African Scholar Journal of Business Dev. & Management Res. Vol. 28 No. 7


VOL. 28 NO. 7 MARCH, 2023. ISSN: 2190-2099


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2023 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Civil Servants Attitude of Financial Control for Economic Development in Nigeria: The Twenty-First Century


*Christopher Osega Otubor (Ph.D); **Joshua Chibi Dariye; ***Osaretin Imahiyereobo; ****Blessing Zakariya Philemon (PhD); & *****Okike Benjamin Matthew

*Department of Banking & Finance, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State. **Federal Senator, Federal Republic of Nigeria. ***Retired Director\Administrative Secretary Independent National Electoral Commission. ****Faculty of Management Sciences, Department of Accounting, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State. *****Director of Studies, Nigerian College of Accountancy, Kwall, Plateau State.



Civil service is that institution with civil servants that ran the states with attitudes that most times were appreciable or questionable. In Nigeria, there is a common way of life where a Civil Servant would say, it was not my father’s work. Work or no work, I must collect my salary. Attitudinal control was of concern. The importance of civil service in Nigeria economic development in this twenty-first century was of great concern. Attitude of financial control was the ability to control the perception of an object to the general acceptability of the action taken to enhance financial probity. Literature showed that for the government to execute its activities, the civil service was the main instrument, evolved in Nigeria from the colonial service of administration. The methodology was descriptive and chi-square. Findings showed that civil servant attitude in Nigeria had not enhanced economic development and the approach of civil servants attitude control for economic development in Nigeria was not known and called for investigation where civil servants in Nigeria struggled to change their attitude for the better. In conclusion, the struggle was of an attitude of I do not care which had been detrimental to the economic development of Nigeria and adopting moral and political attitudes signified the approaches of civil servants to their job and the attitude of civil servants as a relationship goal for economic development could not be over emphasized. Recommendation included that civil servant attitude in Nigeria should be properly researched and investigated. The approach of civil servants attitude control for economic development should always be pronounced in the system.

Keywords: Civil, Servants, Attitudes, Control, Economic, Development




Deposit Money Banks Stability and Economic Growth in Nigeria


*Prof. Raphael Adeghe; & **Okologume, Henry Chukwudi

*Department of Banking and Finance, Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi College of Business and Management Studies, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State of Nigeria. **Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria.



This study aimed at examining the effect of deposit money bank stability on economic growth in Nigeria which covered the period of 32 years spanning from 1990 to 2021. Data for the study was sourced from both the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the World Bank data base, 2021. The study adopted the Autoregressive distributed lag model which was used to determine both the short and long run dynamics of the variables of interest. The statistical package that was used to run the regression is Econometric Views version 9. Prior to running the main regression, the study reported that, having controlled for interest rate, bank capital adequacy, bank liquidity, private sector credits and financial access exerted positive high statistical significant effects on economic growth of Nigeria both on the short and long run. By implication, the study recommended that the more capitally adequate, and liquid the banking industry becomes, the more stable the banking industry provided that, the industry is sensitive to market risk, has low non-performing loans and that its interest rate is moderate. Similarly, the more credit facilities are extended to the private sector and the more the numbers of SME accounts opened, the more stable the banking industry. Hence, the study concluded that, generally, banks stability are major drivers of economic growth in Nigeria.  As such, bank regulatory authorities must ensure that, all banks in Nigeria adhere to its bank capital adequacy ratio since it is highly instrumental to economic growth of Nigeria over time.

Keywords: Bank stability, bank capital adequacy, bank liquidity, bank private sector credits, financial access, economic growth.




