African Scholar Journal of Biotechnology and Agricultural Research Vol. 28 No. 1


VOL. 28 NO. 1 MARCH, 2023. ISSN: 2177-1998


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2023 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Correlation Analysis on the Growth and Yield Traits of Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomea Batatas (L).) Varieties Under Varying Planting Density


1Uzoigwe, A.D., 2Uzoigwe, O.F. and 1*Osadebe, V.O.

1Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Health management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State Nigeria.



Understanding interrelationships among various agronomic traits is vital to plan an effective production program in sweetpotato. Field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike in 2015 and at the Research farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State in 2016 to determine the correlation effect on the growth and yield traits of orange-fleshed sweetpotato under varying densities (25,000; 33,333 and 50,000 plants/ha). The field trial was a 2 x 3 factorial laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six replications. Data were collected on the growth and yield characters of the orange-flesh sweetpotato. Total root yield of sweetpotato in the two cropping seasons showed positive and high significantly correlation with marketable toot yield (r = 0.978** and 0.984**), unmarketable root yield (r = 0.719** and 0.698**), total number of roots (r = 0.865** and 0.851**), number of marketable roots (r = 0.833** and 0.844**), number of unmarketable roots (r = 0.804** and 0.812**), respectively. In the first cropping season, the yield and yield components were negatively correlated with the number of leaves and number of vines, while they had a positive correlation with the vine length except for the unmarketable root yield. In the second cropping season, yield and yield components were positively correlated with the number of leaves, number of vines showed positive relationship with the number of yield components but had a negative relationship with the yield components; vine length had a positive and highly significantly correlation with the yield and yield components. It could be concluded that any positive increase in characters as vine length and yield components of the orange-flesh sweetpotato had corresponding increase in total root yield of the crops.

Keywords: orange flesh-sweetpotato, correlation, growth, yields, traits.




Effects of Cultivar and Age of Mother-Plant on the Viability and Vigour Qualities of Four Bell Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) Plants


Mustapha, A., Ibrahim, H., Gana, A.S., Salaudeen, M.T. & Adediran, A.O.

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology Minna



Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important fruit vegetable belonging to the family Solanaceae. The demand for this crop as a vegetable has increased especially in the urban centres, however, availability of quality seeds for sustainable production to meet the high demand has become a big challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of cultivars and ages of mother-plant on the viability and vigour of bell pepper seeds. The experiment was arranged in a 4 × factorial using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factors were four cultivars of pepper and 6 plant ages. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology Minna in 2020. The seeds were stored in an incubator set at 37 C and 75% relative humidity to accelerate the aging process for 8 weeks and the following parameters were tested weekly; seed germination percentage, seed vigour index and seed leachate electro-conductivity. The seeds of “Dan Damaso” and harvesting physiologically matured fruits when the mother-plant was 99 days old produced seeds with superior germination and vigour in the study.

Keywords: Cultivar, Mother-Plant, Viability, Effect, Vigour Qualities, Four Bell Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) Plants.




Leveraging on ICTs for Documenting and Transferring Technologies for Sustainable Land Use and Water Management to Enhance Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria


Aliyu M.K1., Garuba H.S2, Qasim O.A1, Bala. A1, Adam.M.E3 & A.Haruna1

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Economics, National Agricultural Extension and Liaison Services (NAERLS), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 2Department of Agricultural Engineering and Irrigation, National Agricultural Extension and Liaison Services (NAERLS), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, 3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University Gashua. Yobe State.



This paper will attempt to look at leveraging on ICTs for documenting and transferring technologies for sustainable land use and water management towards enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria. The paper used content development and reviewed relevant literatures on how ICTs has proven to be solution driven technique, an expanding assembles of technologies that facilitate accurate documentation of information and efficient means of technology transfer. For ICTs to meet up with its future demands and strengthen efficient documentation and transfer of proven technologies for sustainable land use and water management in Nigeria, there must be a holistic drive to ensure that it is developed properly to meet with the demands and needs of the farmers. The paper expounds on the various applications of ICTs in Agricultural land use and water management which could be used to enhance agricultural productivity in the country. It also looks at the challenges on the use of ICTS and proffered some ways forward. The paper then concludes by urging on all the stake holders in the Extension delivery system in the Country to take ICT as a panacea to solve the problems bedevilling the system. The paper also made some recommendations for better performance and more efficient use of ICTs to enhance Agricultural Productivityin the Country.

