least three out of every twenty baskets of tomatoes harvested by the respondents were lost to improper handling.

Keywords: Assessment, Tomato, Pre-harvest, Handling, Post-harvest, Storage, Preservation.




Review Of Mechanisms Of Host Plant Resistance In Tropical Maize Inbred Lines To Maize Stem Borers (Chilo partellus)


1Oladejo A.O., 2Mudi A., 1Olorundare O.O. and 1Sikiru G.K

1Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria 2Crop Production and Horticulture, Federal College of Forestry, Jos. Nigeria



This study assess the mechanisms of host plant resistance in tropical maize inbred lines to maize stem borers (Chilo partellus). Maize is an important stable crop in the tropics, but productivity has not matched the population growth rate (Mati, 2000). The decreasing maize production, repeated and widespread hunger since the nineteen eighties has been attributed to several biotic and abiotic interactions (McCann, 2006). We discuss the two difference kinds of plant defence or plant resistance mechanism (intrinsic and extrinsic defence), relatively ascertain  that maize has Hydroxamin acid: 2,4-dihyroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA) in its body constituency and it is the major qualitative factor of resistant in maize to several maize insects. The research concludes the reference to several damage parameters taking, such as leaf damage score number of borer exit holes and cumulative stem tunneling Munyiri et al. (2013) strongly suggested that out of the several mechanisms of resistance in tropical inbred lines of any of the trait could be used to elevate genotype for resistance to stem borer.

Keywords:  Mechanisms, Plant Resistance, Tropical Maize, Inbred Lines, Maize.




Determination of Heavy Metals in Tilapia Fish Gills and Water from Nguru River, Yobe State


Katuzu. M. I1, Lawan. M. M2. Hodi. A. I3 and Lawan. L4. 1Department of Science of Basic Science, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu. 2Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State 3&4Damaturu, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu.



Heavy metals in our environment have been of great concern because of their toxicity whentheir concentration is more than the permissible level. These metals enter in the environment by different ways e.g. aquatic, agricultural, industrial activities. Heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) Manganese (Mn) and Cadmium (Cd) have World Health Organization (WHO) limits above which they are toxic. Some of the toxic effects include; reduced growth and development, cancer, damage to the nervous system, and in extreme cases death. Water from Nguru River is used for small scale farming and domestic purposes, with a variety of fish in this river including tilapia and mudfish are edible which could lead to accumulation of toxic metals to mankind. These pose a threat to human life hence the need to assess levels of heavy metals in Nguru River. This study aimed at determining levels of Pb, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cd and Cr in tilapia fish gills, and water from Nguru River. Atomic absorption spectroscopymodel 210VGP, was used for measurement of the levels of the elements. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of the heavy metals in tilapia fish gills ranged as follows: Pb (0.05-0.00 mg/kg), Ni (5.36-0.23 mg/kg), Mn (0.90-0.01 mg/kg), Zn (21.00-0.26 mg/kg), Cd (0.08-0.00 mg/kg) and Cr (ND-ND). In water, the ranges of mean concentration (mg/l) of heavy metals were as follows: Pb (0.005-0.001 mg/l), Ni (0.008-0.002 mg/l), Mn (0.538-0.016 mg/l), Zn (0.035-0.002 mg/l), Cd (0.001- ND) and Cr (0.010-0.003 mg/l).

Keywords: Heavy metals, permissible, cancer, toxic, accumulation.




Nutritional Quality of Locally Formulated Broiler Starter Feed


Udosen, I. E.; Samuel, D. D.; Shehu, A. I.  and Wada, M. N.

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



This study evaluates the nutritional quality of locally formulated broiler starter feed. Proximate analysis was carried out on the components and formulated feed and was compared with that of a selected commercial feed. Broiler chickens were fed with the formulated and commercial feeds for four weeks and the weights were noted. The result of the moisture content showed that maize had 7.16%, soya bean had 9.04% wheat had 2.47%, crayfish had 4.7% and the formulated broiler feed had 3.1%. The crude protein in maize was found to be 9.41%, soya bean had 47.01%, wheat had 13.6%, crayfish had 15.13% and formulated broiler feed had 17.5%. Fat content for maize was 2.60%, soya bean 19.09%, wheat 2.10%, crayfish 1.86% and the formulated broiler feed 6.4%.  Fibre content in maize was 3.21%, soya bean 4.6%, wheat 2.69%, crayfish 1.30% and the formulated broiler feed had 2.4%. Ash content in maize was found to be 1.19%, soya bean 4.61%, wheat 1.82%, crayfish 2.02% and formulated broiler feed 2.4%, and carbohydrate content of maize was 76.48%, soya bean 14.88%, wheat 77.32%, crayfish 74.99% and the formulated broilers feed was 68.2%. The weight gain by the broiler chickens fed with formulated feed ranged from 24.7g to 1434.1g from day one to week four while those fed with commercial feed ranged from 24.8g to 1462.4g from day one to week four. This result showed that soya bean-maize-wheat-crayfish diet was potentially viable in the formulation of a broiler starter feed.