Validation of Fred Fiedler (1967)’S Least Prefer Co-Worker (LPC) for the Measurement of Leadership Effectiveness in Nigerian Organizations


Lawrence L. Orkuugh (Ph.D)

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



The research focused on the validation and test of reliability of Fred Fiedler         (1967)’s Least Prefer Co-Worker (LPC) for the measurement of leadership effectiveness in organizations. A purposeful technique was employed for the classification of experts in Psychology and traditional organization leaders to rate all the items contained in the instrument under validation and reliability test respectively in this study. The results revealed that all the items on the instrument were considered suitable by use of means and standard deviations. Also the results of the Kuder and Richardson alpha test for test re-test coefficient of the instrument under reliability test was compared with the original version, that is Fred Fiedler (1967)’s Least Prefer Co-Worker (LPG)’s Kuder and Richardson alpha— 0.79; Author’s alpha 0.78. Therefore, it was considered reliable instrument for our use in Nigerian organizations. We recommend this our validated version of the instrument for wide use in Nigerian organizational training and development, and also be focus on how leaders can help organizations reach their purposes. There should also be a funding of further scholarship research in the area of the construction of research tests, validating and testing for reliability of instruments by the research and development agencies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Leadership, Organizations, Validation, Reliability, Instrument, Effectiveness.




Distribution function and Performance of Food and Beverages Companies in Lagos State Nigeria


*Babatola, Felix. A.; **Ogunjemilua, Emmanuel. M.; & ***Adeola Aroyewun

*Department of Business Administration, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State. **Department of Entrepreneurship, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State. ***College of Business, Department of Management Information System, Bowie State University.



The study examines distribution function and performance of food and beverages companies in Lagos State Nigeria. The population for this study comprises all quoted food and beverage companies that have their plant in Lagos State Nigeria as of 2020, the number of the companies are ten (10) (NSE, 2020). Random sampling techniques were used to select ten (10) of the companies as the study sample. Primary data was sourced through a structured questionnaire while secondary data was extracted from the companies’ Annual Report, descriptive (such as mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, etc), and inferential statistical (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Correlation Coefficient and Regression Analysis) tools were adopted for data presentation. Findings from the study revealed Regression Analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between Outsourcing of Distribution Function and Cost of Distribution in the Food and Beverages Companies at p<0.05. Further, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.152 and coefficient of Multiple Determination (R2) of 0.023, Results of Regression Analysis shows that With F-value of 185.323 and P-value of 0.000, it is observed that there is a significant relationship between Outsourcing of Distribution Function and Profitability/performance in the Food and Beverages Companies at p<0.05. In conclusion, this study shows that outsourcing of distribution function has a significant impact on the performance of food and beverages companies in Lagos State Nigeria. The study recommended that Food and Beverages companies should embark more on outsourcing distribution functions to attain the benefits of cost savings/restructuring which results in better customer service at profit maximization.

Keyword: Distribution Function, Performance, Quoted food and Beverage and Companies




The Impact of Organizational Culture on Accounting Information System and Firm Performance


Olayinka, Oluwatoyin Deborah; & Ayoola-Akinjobi, Olayemi O.

Department of Accounting, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State



This study examined the impact of organizational culture on accounting information system and firm performance in Nigerian deposit money banks. Primary source of data was employed as 60 copies of questionnaire were administered to employees of five deposit money banks located within Ekiti state, out of which only 48 were duly filled and returned, these were analysed using least square regression technique. The study found a positive and significant relationship between organizational culture and firm performance, the factors of involvement and consistency of organizational culture being significantly related to firm performance. Also, a positive and significant relationship was found to exist between organizational culture and accounting information system, with the factors of mission and consistency revealing a significant relationship with accounting information system; and accounting information system showed a positive and significant relationship with firm performance. It was recommended that organizations should ensure compliance to the factors of involvement and consistency of organizational culture as they lead to better performance of the organization by increasing skills training sessions to motivate employees to participate in the work, ensuring appreciation of teamwork in the process of work completion and ensuring that employees have the right to propose ideas about how to work and their rights and benefits in the company.

Keywords: Organizational culture, Accounting information system, Performance.




A Study of Structuration Theory and Critical Endeavors in Social Entrepreneurship


*Godwin Agaba Ochube; & **Umaru Usman

*Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.