Keywords: Technologies, Land use, Water management and Agricultural Productivity.




Income Generating Activities of Rural Women in Kaduna State Agricultural Zone III, Nigeria


1Kassah, A., 1Muhammad, H. U., and 1Tsado, J. H.

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



This study assessed the income generating activities of rural women In Kaduna State Agricultural Zone III, Nigeria. A Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select 248 rural women for the study.  Primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire complemented with an interview schedule. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics however 3 – point Likert type rating scale was used to measure the level of rural women involvement in income generating activities. The results reveal that the mean age was 42 years, with a mean household size of 6 people, and mean farming experience of 22 years. In terms of various incomes generating activities engaged by the rural women, crop farming (95.2%), agro-processing (70.2%) and petty trading (46.4%) ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively, among IGR involved. The respondents had high involvement in crop farming (=2.8), agro-processing (=2.3) and petty trading (=2.0). It was therefore recommended that, microfinance institutions should be established in rural areas to provide financial support to women entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Income generating activities, rural women, extent of participation.




Comparative Analysis of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)] and Cowpea Sowing Dates in Maiduguri, North Eastern, Nigeria


J.A., Bassi*, S. Bukar**

*Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri – Nigeria.**Department of Agronomy and Soil Science Bono State University Nigeria.



Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 rainy seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri (11047N; 12016E) to determine the comparative analysis of  Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.)] and cowpea sowing dates. The treatments consisted of three pearl millet varieties: ZATIP, SOSAT-C-88 and LACRI-9702-IC, two cowpea varieties: Borno Brown and IT 89 KD- 288 and four cowpea sowing dates:  0 weeks after sowing millet (WASM), 1 WASM, 2 WASM and 3 WASM. The experimental design was Split-Split plot with the pearl millet varieties allocated to the main plots, cowpea varieties assigned to the sub-plots and cowpea sowing date assigned to the sub- sub plots in 1:1 alternate row arrangement, and replicated three times. The results showed that in 2015, 2016 and the combined mean, Plant height, number of branches/ plant, grain yield/hectare and were significantly greater for Borno Brown than IT 89 KD- 288 variety. Delaying cowpea sowing date by three weeks after sowing the millet component decreased number of branches, grain yield and fodder yield in cowpea. The SOSAT-C-88 and Borno Brown intercrop produced the highest grain yield of pearl millet in both the years and the combined mean. The cowpea variety Borno Brown was more competitive with pearl millet at simultaneous ( 0 WASM ) or 1 week after sowing millet that had greater grain yield than IT 89 KD- 288. Fodder yield and pod yield were greater for Borno Brown intercropped with LACRI-9702-IC or SOSAT-C-88 than IT 89 KD- 288 intercropped with ZATIP. Linear relationships among agronomic parameters of cowpea revealed that, pod yield, grain and fodder yield increased significantly with increase in plant height and number of branches

Keywords: Vigna, pennisetum, dates, pearl.




Impacts of Niger State Agricultural and Mechanization Development Authority on Rural Dwellers in Parts of Niger State, Nigeria


