African Scholar Journal of African Innovation & Advanced Studies Vol. 28 No. 2


VOL. 28 NO. 2 MARCH, 2023. ISSN: 2910-1083


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Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2023 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Nexus between Population Growth, Non- Oil Export and Sustainable Development of Nigeria (1980-2022)


Fatima Binta Haruna

Department of Economics and Development studies, Federal University Dutse.



This study examined the nexus between population growth, non- oil export and sustainable economic development in Nigeria for the period of 1980-2022. Annual time series data were sourced from world development indicators (WDI) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) 2021. Using autoregressive and distributed lag (ARDL) model, the result indicates that population growth retards sustainable economic development in Nigeria in the long run. However, the there is a significant positive relationship between non- oil export, exchange rate and sustainable economic development in both the long run and short run. While agricultural output was found to have a positive but insignificant impact on the dependent variable in the long run, in the short run population growth was found to have a significant positive relationship with sustainable economic development at 10% while agricultural output has insignificant negative impact, and both their lags indicated a significant negative relationship. The study therefore recommends concerted effort towards making sure that the ever increasing population is given adequate training to become more productive. There is need also for government to formulate meaningful economic policies aimed at re-investing in the non- oil sector to enhance the revenue base of the country as an alternative source of foreign receipt and also tap into the potential of the non- oil sector with the view to generating small and medium scale employments. Provision of infrastructural facilities in the rural areas was also recommended to improve rural farmers’ productivity and enhance the aggregate agricultural output. And lastly, better policies aimed at safeguarding the values of its currency.

Keywords: Nexus, Population, Non-Oil Export, Sustainable Development And Nigeria.




Human Resource Accounting and Sustainable Growth in Nigerian Quoted Consumer Goods Firms


Olayinka, Oluwatoyin Deborah; Oladejo, Kayode Samson; & Adelaja, Samuel Olunlade

Department of Accounting, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun state, Nigeria



The study examined the impact of human resource accounting on the sustainable growth of consumer goods companies. Ex-post-facto research design was adopted and secondary data were sourced from annual reports and accounts of three (3) purposively selected consumer goods companies for the periods of 2012 to 2021. Ordinary least square regression estimation was employed. The study found that human resource accounting has significant impact on sustainable growth of consumer goods companies. Gross staff cost had positive significant relationship with firm sustainable growth. Safety and health cost have negative significant impact on firm sustainable growth. However, training and development cost had an insignificant relationship with firm sustainable growth. This study concludes that human resource accounting has a significant effect on firm sustainable growth with the exception of training and development cost. This study therefore recommends that organization should improve their gross staff cost so as to improve their sustainable growth and there should be a uniformed standard for identifying and measuring human capital assets

Keywords: Human Resource, Human Resource Accounting, Firms Sustainable Growth, Consumer Goods Companies




Application of Green Infrastructure Principles in Recreational Parks in Nigeria: A Review


Abdulmumeen Nurudeen, And Dr Lateef Ademola Lawal

Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria



Green infrastructure is most popularly described as performing the connection and the development or maintenance of wider ecological networks, usually occurring before development begins in any landscape. Past and contemporary works done on landscapes and their development worldwide, have been observed to incorporate that the benefits of green infrastructure partially in favour of cities in the developed nations. It is to that end that this paper aims at review the application of Green Infrastructure principles in Recreational Parks or parks in Nigeria. This was done by reviewing literature relating to the application of recreational parks in Nigeria. The results obtained was analysed and compared to previous works to reach a conclusion in the assessment. This would contribute to the implementation of green infrastructure principles in Nigeria with a possibility of leading to the restoration of a more natural balance between runoff and infiltration, reduced flooding, and reduced stream bank erosion.