This paper is a theoretical review of the Critical study of Anthony Gidden’s Structuration Theory in Social Entrepreneurship and how social entrepreneurs and the structure co-create one another. The paper also reviewed the importance of critical research in social entrepreneurship to create novel and more radical enactments. The article relied on secondary sources of data by critically juxtaposing the writings of  Pascal D. and Chris S. “Social entrepreneurship: critique and the radical enactment of the social” and Artur S, Sarah J, Jane F, and Izabella S.S titled “Are They a New Species? Exploring the Emergence of Social Entrepreneurs through Giddens’s Structuration Theory”. The article demonstrated the importance of critique as a necessary practice within the academic of social entrepreneurship. It resisted the propensity to protect a too narrow path for social entrepreneurship studies and how Structuration theory can be used to analyze empirical data and a more extensive range of literature on entrepreneurship, business, and society.

Keywords: Agent, Interventionist Critique, Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, Structuration Theory




The Mediating Effect of Customer Satisfaction on the Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Retention of Jaiz Bank Plc in the Northwest, Nigeria


Muhammad Lukman Lawal; Prof. Aliyu Mamman; & Suleiman Abubakar Sadiq (Ph.D)

Department of Business Administration, Federal, University, Dutsinma, Katsina State, Nigeria



As more conventional banks in Nigeria get license for operating non-interest windows as seen in the case of Sterling Bank PLC and Suntrust Bank Nigeria Limited, Nigerian banks operating strictly non-interest banking like Jaiz bank and Taj bank therefore have a stiffer competition to face from conventional banks in the country unlike before. A lot of studies have attempted to investigate the impact of service quality on customer retention in non-interest banking in Nigeria. However, existing studies rarely considered the possible mediating role of customer satisfaction in this nexus. Consequently, this study investigated the relationship between service quality reposed in the CARTER-servqual framework and retention of customers of Jaiz Bank Plc in northwest, Nigeria. To diverge from most of the existing Nigerian studies on the subject, this study considered the mediating role of customer satisfaction as an indirect factor in the service quality-customer retention nexus. 520 structured questionnaire was designed to elicit information on the perception of Jaiz bank’s customers about their services in northwest Nigeria. The retrieved questionnaires were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS)-Structural Equation Model (SEM), PLS-SEM. The empirical results of the study revealed that while service quality – measured by compliance, assurance, reliability, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (CARTER) – has a significant impact on retention of Jaiz bank customers in northwest Nigeria, customer satisfaction  mediated  the relationship between service quality and customer retention and had a much more significant impact. Based on its findings, the study, recommends, among other things, that management of Jaiz bank Plc extends its coverage to other parts of Nigeria while paying important attention to CARTER as a fundamental service quality framework for ensuring that they continue to retain their existing customers and attract new ones.

Keywords: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention, Non-interest banking, Northwestern Nigeria, PLS-SEM.




Fraud and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria


Patricia Onyemowo Agbo (Ph.D); Odumu Victor Ato; Vincent Seyi Adeoye; Irmiya Solomon Reuben; & Mworinah Dih

Department of Banking and Finance, University of Jos



Civil service is that institution with civil servants that ran the states with attitudes that most times were appreciable or questionable. In Nigeria, there is a common way of life where a Civil Fraud is one of the biggest causes of bank failure and distress in the Nigerian banking system. This study therefore, evaluate the effects of fraud on the performance of Bank in Nigeria. The study also find out  the common types of banks fraud that are frequently carried out in Nigeria Deposit Money Banks, the underlying causes, level of staff involvement, its effect, prevention and control and financial performance in banks. Causal research design is used in this study, Four (4) Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. banks were examined. Findings revealed that fraud has strong effects on return on equity and return on asset, It therefore recommends that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) should take appropriate actions so as to reduce the increasing fraud incidence and ensure sanity in the system.

Keywords: Fraud, Banks, Banks performance, Return on Asset, Return on Equity




Minority Question in Nigeria: Types of Minority and the Economy; Forms of Inclusion/Organising Methods


1Yongo, Veno Micloth; 1Abdullahi, Mohammed; 2Namuku, Aminu Moses,

1Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, School of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola. 2Departments of Social Development, School of Administrative and Business Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



The hue and cry of marginalization coming from all sections, sexes and other types of minority has reached the crescendo in Nigeria. It is now even more confusing in knowing who is truly a minority or the actual definition of a minority. This work therefore, examines the minority question in Nigeria, the types of minority and the economy, the form of inclusion/organizing methods, thereby clearly exposing the intricate and issues of minority question in Nigeria. The paper concludes that, it is possible to eliminating the problems of inequitable distribution of rewards and others that has been the bent of minorities in Nigeria. The paper ended with so many recommendations, one of which is for the minority groups to use their positions to bring about development in their areas.