Oniwumi, Muyiwa Isaiah; & Prof. T. I. Yahaya

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna



The aim of the paper is to examine the impacts of Niger State Agricultural and Mechanization Development Authority (NSAMDA) on rural dwellers in parts of Niger State, Nigeria. The paper used both primary and secondary data. The methods of data analysis used include both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods. The Data analysis was analysed utilizing SPSS 22.0. As revealed in the study, high response ranked the highest with 118 sampled population, fairly high response ranked second with 76 sampled population, very high response ranked third with 63 sampled population, fair response ranked forth with 44 sampled population and low response ranked the least with 25 sampled population. This revealed that majority of the sampled population have benefited from various Agricultural Development Projects initiated in the study area. This shows that response high ranked the highest with 123 sampled population, response fairly high ranked second with 76 sampled populations, response very high ranked third with 58 sampled population and response low ranked the least with 25 sampled population. This shows that majority of sampled population were influenced by various ADP inputs which has increased agricultural productivity in the study area. The challenges faced by rural farmers in accessing NSAMDA and its programmes in the study area include low awareness, cultural barriers, inadequate capital, illiteracy, inadequate mobility and poor leadership as indicated in the study. Inadequate capital ranked the highest with 43.8%, poor leadership ranked second with 20.9%, low awareness ranked third with 11%, inadequate mobility ranked forth with 9.5% and cultural barrier ranked the least with 6.4%. This revealed that the major challenge faced by rural farmers in accessing NSAMDA and its programmes was inadequate capital. These findings suggest that AMDA’s impact on the rural development in Niger State is pronounced as it has contributed significantly to rural dwellers’ wellbeing. More extension agent should be trained and posted to rural areas to educate and enlighten local dwellers with a few to teaching them in the language they will understand on the innovations in agriculture especially in the area of pest and disease control, when and how to apply them. This will help in preserving most of food crops from being destroyed by pests and other related diseases that attack both plants and animals.

Keywords: Rural Dwellers, Niger State Agricultural and Mechanization Development Authority, Rural Farmers and Perception.




Evaluation of the Influence of Agro-Climatic Variables on Sugarcane Cultivation in Selected Local Government Areas of Niger State, Nigeria


Salihu, I.; & Prof. Yahaya, T.I.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



This research work on Evaluation of the Influence of Agro-climatic Variables on Sugarcane Production in Parts of Niger State, Nigeria, dwells on the analysis of some major agro-climatic factors and how they influence the spatial distribution of suitable sites for sugarcane cultivation in parts of Niger state, Nigeria.  In this paper, agro-climatic conditions were used in mapping out suitable sites for sugarcane production in selected local government areas in Niger state Nigeria. In search of more areas to diversify sources of revenue for the state, the researchers ventured into the aspect of sugarcane production to look for additional sites, different from the ones being cultivated presently. From the literatures reviewed in the course of this study, no work has been carried out specifically mapping out areas that will be suitable for sugarcane production in the State. Therefore, to fill this gap, this work was conceived. The study covers four Local Government Areas with total area of about 19,158 Km2. Data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, soil, relief and drainage were transformed into spatial datasets and integrated in the process of Weighted Sum overlay in ArcGIS 10.2 and in line with the FAO guidelines on suitability analysis for the sites selection. Four classes of suitability were arrived at, which are Most suitable, Moderately suitable, Marginally suitable and Not suitable sites for sugarcane cultivation. The results show that, most suitable areas cover a total area of about 7,004Km2 (37%) of the area), moderately suitable areas cover about 3,797Km2 (20%), marginally suitable areas cover about 2,549Km2 (13%) and not suitable areas cover 5,808Km2 (30%). Both most suitable and moderately suitable areas for sugarcane cultivation cover a total area of about 10,801Km2 and this represents about 57% of the total area. This area is substantial enough to produce sugarcane in a quantity that can boost the economy of the state and the country at large. Therefore, the government of the State should key in to this potential area of economic diversification by inviting stakeholders in the area of sugarcane production to look into this finding with the aim at promoting sugarcane production as one of the major sources of income to the State.

Keywords: agro-climatic, site suitability, sugarcane, suitability analysis, spatial data




Effect of Compost Manure Use on the Productivity of Garlic Farmers in Kano State, Nigeria: Instrumental Variable Model


Ajakaiye, O.B 1 ,  Opaluwa, H.I 2 , Ibrahim, M.K, 2 .

1Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic Itakpe, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.