Food Insecurity In Arid and Semi- Arid Lands (Asal) in Africa (Paid)


*Emoit Peter O. Imatari & **Kanu Ikechukwu Anthony

*College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Institute of Climate Change and Adaptations (ICCA), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya **Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State



The purpose of this study was to establish the causes of perennial food insecurity in the households of Evurore Division. The study identified root causes of food insecurity and established the challenges experienced and how households cope with these challenges in Evurore Division, Mbeere North Sub County, Embu County. The study was guided by farmer first theory developed by Chambers et al and the theory of diffusion of innovations of Everett Rogers. Chambers theory is centered on participatory approach. To achieve its objectives, the study employed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. This gave the researcher an avenue for a deeper investigation into the causes of food insecurity and what can be done to alleviate it. The respondents of the study were 95 HHs while the stakeholders had 10 respondents. The data collection tools employed were, questionnaires, interviews, Focus Group Discussions and interview guide. Findings of the research are most of the HHs still use indigenous methods of farming as compared to the minority using modern. Still majority still use indigenous crops. The root causes of food insecurity in Evurore were identified. The study recommended participatory approach, linkages, adoption of new varieties of drought tolerant crops, irrigation and extension services.

Keywords: Food Insecurity, Arid, Semi- Arid, Lands, Africa.




Utilization of Information and Communication Technology among Agricultural Extension Workers in Taraba State, Nigeria.


1Othman, H.G 2Alam, M.K 3Melaiye O.E, 4Shelleh A. and 5Rikwentishe F.

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Economics, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State. 2&4Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State. 3Faculy of education, Science Education Department Taraba State University, Jalingo. 5Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State.



The study assessed the utilization of information and communication technology tools among agricultural extension workers in Taraba State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are: to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify the various types of information and communication technologies commonly used by the respondents, identify the types of agricultural information that is disseminated by the respondents through the use of information and communication technologies, and identify the constraints experienced by the respondents in the use of information and communication technologies in the study area. Primary data were obtained from 120 extension workers using simple random sampling technique, and were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logit regression analysis. Result shows that a majority (87%) of the extension workers were young and in their productive years with mean age of 40.5 years.  84% of them were males, who were married (79.2%) and with a household size of 4-10 people (75%) with the mean of 14.0 people.  Also, all the extension workers acquired formal education ranging from secondary to tertiary levels, and most (90%) of them were members of cooperative societies and majority of them (37.5%) earned a monthly income of N1,000 – N6,000 with the mean monthly income of 80,500. The types of information and communication technologies used by extension workers were identified as radio, television, telephone, cassette player, DVD/VCD, video-cassette among others. The logit result shows that age, working experience, monthly income and membership of cooperatives were directly related to the use of information and communication technologies. The study concluded that extension workers utilized some information and communication technologies such as: Radio, Television, Cell Phones among others for effective extension service delivery. Recommendations were made that: Constant on-job training of extension workers on information and communication technology skills, to enable them operate the information and communication technologies especially computer-based information and communication technologies thereby enhancing effective dissemination of agricultural information, network subscribers should ensure network facilities for hitch free dissemination of agricultural information.             

Keyword: Utilization, Extension Workers, Information and Communication Technology, Taraba, Agricultural Development Programme.




Irrigation Scheme on Agricultural Wetland: A Case Study of Abata-Ogun Wetland, Saki-West Local Government of Oyo-State.


1Asimi, M. A, 2Salaudeen, S.  2Azeez, M. O, 3Babatunde, K. M and 1Muideen, R. A

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki 2Department of Civil Engineering, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.3Department of Agricultural Technology, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki



Irrigation practice across the world is vital to successful green revolution which leads to sustainable development goals in food security. The quality of water plays prominent role in the crops growth and yield. The study was carried out at Abata – Ogun agricultural wetland Saki west, Oyo State, Nigeria to observe the effective irrigation practice in the field. Primary data were collected through well structured questionnaires administered to know how irrigation is being practiced and use of interview. The findings reveal that all the farmers were male, 47% of the respondents were between 31 – 50 years and 3% of the respondents were 71 years of age. With regards to educational status, 64 % of the respondents were secondary school certificate holder. 33% were holding FRSL and 3% was NCE / ND certificate holder. It was discovered that 73% were living in the farm area, while 23% of the respondents were laborers and 3% were others. The study reveals that majority of the farmers (67%) irrigates their farm once daily, while 33% irrigates their farm twice depending on the moisture level. The source of water for the farmers at Abata – Ogun wetland field is river Wewe and the water available all year round. Majority of the respondents has no technical knowledge of how to operate modern irrigation systems except surface irrigation. There is need for Government to come into the aid of farmers in terms of implements and training, for more efficient utilization of wetlands. Women are also advice to take advantage of readily available wetlands.