Keywords: Development, Ecological Networks, Green Infrastructure Principles, Landscape, Recreational Parks




The Usability of Emoji Pictures in Recognition Based Graphical Authentication for Mobile Devices


Sa’adatu Garba Kuta; Hassan Umar Suru; & Muhammad Sirajo Aliyu

Computer Science Department, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Nigeria



Review on the use of emojis as an alternative to PIN entry and text passwords was conducted by analyzing the current state of emoji-based authentication. Mobile devices store a lot of personal data and despite all the technological progress, the usability and security of mobile authentication mechanisms did not significantly evolve, as a consequence, data protection is still an annoying and sometimes difficult task which requires an active contribution of the user.  This Work explores emojis as graphical password alternative for user authentication. Most of the graphical authentication schemes provide longer authentication times and therefore emojis were chosen to be the alternative to reduce the lengthy authentication time and improve the memorability of the password. The usability and security evaluation have been conducted from a designed prototype system of emoji face (EF), passface (PF), animal emoji (AE), real animal (RA), food emoJI (FE), real food (RF), Object emoji (OE) and real object (RO) using java programming language. This is done to explore the differences among efficiency, effectiveness, and user preference. The findings showed an acceptable level of efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction of the proposed system. The emoji passwords Ware easy to remember, password creation and login are fast, and a positive user experience is also recorded. However, certain emojis were preferred by the participants.

Keywords: Emojface, Passface, Animalemoji, Realemoji, Foodemoji, Objectemoji




Contributions of Nigeria Liquified Natural Gas Company to Educational Development in Bonny Kingdom, Rivers State


Daerego Ilomabo Taylor; & Ogbonna, Betty

Department of Adult Education and Community Development, Rivers State University



The study examined the contributions of Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Company to educational development in Bonny Kingdom, Rivers State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 128 secondary school administrators and NLNG administrative staff. This comprised 48 NLNG administrative staff and 80 secondary school administrators in Bonny Kingdom. The sample size of the study was 128 respondents. The entire population was taken as census without sampling due to the manageable size of the population. A self-structured questionnaire titled “Contributions of NLNG to Educational Development Questionnaire (CNLNGEDQ)” was used for collecting data.  The questionnaire was structured using the four point summated rating scale response pattern of Very High Extent (VHE) = 4 points, High Extent (HE) = 3 points, Low Extent (LE) = 2 points and Very Low Extent (VLE) = 1 point. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by two experts. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha method to determine the internal consistency of the instrument which yielded the reliability index of 0.77, 0.76 and 0.78. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found among others that NLNG Company has contributed to the award of scholarships to students, provision of school infrastructure, and provision of instructional materials in schools in Bonny Kingdom. The study concluded that education is springboard to good life, better job and socio-economic ladder. It is both a human right in itself and an indispensable means of realizing other human rights. It therefore becomes pertinent for NLNG Company to ensure the educational development of Bonny Kingdom. It was recommended among others that the Nigeria LNG company should award more scholarships to students in Bonny communities to be trained in different areas of human endeavour which enhances human capital development of the Bonny indigenes and development in Bonny Kingdom in general.

Keywords: Education, Development, Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas




Stock Market Development Indicators and Economic Growth in Nigeria


1Prof. Sunday Aguwamba; & 2Osimen, Monday Daniel

Department of Banking and Finance, Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi College of Business and Management Studies, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State of Nigeria



In this study, we examined stock market indicators and economic growth in Nigeria. The key parameters considered and analyzed were economic growth (GDP), Market capitalization (MCAP), all share index (ASI), total value of Transactions (TVT), Inflation (INFL) and total number of deals (TND). Data used in the study covered the period of 1989 to 2021. The panel form of the autoregressive distributed lags (i.e., the Pooled Mean Group – PMG) estimation technique was adopted for the study. Based on the empirical investigation in the study, it was found that the stock market actually matters for economic growth in Nigeria. The major findings of the study showed that market capitalization (MCAP) did not have a significant long run impact on economic growth in Nigeria. Although, a short-term impact was observed, the study found that the long run impacts were weak. All-shares index (ASI) had a significant and positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. Although the short run impacts were found to be weak, it was shown that all share index boosted growth directly and through improving the investment rate in Nigeria. Total value of transaction traded in the stock markets (TVT) did not significantly improve economic growth directly, but the impact is indirect through the investment rate in the long run in Nigeria. Total number of deals (TND) in the stock market for West African countries had a significant and positive impact on economic growth both in the short run and in the long run. Inflation rate (INFL) had a significant long run negative impact on economic growth, through the channel of investment in Nigeria. The inter-temporal responses of economic growth to all-share index and total value of transactions were positive, while the responses to others were weak and negative. Therefore, the need for policy directions on economic growth in Nigeria to consider the role of the stock market as a critical aspect, especially in the long run was recommended.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Market Capitalization, All share Index, Total value of Transactions, Inflation rate and Total Number of Deals, Vector Error Correction Model.