The effect of compost manure usage on the productivity of garlic farmers was investigated in Kano state, Nigeria. The study employed a multistage sampling technique. The data collected with well structured questionnaire from 180 garlic farmers was analysed  using descriptive statistics and Instrumental Variables (2SLS) Model. The results of the socio-economic characteristics of the garlic farmers showed that about 66% of the farmers are males, indicating men farm more than women in the study area. The  results also revealed a mean age of 38.5 years, mean house hold size of 10 persons per household, mean farm size of 3.12 hectares and a mean garlic farming experience of 9.4 years. This implies that garlic farmers are young, youthful and agile, with average farm size, reasonable household members for family labor with good number of years into garlic farming.  Result from the stage one Instrumental variables approach showed that variables such as: quantity of labor, access to credit, quantity of garlic vegetative bulbs planted, membership of farmers association, farm size and distance from farm to compost manure source were factors that influence garlic farmers usage of compost manure in the study area. Furthermore, variables such as: quantity of compost manure used, quantity of labor, and quantity of planting materials were factors that affect garlic productivity in the study area. The study concluded that the usage of compost manure increased the productivity of garlic in the study area. The need to boost extension services, access to credit and farmers membership of farm association in the form of cooperatives were recommended.

Keywords: Compost manure, Garlic, Instrumental Variables, 2SLS Model, OLS Model, Productivity.




Estimating Factors Affecting Usage of Poultry Manure Technology among Ginger Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria – Using Ordered Logit Model


Ajakaiye O.B1, Opaluwa, H.I2, Ibrahim, M.K2.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, Kogi State Polytechnics, Itakpe, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.



The factors affecting the usage of poultry manure technology among ginger farmers was estimated in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study used purposive random sampling technique to collect data from 120 ginger farmers with well structured questionnaire. The data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Ordered Logit Regression Model. The results showed that 58.33% and 41.67% were female and male ginger farmers. The results also showed that 70.83% of the ginger farmers had no formal education indicating that uneducated females were the predominant ginger farmers in the study area. The mean values for age of the farmers, household size, farm size and farming experience were 41 years, 8 persons, 7 hectares and 8 years of farming ginger respectively. The ordered Logit Regression Model results revealed that variables such as: age of ginger farmers, household size, farming experience, farm size, membership of farmers association, access to credit, access to fertilizer and farm income were factors that affect poultry manure usage among ginger farmers in the study area. The study recommended encouragement of productive and sustainable farming by ginger farmers through improvement of poultry manure technology, and provision of farming inputs coupled with training of ginger farmers through extension services.

Keywords: Ordered Logit, Poultry Manure, Ginger, Kaduna, Purposive random sampling.




Survey of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Production in Maiduguri Metropolis


Abdulazeez K. A.; Yusufu, I. I.; And M. Waziri

Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, Baga, Borno State.



This study examined the production capacity of Clarias Gariepinus fingerlings in Maiduguri Metropolis. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the Clarias Gariepinus fingerlings producers (respondents) while a well-designed structured questionnaire was employed for the data collection. A total of 50 well-designed structured questionnaires were administered for data collection while descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data collected with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0). The results obtained showed that male constituted 74.0% which could be attributable to more interest from males than females (26.0%) while respondents who attained tertiary education constituted the highest percentage of 64.0% due to their awareness through radio, television and other media and the least educational attainment was non-formal (4.0%). It was observed from the scale of production in this study that producers with 4,000 and above of Clarias Gariepinus fingerlings constituted the highest percentage of 38.0% while the least scale of production was 3,001 – 4, 000 (18.0%). The results obtained from one-sample test showed that  for production capacity was ,  for take-off funds while year (s) of experience had  of ; higher values of the  obtained indicated that a large difference exist between the production capacity, take-off funds and years of experience in fish farming. Lack of sufficient take-off capital, lack of technical know-how, unavailability of broodstocks, temperature change were some of the challenges faced by the respondents in this study while some respondents attributed effect of COVID-19 to low production which requires assistance from the government at all levels, international bodies (FAO), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and corporate organizations.

Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Fingerlings, Fish Farmers, Broodstocks and Production.




Fertility and Salinity/Sodicity Status of Fadama Soils in Dadin Kowa, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria


*1Jugulde, D. A., and 2Salem, A.