Keywords: irrigation, moisture level, water, wetland and implements




Quality Characteristics of Cookies from Wheat and Orange Flesh Sweet Potatoes Composite Flour Supplemented With Cashew Nut Powder.


Donaldben N.S1, Amanze L.C2 and Ewelike I.C3

1,2Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda 3Depaertment of Pre-Science, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda



Cookies were produced from wheat and orange flesh sweet potato and cashew nuts flour blends. Orange flesh sweet potato and cashew nuts were processed into flour and it was used to substitute wheat flour at different ratios (100:0:0, 70:25:5, 60:35:5, 60:30:10 and 45:45:10), and was used to prepare cookies. The proximate, functional, physical and sensory properties of cookies produced from different ratios of wheat-orange flesh sweet potato and cashew nuts composite flour was investigated. The proximate results reveal that, the value of protein ranged between 12.83 to 17.02 %, fat 3.84 to 4.50 %, moisture 13.23 to 13.95 %, fibre 2.32 to 3.88, ash 2.33 to 4.66 % and carbohydrate ranged from 55.99 to 65.45 respectively. The functional properties ranged as follows; bulk density 0.67 to 0.79 gcm3, water absorption capacity 1.21 to 1.52 g/g, oil absorption capacity 2.31 to 2.71 g/g, emulsion activity 58.72 to 60.55 %, emulsion stability 60.11 to 60.59 % and gelatinization temperature ranged from 69.34 to 70.82 oC. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in taste and overall acceptability between the cookies samples, but there were significant differences in texture, aroma and appearance between cookies samples. The experiments produced cookies of acceptable qualities from all ratios of wheat-potato and cashew nuts flour that was used.

Keywords: Proximate, Flour, Bulk density, emulsion stability, cashew nuts.




The Growth Response of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L. (Moench) Seedlings to Ring and Side Dressing Application Methods at Different Rates of Urea Fertilizer


1Babatunde, K. M., 2Shittu, K.A., 3Adekanmbi, O. A., and 4Asimi, M. A.

1The Oke – Ogun Polytechnic, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Technology, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria. 3The Oke – Ogun Polytechnic, Department of Crop Production and Agricultural Technology, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria. 4The Oke – Ogun Polytechnic, Department of Agricultural and Bioenviromental Engineering, Saki, Oyo State, Nigeria.



A field experiment was conducted at the Oke – Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Teaching and Research farm to determine the response of okra seedlings to two methods fertilizer application at four rates of urea fertilizer in a split – plot design (SPD) and all the rates of urea were completely randomized and replicated three times. .Results of analysis of variance indicated that both application methods and rates of urea fertilizer had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effects on the growth parameters of okra seedlings, while the ring and side dressing methods at different rates of urea had significant effects on five and four growth parameters (number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth, plant height and number of roots) respectively. It was, therefore, concluded that ring method at T1 (20 gm) of urea fertilizer could be recommended, as it gave a comparative improved significant (p ≤ 0.05) effects on the growth parameters (number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth, plant height and number of roots) of okra seedlings in a sandy clay soil.

Keywords: annual crop, soil nutrient, inorganic, vegetable, foliar.




An Evaluation of the Socio-Economic Contributions of Sachet (Pure Water) Supply to Taraba State.


1Yakubu, R.A, 2Emmanuel E.N and 3Shuaibu M.M

1Universal Basic Education Board, Jalingo 2,3Departmant of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture, Jalingo



This research evaluates the socio-economic contributions of sachet (pure water) supply to Taraba State (a case study of Jethob Company Jalingo, Taraba State).The specific objectives were to assess the economic contribution of sachet (pure water) supply in Nigeria economy and assess the major problems arising from sachet water supply in Nigeria. The research used. Questionnaire and observation the assess the socio economic contribution of the sachet (pure water) supply in Jalingo. The data for this study was collected from employees, consumers of Jethob sachet water. Analysis of the data shows that Jethob sachet water have very wide demand within Jalingo metropolis that dealer are not satisfied with the present level of service they receiving product high quality should be maintained for continual greater market share. In view of the findings the followings recommendation where made; Jethob sachet water should increase the suppliers of those needed customers more then once a week, to increase production during hot season when there is always increased demand moreover to improve more on the socio-economic contribution by providing enough products at the right time and in the right quality. The driver and salesman should be trained to increase efficiency. The company should be customers orientated by paying attention to customers complaint and finding favourable solution to their problems. Advertisement should be embraced to create more awareness over their product including incentives to the customers, finally, the company should monitor the activities of drive salesman so as to make sure that they effectively and efficiently carrying out their duties.

Keywords: Evaluation, Socio-economic, Contributions, Sachet (Pure Water) Supply, Taraba State.




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