Possible Ways of Enhancing and Promoting Development in Nigeria through Diversified Industrialization: An Appraisal


*Ven Egesi Jonathan. C.; **Keke Kyrian; *Amechi J.N.; *Dr Mrs Ikeazota Nwamaka N. F (Fman); *Agugo U.A (Mrs); *Njoku Dominic .O.; & *Okoro Linus C.

*Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma Oru- East **(AIFCE), Owerri



Every nation in the world no matter where crave for development. No matter how one looks at it, irrespective of how developed any nation is, she looks forward to getting better. Mean while, development can in simple terms be taken for a shift or movement from subsistence and human labour and service provision to a level where machines and sophisticated equipment are used for production . Industrialization simply implies a state in an economy where machines do virtually all the economic activities in industries while men do little or nothing less than controlling the machines to perform various /specific tasks . Nigeria like any other country crave to develop better than she has in recent years , but what must be said is the what the necessary steps are to attain this height. It must be mentioned without any form of apology that the problem with the country is the political class. Politics or the political class are totally in control of all other spheres of the economy and when it is not getting things right, developmental efforts and processes will be slowed or hampered, the question remains, what must be done to remedy the situation. The above stated point form the gamut of this study. Various data collection techniques as oral interviews, textbooks, journals, newspapers, and the internet among others. The Great  Big Push theory    was used as theoretical framework for this study, thereafter, conclusion was drawn.

KEYWORDS: Possible, Enhancing, Promotion, Development, Nigeria, Diversification, Industrialization.




Promoting Human Capital Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria through Innovative Teaching-Learning Approaches


*Ehighebolo, Izin Anne; & **Atimati, Ehinomen Elizabeth

*Department of Humanities and Social sciences, School of General studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria. **Department of Telecommunication Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria



The ingenuity of human minds can be developed by a well-structured knowledge base hence many studies unanimously agree that education improves the knowledge, skills and attitude of the workforce which invariably influences the economic growth of a nation. Adopting a library-based approach, this study argues that new teaching-learning methods are necessary to improve the quality of graduates who make up a significant number of the workforce in Nigeria. It posits that improving the quality of formal training, through the method of teaching can boost human Capital development which will, in turn, affect positively the economic growth of Nigeria. It recommends more training of educators in this regard and further research on the best innovative teaching method to employ in different fields of study.

Keywords: Human capital development, Economic growth, teaching-learning approach, Nigeria




Powering the Future: A Sustainable Reform Plan for Overcoming Transmission and Distribution Challenges in Nigeria Power Sector


*Omofuma Osamonyi, Thomas Temitope G., Akinrogunde Oluwadare O. and Edwin Theophilus E.

Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa.



This study aims to identify and offer potential solutions to the transmission and distribution challenges that impede the performance and reform of the Nigerian electricity industry. The research recognises the importance of transmission and distribution in the power industry and its challenges. This research examined several factors that are hampering Nigeria’s efficient electricity supply. Similarly, the study discussed the necessity for a new paradigm shift from the conventional power generation and distribution grid system to a Smart Grid (SG) system. This new strategy boosts renewable energy generation via distributed energy systems in a smarter grid that can manage many parameters without human interaction. Consequently, the study suggested several solutions centred on three critical areas: infrastructure investment, smart grid technology, and the promotion of renewable energy sources. Therefore, the study’s suggestions are intended to improve the dependability, efficiency, and sustainability of Nigeria’s electricity industry and contribute to the country’s overall economic growth and development.