1Deparment of Crop Production, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, 2Department of Soil Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria



This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the Salinity/Sodicity status of Fadama soils under different cropping systems (rice, mango and tomato) at Dadin kowa, Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area of Gombe State. To achieve this objective, two soil profiles pits were dug in each of the identified cropping systems, described and sampled. The physical and chemical properties of the soils were determined. All soil samples collected were analysed using standard Laboratory procedures. The results for particle size distribution across land uses revealed that the values of sand, silt and clay ranged from 62.8-87.8% (Mean=75.3%), 5.2-29.2% (Mean= 17.2%) and 4-18% (Mean= 11%), respectively, while values of Bulk density, particle density and total porosity varied from 1.45-1.73g/cm3 (Mean= 1.59 g/cm3), 2.19-2.84 g/cm3 (Mean= 2.52 g/cm3) and 31.46 to 43.07% (Mean= 37.27%), respectively. The values of OC, TN and AP content of the studied soils across land use and horizons is substantial > 10g/kg, and is rated medium to high, 1.1 to 1.40g/kg, rated low to medium and 8.03 to 9.35mg/kg, rated low, respectively. The exchangeable bases were generally rated medium to high, while TEA, TEB, ECEC and PBS were all rated medium. The mean soil reaction was slightly acidic (Mean pH= 6.5) across land uses, while the mean values of electrical conductivity (Mean ECe = 0.19d/sm) and Exchangeable sodium percentage (mean ESP =5.55%) of the studied soils across all the soil mapping units was below the critical limits of 4dSm-1 and 15% respectively, an indication of the non-saline/sodic nature of the studied soils. The study also revealed that the general agronomic constraints of the soils were low nutrient reserve, acidic reaction and high P fixation conditions. Management practices such as periodic monitoring of soil quality, addition of organic manure, guided inorganic fertilizer use, liming and periodic monitoring of salinity/sodicity status of the study area is recommended for sustainable agricultural productivity.

Keywords: Electrical conductivity, Fadama soils, Fertility, Salinity, Sodicity




Study on the Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Inter Row Spacing on the Nutrient Quality of Columbus Grass (Soghum Almum Parodi) in the Dry Sub Humid Zone of Sokoto, Nigeria


Asifat Dauda Abiodun1, Musa Isa Mabu2, Abubakar Yusuf Kakagida3, Mohammed Shu’aibu Shinkafi4, Bello Abubakar5

1The Glamour Academy Nursery and Primary School, Behind United Methodist High School Cele Area, Iwo Osun State. 2Desert Research Monitoring and Control Center, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria. 3Agricultural Research Council Abuja, Nigeria 4Directorate of Animal Health and Livestock Development, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 5State Polytechnic Yola, Adamawa State.



A field experiment was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons at Center for Agricultural and Pastoral Research (CAPAR) of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and inter row spacing on the nutrient quality of Columbus grass. A factorial combination of five fertilizer levels (0, 100, 120, 140 and 160KgN/ha) and three inter-row spacing (30, 50 and 70 cm) were used, making fifteen treatment combinations, which were laid out in a RCBD replicated three times.. The result reveal that application of 120kg N ha-1 recorded higher CP, CF and EE, where higher (P < 0.05) CP values (P<005) for all the treatments as compared to 140 and 160KgN/ha which produced significantly (P<005) lower CP values. The inter-row spacing had significant (P < 0.05) effect on CP, CF and EE, where higher (P < 0.05) CP content was recorded from the wider spacing (70 cm) while the narrow spacing (30 cm) favored CF and EE values for the forage grass. Thus from the finding of this research it could be concluded that Sorghum almum adapted very well to Sokoto condition with good nutrient quality, application of 140-160kgNha-1 and inter row spacing of 70 cm gave better CP. Furthermore increase in nitrogen fertilizer is accompanied by the increase in nutrient quality of the Columbus grass.