Keywords: Minority, Types, Economy, Forms, Inclusion, Organizing, Methods, Nigeria




Finance, Investment and Growth in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects


Aisha Danjuma Muhammad1; & Richard Kyarem Ph.D2.

1Department of Business Education, Federal College of Education, Katsina.2Department of Economics and Development, Federal University, Dutsinma,Katsina



In this study, the researcher examined the challenges of economic growth the Nigerian economy is facing from poor finance and investment in the country as well as the prospects it stands to gain from an efficient and effective financing and investment in the economy. The paper specifically looks at the role of financing private investments in the Nigerian economy by financial markets and the banking sector. The paper reveals that unavailability and inaccessibility of finance for private investment in Nigeria has hampered the rate of economic growth of the nation through reduction in the number of new private ventures and as well as collapsing of the existing ones which if available will increase the nations GDP, employability status, innovation and economic growth. The paper therefore suggests that financial markets and Nigerians banks should make acquisition of finance for private investment easily affordable and accessible. Finally, the government should provide an enabling environment for private economic activities that will aid economic growth in Nigeria.

Keywords:  Finance, Investment, Growth, Challenges, Prospects.




Employee Training and Development for Organisational Performance: A Review Perspective


*Ashigar A.k Satomi; **Yakaka Baba Abba; & ***Adda Gana Bukar

*Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State. **Department of Sociology, Borno State University, Maiduguri. ***Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State.



The profitability of an organization is impacted by employee performance. To understand the significance of training and development’s impact on employee performance and evaluation is the responsibility of organizational leaders. The improvement of morale, a sense of security, employee involvement, and the general competences required to carry out a particular job are just a few of the many aims that employee training and development helps the business and its employees to achieve. Organizational leaders should also employ systematic methods for evaluating employee performance, the results of which are frequently based on factors related to the employee’s character, the organization, the environment, their motivation, their skill level, their aptitudes, or their perceptions of their roles. Employees will be able to help the business maintain its competitive position in the current global market with the right training and development opportunities and techniques to evaluating employee performance.

Keywords: Employee Training, Employee performance, Performance appraisal.




A Review of the Performance of Nigerian Manufacturing Sub-Sector  


Umar Tabari Yero (Ph.D); & Mahmud Muhammad Hamisu 

Department Of General Studies, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria



This paper attempts to examine the performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sub-sector with the view to finding the problems responsible for the poor performance of the sub sector. The problems that impede the growth of sub sector are analysed. From the 80s to date, many problems were found to be responsible for the low performance of the manufacturing sub sector. Some of these problems are over dependence on oil for foreign exchange earnings, poor state of power supply, poor state infrastructure, shortage of skilled labour, lack of adequate financial resources and high interest rate, and so on. The paper concludes that for Nigeria to transform the sub sector to desired level for economic development, the policy makers must work towards resolving all the problems.

Keywords: Manufacturing sub sector; Nigeria; Economic development.




The Effect of Managerial Skills on the Growth of Small Businesses in Kaura Namoda Metropolis


1Hassan Abdulsabur; 2Adedokun Akeem, A.; 1Surajo, Shehu; 2Mohammed Aliyu, Tsafe & 2Phelomena Ibukun

1Department of Business Administration, The Federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda. 2Department of Marketing, The Federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda



The research work title determinant of small business growth in kaura namoda, zamfara state was carried out to determine the factors involved in influencing business growth. The study focuses on determining the effect of family burden on the small business growth in Kaura Namoda. , and to measure the effect of managerial skills on the small business growth in Kaura Namoda the population under study is 74 registered small businesses for MSBE support grand in Kaura Namoda local government. The survey research adopted closed ended questionnaires, data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and hypothesis were analyzed using correlation coefficient to test the hypothesis. The research found that family burden has significant effect on growth of small businesses in Kaura Namoda of Zamfara state and that managerial skills has significant effect on growth of small businesses in Kaura Namoda of Zamfara state. the study recommends that owners of small businesses should define their businesses and avoid using businesses finances for family expenses except where extremely necessary. In addition, the owners should develop the competence in all areas so as to be up-to-date with realities in the environment.