Keywords: sustainable energy management, transmission, distribution, power sector, smart grid




The Analogy of the Concept of Police and its Roles to the Public


*Aishatu Musa; **Ashigar A.k Satomi; & ***Yakaka Baba Abba

*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State. ***Department of Sociology, Borno State University.



The purpose of a state’s police force is to uphold the law, protect the lives, health, and property of its residents, and put a stop to criminal activity and other forms of civil unrest. A state gives its police force the authority to carry out its mission. Their authorized capabilities include being able to arrest people and using force in ways that are sanctioned by the state owing to its monopoly on the use of force. This paper explores the meaning, roles and responsibilities of the police and its essence to the society.

Keywords: Police, Arrest, Discretions, Search and Seizure




Organizational Readiness and ICT Adoption Behavior of SMEs Hotel in Zamfara State


1Hassan Abdulsabur; 2Adedokun Akeem, A.; 1Surajo, Shehu; 2Mohammed Aliyu, Tsafe & 2Phelomena Ibukun

1Department of Business Administration, The Federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda. 2Department of Marketing, The Federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda



The research work is centered on the Determinants of ICT Adoption Behavior of SMEs Hotel in Zamfara State, was carryout to determine the factors responsible for ICT adoption of SME hotels in Zamfara state. The study focuses on assessing the relationship between organizational culture and ICT adoption by SMEs hotels, the relationship between top level management support for ICT and ICT adoption by SMEs hotels and assess the relationship between technology innovative readiness and ICT adoption by SMEs hotels. The population under study is 62 respondents comprises of managers and receptionist in the registered hotels in Gusau, Zamfara state. The survey research adopted closed ended questionnaires, data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and hypothesis were tested using regression analysis. The research found that there is a significant relationship between organizational culture and ICT Adoption by SMEs hotels, there is a significant relationship between Top level management support for ICT and ICT Adoption of SMEs Hotels and there is a significant relationship between technological innovation and ICT Adoption of SMEs Hotels. It was recommended that SMEs hotels in Zamfara state ought to design a progressive policy that transform into flexible organizational culture that can accommodate environmental changes and that SMEs hotels management in Zamfara state should be dynamic and invest their trust and support for ICT adoption.

Keyword; ICT, adoption, organizational, culture, management




Curriculum Analysis and Criteria for Selecting a Curriculum


Abdulwahab Muhammad

Department of Curriculum & Instruction, School of Education, A.D.Rufa’i College of Education, Legal & General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State



The paper presents the criteria for selecting a curriculum where by the objectives upon which a curriculum is set to achieve; the difficulty and assimilation level of the content of the curriculum; custom and values of the society the curriculum is serving; instructional materials/apparatus to teach the curriculum; cost benefit effects; acceptability and flexibility of the curriculum were presented. The paper concludes that the objectives of the curriculum; difficulty and assimilation level of the curriculum content; societal custom and values; instructional materials/apparatus, cost benefit effects; acceptability and flexibility and must be thoroughly presented, digested, analyzed and  synthesized before taken an informed decision on selecting a particular curriculum out of many presented on same subject and level. Lastly, the paper suggests among which the need for regular analysis of the objectives, difficulty and assimilation levels of the content of our school curriculum; instructional materials/apparatus, cost benefit effects; acceptability and flexibility of our school curriculums for effective and efficient teaching and learning process.

Keywords: Criteria, Selection, Curriculum, Analysis, Content




Impact of Managerial and Institution Ownership on Debt Financing of Listed Insurance Companies in Nigeria


*Monica Shadrach & **Ali, Mathew Bello

*Accountancy Department, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State – Nigeria, P.M.B., 35. **Bursary Department, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State – Nigeria, P.M.B., 35



This study assessed the impact of managerial and institutional ownership on debt financing of listed insurance companies in Nigeria for the period of twelve (12) years 2010 to 2021. Eighteen (18) companies out of twenty-eight (28) companies were selected based on purposive sampling. The data for the study were collected from annual reports and accounts of the sampled companies and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions through the use of STATA software version 13.00. The study found managerial ownership and institutional ownership to have positive and significant impact on debt financing of listed insurance companies in Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that both Managers and institutional investors should be wary of their influence on debt desirability and reduce the amount of debt in the capital structure especially where there are signs of financial deterioration which is usually associated with high cost of debt. They should only increase debt in the capital structure of companies when profits are high; cost of equity capital are high and benefits of tax shield are high and ensure that long-term debts are used to finance fixed tangible assets while short-term debts are used to finance short-term obligations.