Keywords:  fertilizer levels, inter row spacing, treatments, forage grass, spacing and nutrient quality




Growth Performance and Cost Benefit of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Doum Palm Pulp Meal (Hyphaene thebaica) as Energy Source


Ibrahim Abdulsalam

Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of doum palm pulp meal (Hyphaene thebaica) supplementation on growth performance of broiler chickens. Five diets containing varying substitution levels of white sorghum for doum palm pulp meal (DPM); T1 (0%), T2 (2.5%), T3 (5.0%), T4 (7.5%) and T5 (10%) were formulated. A total of three (300) hundred day-old broiler chick were brooded for one week and thereafter allotted to the diets in replicates of three containing 20 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were served ad libitum and the experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Results showed a significant (P< 0.05) effect of DPM on most growth parameters at both the starter and finisher phases. At the starter phase, daily feed intake (DFI) was higher (P<0.05) on T4 (72.69g) and T569.15g) and lower on T1 (63.03g) and T3 (65.96g) but not at the finisher phase (111.81 -115.49g). Daily weight gain (DWG) was higher (P<0.05) on T4 (36.43g) than on other diets (32.59 – 35.06g) at the starter phase. At the finisher phase, birds on T4 (51.68g) and T2 (50.97g) had higher (P<0.05) DWG than those on other diets. Final weight was higher (P<0.05) in birds fed DPM than the control. Feed cost per kg decreased from N140.36 (T1) to N127.55 (T5) while feed cost per kg gain declined continuously from N303.44 (T1) to N264.65 (T5). The highest cost saving of N38.79 was obtained on T5. It was therefore concluded that doum palm pulp meal can replace white sorghum in broiler chicken diets up to 10% level without any negative effect on growth performance, and with a cost saving of 12.78%.

Keywords: Doum palm pulp meal, Broiler chickens, Growth performance, Cost benefit.




Effect of Spacing and Manure on the Growth Performance and Nutritional Content of Radish (Raphanus Sativus) in Jos Plateau


1Obidola, S. M., 1Henry, U. I., 1Abdulrahman, J., 2Henry, M. U., 2Bulus, J. K., 3Nwadike C., 3Lawal, A. A., 1Anayib, M. and 4Sikiru, G.

1Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 4Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State.



Continuous decline in soil fertility is a major constraint to agriculture, while lack of spacing and overcrowding of radish is a major problem in radish cultivation. This research examined the impact of manure, spacing and their interactions on the cultivation of radish and its nutritional qualities. The experiment consisted of Split Plot in which Randomized Complete Block Design was used while the effects of spacing (S1 = 20 cm x 30 cm and S2 = 20 cm x 25 cm) and manure (M0 = N.P.K, M1 = Poultry dung and M2 = Cow dung) were determined. Parameters taken include plant height, leaf count, leaf length, tuber length, yield (kg), total carbohydrate concentration and total free amino acids. The data was subjected to two-way analysis of variance (2 WAY ANOVA) and where significance occurred, Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to separate the means. The result showed that spacing didn’t have significant effect on the parameters observed but S1 gave higher mean values. Significant effects were however observed on the different manure, with M0 having the lowest mean value of 7.87 (leaf count), 8.15 (plant height), 6.85 (leaf length), 9.33 (tuber length) and 1.27 (yield). Treatment M2 mostly gave higher mean value in the leaf count (11.96), plant height (11.68) and leaf length (8.79), whereas, M1 gave higher mean value in the tuber length (13.42) and the yield (2.33). The result of the nutritional parameters showed that spacing did not produce a significant effect on the carbohydrate concentration and the total free amino acids. The effects of the manure however showed significant effect on the total carbohydrate concentration, with M2 giving the highest mean value (48.93 mg/mL) and M0 gaving the lowest mean value of 43.97 mg/mL). The result of the protein concentration showed that M1 gave the highest mean value (3.03 mg/mL), while M0 gave the lowest mean value of 2.37 mg/mL. In all the parameters observed, the interaction effect of spacing and manure showed significant effect in all the tretaments. Conclusively, radish cultivation requires adequate spacing and decomposed organic manure for good growth, better yield as well as nutritional quality.

Keywords: Organic Manure, Inorganic Fertilizers, Spacing, Radish, Carbohydrate concentration, Protein concentration, Yield parameters.



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