Keyword: Family Burden, Managerial Skills, Business Growth And Small Business




Impact of Accounting Education Curriculum on Skills Acquisition for Entrepreneural Development of Micro, Small and Medium Scale Entreprises (MSMES): A Study of Selected Schools in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State


*Risikat Folashade Salau; **Dr. Rashidat Salau AbdulRasheed; & *Dr. Ibrahim Aliyu

*Federal College of Education, Zaria, Economics Department. **Federal College of Education, Zaria, General Studies in Education Department



The success of small and medium scale enterprises may not entirely lie in the knowledge and practice of accounting, but accounting plays a key role. As the popular saying goes- Accounting is the language of business. Business activities and transactions need to be given an accounting slant as all businesses deal with money, either cash or credit and the only way to understand and give useful information about the cash flows in the business is through the body of accounting as it is knowledge in practice. It is commonly known that most businesses that were operated by owners and workers without basic knowledge of accounting sometimes fail as the owners or workers were unable to keep detailed records compared to those that had little or complete financial records. The research work was carried out in five areas. The first aspect involved introduction of the study, the second aspect was on empirical works relating to the review of accounting curriculum. The third aspect covers the methodology used. The methodology is a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative approaches and survey research method was used. Both structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to gather primary data and the curriculum of the subject, Accounting by the ministry of education was reviewed to gather the secondary data. Data gathered was subjected to various statistical instruments which were both descriptive and inferential. The fourth area of the research concentrated on the discussion of the findings of results generated. Finally the fifth aspect focused on conclusions as well as recommendations on findings gotten from the research work. A major recommendation of the study is the review of the accounting curriculum through the prescription of the use of a Simulation Business Model Approach in teaching accounting. Neural Network Analysis is used to support this as it entails breaking a complex topic or issue into simpler parts to ensure better comprehension. This study therefore defines a business model as a theme composed of elements and activities designed as organizational structures geared towards identifying, analyzing and utilizing a commercial opportunity for future gains.

Keywords: Accounting curriculum, Business model, Simulation, Business success, Network analysis.




An Analysis of Waste to Wealth Management in Some North-Eastern States of Nigeria: A Pilot Study


*Dr. Danjuma Maijama’a; & **Samaila Adamu

*Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, General Studies- Economics Unit **Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University of Kashere, P.M.B. 0182, Gombe State, Nigeria.



The socio-economic value chain of the waste-to-wealth activities in the North-Eastern region and its derivable benefits towards addressing the effects of global climate change phenomenon in the city cannot be over-emphasized. Waste is inevitable so long as humans are to use resources; generation of by-products in the form of waste is imminent by all countries. This study assessed waste to wealth management in North-Eastern part of Nigeria by employing survey research methodology using mainly interview as a means of data collection on the selected pilot states for the study. The primary data were collected from the participants (waste dealers) directly. Qualitative survey research design (using interview) was applied together with purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. The collected data were analyze using E-Views econometric software and Microsoft Excel in the assessment of quantity of waste generated and the profitability of waste management by the activities of waste dealers in the study areas of the region. The study also explores challenges in waste management and proffer appropriate strategy for handling the waste. The outcome unveils huge amount of wealth from trading various recyclable waste material with the lowest per month gain of at least N399,900 Naira from plastic waste or rubber. The findings are of help in enticing will be participant in waste to wealth value chain or business in North-Eastern Nigeria thereby creating job opportunity and reducing cost of waste evacuation on the site of government. Outcome of the study is expected to be a guide for informed policy on environmental waste management capable ensuring environmental safety and wealth creation.