Keywords: Ownership structure, Managerial ownership, Institutional ownership, Debt financing.




Electricity Privatisation in Nigeria: Uncovering Lessons for a Brighter Future


*Omofuma Osamonyi, Thomas Temitope G., Akinrogunde Oluwadare O. and Edwin Theophilus E.

Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa,



This paper discussed the lessons from the privatisation of the electricity sector in Nigeria. The origin and factors for privatisation programs in Nigeria to the stagnation of government-owned enterprises and the system’s corruption services were examined. However, the paper explored the conceptual meaning of privatisation and commercialisation. Similarly, the unfruitful output of the privatisation program in the country for more than two decades was examined. The paper concluded that Nigerians have yet to fully realise the benefits of the country’s privatisation efforts as corruption and inefficiency continue to be the norm. The program only allowed some corrupt leaders to acquire those properties at the expense of the average Nigerian. Hence, the program’s purposes and laudable objectives still need to be met and fulfilled. Therefore, the study suggested some far-reaching recommendations to ameliorate problems associated with privatisation programs in Nigeria.

Keywords: privatization, commercialisation, electricity sector, stagnation, Nigeria




The Effect of Moringa Extract on the Growth and Yield of White and Yellow Varieties of Maize (Zea mays)


Abubakar Dauda Jugulde

Department of Crop Production, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State



Maize (Zea mays L) is one of the major cereal crops grown in the humid tropics and Sub-Saharan Africa It is a versatile crop and ranks third following wheat and rice in world production as reported by Food and Agriculture Organization. Moringa is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae made up of 13 species but the commonest one is Moringa oleifera. Moringa contains zeatin, a plant hormone derived from the purine adenine. It is a member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins. These plant hormones help cell division, differentiation, and growth, protect against oxidation and help in nutrient assimilation The experiment was carried out in The data obtained were subjected to a Soft wire called Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). After the analysis, the following results were obtained. The result showed that moringa extract had a statistically significant effect on the growth of maize (P < 0.05). The result showed that growth of maize cultivars did not vary in their response to moringa extract (P > 0.05).  The result showed that different concentration of moringa extract had a statistically significant effect on the growth of maize (P < 0.05). The result showed that moringa extract had a statistically significant effect on the growth of maize (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Moringa, Hormone, Oxidation, Growth and Yield




Fertilizer Use and its Impact on Productivity of Maize Farms in Kogi State


Ajakaiye, Olatunbosun Bolashade

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kogi State University, Anyigba. [Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic, Itakpe].



Fertilizer use and its impact on the productivity of maize based farms were investigated in Kogi State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling procedure was adopted to select 120 maize farmers from three Local Government Areas namely; Lokoja, Idah and Adavi. Using well structured questionnaire, purposive selection and random sampling methods were used in stage one and two respectively. Data for the study was analyzed with descriptive statistics and instrumental variables approach using the Cobb – Douglass function and the two stage least squares (2SLS) regression. The result showed that quantity of labor, number of extension visit, farm size and distance of farm from fertilizer input were significant. The key factors which influenced the fertilizer use on maize output include; quantity of agro-chemicals used, quantity of seeds used, farm labor and quantity of fertilizer used. A summary of the marginal effects of the regressions showed that variables under 2SLS model exerted greater impact on maize output than under the OLS model in the study area. The study concludes that the quantity of fertilizer used by farmers in the study areas influenced maize output positively. Policies aimed at encouraging farmer’s access to fertilizer input, extension services, Agro services centers, amendment of land tenure policy and improved farming technology were recommended for improved maize productivity.

Keywords: Fertilizer use, maize farms, instrumental variables, productivity, Cobb – Douglass function, 2SLS model, OLS model.



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