Keywords: Analysis, Waste, Wealth Management, North-Eastern States, Nigeria




Relationships among Leadership Styles, Conditions of Service, Human Capital Development and Job Performance in University Libraries in North-Central, Nigeria-Hypothetical Approach


*Mr. Rilwan Olajide Bakai; & & **Dr. Katamba Abubakar Saka

*Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria. **Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



The study investigated the relationship among leadership styles, conditions of service, human capital development and job performance among personnel in ICT units of 13 public universities in North-Central Nigeria. The study was guided by three null hypotheses respectively. Descriptive survey design was used and the target population consisted of 85 personnel working in ICT units of the 13 public universities in North-Central Nigeria. Complete enumeration of 85 personnel was carried out. Structured questionnaire was used in data collection while inferential statistical tool (Pearson Product Moment Correlation) was used to test three null hypotheses respectively. Instruments were validated and pilot-tested using 10 and 20 copies of checklist and modified version of questionnaire through test-retest method and reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. However, 13 copies of checklist and 85 questionnaire were administered on heads of ICT units and personnel in ICT units respectively. Out of 85 copies of questionnaire administered 65 were completed and returned in usable form for the analysis. Results showed significant relationships among leadership styles (r=0.13, P<0.05), human capital development (r=0.08, P<0.05) were rejected and conditions of service (r= -024, P>0.05) was retained. The study concluded that job performance can only be possible quality personnel management, and effective conditions of service and robust training and development programmes. The study recommended among others that the management of public universities in North-Central Nigeria should adopt styles of leadership that are democratic, transformational and transactional that will enable personnel to perform their assigned duties to expectation without reservations.

Keywords: ICT, Job performance, Libraries, Nigeria, Universities.




The Conceptual Framework of Macro Market Environment: The Small Scale Business Success Perspective in Taraba State Nigeria


Bagudu, Ahmad Ibrahim; & Marliya Abdulhamid

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, P.M.B 05 Bali, Taraba State



The main focus of this paper is on the Conceptual Framework of Macro Market Environment: The Small Scale Business Success Perspective in Taraba State Nigeria. The paper described the popularity of the framework as it gained wider coverage in some literatures as the predominant theory of how a Small Scale Business competed in the marketplace which aligned to macro market environment such as Democratic, Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental, Legal and Customer (DPESTELC). It also discussed how the framework of business environment brought about high levels of change within two sets of constraints which are either external or internal, which resulted in increased uncertainty and unpredictability as either negative or positive influence on small scale business success and looked into the essential ingredients that brings about success operation of business enterprises in Taraba State, Nigeria. Finally, the paper draws conclusion and recommendations on the conceptual framework of macro market environment: the small scale business success perspective in Taraba state Nigeria.

Keywords: Conceptual Framework, Macro Market, Environment, Small Scale Business and Success




Logistics Management and Seasonal Price Variation of Fresh Tomato in Nigeria Market


*Ogah, Arome Victor (Ph.D); **Iyaji Eleojo Inekwe; & ***Olorunmaiye, Olatunbosun

*Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. **Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State. ***Department of Procurement and Supply Chain, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.



The study focused on logistics management and seasonal price variation of fresh tomato in Nigeria market. The specific objectives of the study were to examined the effect of processing technology, modern storage system and standard transporting system on seasonal price variation of fresh tomatoes in Nigeria market. The study adopted survey research design. Data were collected through primary source. The population of the study consist of Educated wholesaler and retailers of fresh tomato dealers across two geographical zones: Lokoja metropolis in  Kogi state and Ado–Ekiti metropolis in  Ekiti State in Nigeria. These respondents were used due to their background knowledge in tomato business. The study utilized convenience sampling technique to select sample of 225 respondents for the study. 5-point Likert scale options of structured questionnaire were used in the study to obtain respondents response. Simple linear Regression analyses was used to test the hypotheses through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. From the findings it was revealed that processing technology, modern storage system and standard transporting system have significant effect on seasonal price variation of fresh tomato in Nigeria market. The study attracts the following recommendations: Farmer and tomato dealers should be involve in standard methods of processing technology in order to curb seasonal price variation of fresh tomatoes in Nigeria market.; Both farmer and tomato dealers should engage in modern storage system to keep the tomato fresh in all seasons to avoid price variation. Accurate and standard transporting system should be put in place to create access for availability of fresh tomato in all season in order to solve the problem of price variation in Nigeria market.

Keywords: Logistics, Management, Price, seasonal variation, Tomato, Market




Impact of Board Size and Independence on Financial Performance of Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria


Ali, Mathew Bello & Monica Shadrach

Bursary Department, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi & Accountancy Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi. Adamawa State – Nigeria, P.M.B., 35



This study assessed the impact of board size and independence on financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria for the period of Twelve (12) years from 2010 to 2021. Eight (8) out of fourteen (14) listed deposit money banks formed the sample. The sample was drawn using convenient sampling. The data for the study were collected from annual reports and accounts of the sampled companies and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions using STATA software version 13.00. The study found board size to have a negative and statistically significant impact while board independence has positive and significant impact on the financial performance (ROE) of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. Thus, the study recommends that the board should be small enough to conduct high-quality, active debates, but large enough to give the skills and practice required for the board to function well, it should not be too high as it negatively affect financial performance. The Study also recommends that there is need for increase in the independent non-executive directors on the board as it promotes better performance of the banks.

Keywords: Financial performance, Return on equity, Board size, Board independence.




Assessing Gender Influence on Growth Potentials of Social Entrepreneurship in North-Eastern States of Nigeria


Hashim Sabo Bello, Ph.D

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Management Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



The research examines the gender difference involving both the male and female entrepreneurs and how those differences can be used towards the future development of social entrepreneurship in the North-eastern states of Nigeria. The study employed an in-depth review of literature on gender persuade and social entrepreneurship and a synthesis of the various factors affecting gender influence on growth potentials of social entrepreneurship at the centre stage of the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study the North-eastern states of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe in Nigeria. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentage, and the hypotheses were tested. The finding of this study shows there is sufficient evidence to indicate that there is relationship between gender differences and the growth potentials of social entrepreneurship. This research therefore opined that both men and women can be active entrepreneurs as they share many common characteristics as well as some differences. The study strongly recommended for the support of government and society to the social entrepreneurs will help increase success to business venture and reciprocal gesture. Laws should be made by government for social business enterprises to insure their business with insurance companies as a means of transferring their business risks to their insurer in case of any loss; by so doing the venturing spirit of the people will be increased.

Keywords: Entrepreneur, Gender difference, Growth potential, North-eastern states, Social entrepreneurship.




An Evaluation of Training Method’s Effectiveness on Employee Performance in Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi


Sai’du Ali

Department of Public Administration, School of Management Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi.



This study evaluated the impact of training methods on employee performance in The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Off-the-job training and on-the-job training were used as aspects of training method in the operationalization of the study. The human capital idea served as the study’s theory. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to make deductions and inferences. Descriptive statistics, namely frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency especially the mean, standard error and coefficient of variations was used to describe the characteristics of the collected data on key variables of the study. Data collected was analysed using SPSS 23.0. To examine the effectiveness of the independent variable on the dependent variable, inferential statistical analysis was employed using linear regression. According to the study, training methods significantly impacted employee performance. In particular, the study discovered that employee performance at the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi in Nigeria was significantly impacted by both on-the-job training and off-the-job training. The study suggests that the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi should keep up its academic staff training in order to get the best output out of workers and make it possible for the Polytechnic to meet its overall goals. Policy should require senior personnel to mentor junior staff members through knowledge transfer initiatives. Senior staff should be mandated by way of policy to mentor the younger ones through knowledge transfer programs. The current practice of paying trainees in installments or annually following submission of a progress report to the institution should be maintained in order to improve off-the-job training. This will significantly reduce the inherent abuses that are common in staff development and training in the study region and, to a greater extent, the Nigerian polytechnic system.

Keywords: Employee Performance, Off-The-Job Training, On-The-Job Training and Training Methods



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