Journal of Management Science and Entrepreneurship (JMSE) Vol. 14 No. 5

African Scholar Journal of Management Science and Entrepreneurship (JMSE-5)

VOL. 14 NO. 5 ISSN: 2276-0732 MARCH 2019



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Financial Development and Economic Development in Nigeria (1981-2016)


*Ifeanyi Madumere Ph.D. And **Friday E. Akpan Ph.D.

*Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Federal University Otuoke, Yenagoa Bayelsa State, Nigeria. **Centre for Financial and Accounting Research (CEFAR), Nigerian College of Accountancy, Kwall, Jos, Nigeria.



This research examined the nexus between financial policy and economic growth in Nigeria. The study employed credit to private sector, lending rate, market capitalization and money supply as proxy to measure financial policy, while GDP was used to capture economic growth, using annual data from 1981 to 2016. All the variables were stationary at first difference using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillip Perron (PP) tests. The Johansen Cointegration test result showed that a long-run relationship between financial policy and economic growth existed. The research shows that out of the four proxies for financial policy, three exhibited significant relationship with economic growth. These findings therefore imply that a relationship exists between financial policy and economic growth, indicating that a growth in the financial sector will cause same in the economy. Finally, the study recommends that the government formulate policies that will enhance credit to the private sector, such as not operating the Treasury Single Account (TSA) Policy in a holistic manner, so that banks will have fund to propel their credit delivery function effectively; considering the fact that the public sector drives the Nigerian economy as it stands now. However for capital market development, investors’ protection policies should be enhanced in order to strengthen and improve public confidence in the capital market, such as reducing charges for the purchase and sale of securities and reduction of listing requirements for new companies on the exchange.

Keywords: Economic growth, Financial policy, Financial sector development, Capital market. JEL Classification: G32, O23




Impact of Strategic Management on Organizational Growth and Developmment (A Study of 7up Botling, Aba, Abia State.


Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo ( Ph.D)

Department of Business Administration, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria



This study examined the impact of strategic management on organizational growth and development of  7up Bottling Company, Aba, Abia State. Descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies was adopted in analyzing the data and hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS).One hundred and twenty six (126) questionnaires were issued out by the researcher to the staff of three companies selected. It was observed that 14 respondents representing 12.3% strongly agreed that the managers of the company upholds strategic principles as a tool for organizational effectiveness 58 respondents representing 50.9% agreed the same, 13 respondents were undecided, 20 respondents disagreed, while 9 respondents strongly disagreed that the managers of the company upholds quality management as a tool for organizational performance. The result revealed that strategic management affects organizational effectiveness positively. The coefficient of the correlation is 0.744, with a sig. value of 0.011. The effect was significant since the significant value of 0.011 was lower that the acceptable 0.05 significance level. Equally it was revealed that Strategic planning relates positively organizational survival.   The coefficient of the correlation was 0.633, with a significant. value of 0.004. The effect was significant since the significant value of 0.004 was lower than the acceptable 0.05 significance level. Therefore, the findings indicated that there was positive correlation between Strategic management and organizational effectiveness. This was evidenced by Pearson correlation value of 0.744. Statistically,the Significant. (value) of the correlation .011 is lower than the acceptable significance value of 0.05. This implied that the efforts placed by management through planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling the overall activity of the organization is a tool for improved value creation and better performance. Finally, there was also a positive correlation between strategic planning and organizational survival. This was evidenced by Pearson correlation value of .633. Statistically, the Significant (value) of the correlation .004 was lower than the acceptable significance value of 0.05. This also implied that when the workforce of an organization is well integrated in the decision making and work process, the performance of such organization increases significantly, thereby leading to the higher corporate productivity.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Growth, Organizational Growth, Organizational Development.




Effect of Tetfund Intervention on the Performance of Academic Staff of Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri


*Professor Ayuba A. Aminu **Khadijah Eyitayo Aminu ***Abdulhakeem Olalekan

*Department of Business Administration, University of Maiduguri **Department of Remedial Art, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri ***First Bank Nigeria plc



This study was set to assess the effect of TETFUND intervention on the performance of Academic Staff of Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State. The study used descriptive and inferential statistical tool for data analysis. The data collected were analysed using regression analysis with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that there is a positive significant effect of TETFUND intervention on the performance of academic staff in terms of research output as a result of research grant received, is a positive significant effect between TETFUND intervention on the performance of academic staff in terms of on volume of publications as a result of publication grant and an improve human quality as a result of study fellowship by TETFUND. The study concluded that, result support the literature in terms of relationships between independent and dependent variable. Therefore, the study recommended that TETFUND should provide more research grants for academic staff on regular basis and that publication grants should be available to staff who develop manuscripts as at when due. This should include sponsorship in conferences, workshops and seminars both local and international, similarly, Ramat Polytechnic.

Keywords: TETFUND Intervention, Performance, Publication, Sponsorship.




Corporate Social Responsibility and the Enhancement of Organizational Image in Bauchi Metropolis. (A Case of: Polytechnic Consultancy Services Ltd, Fptb.)


Sarki Zakari Shehu, Hussaini Yaro Ali,

Dept. of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



This research is an attempt at analyzing the extent to which corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be used as a tool to enhance an organizational image, and by implication, its profits using Polyconsult as a case study. The study adopted the survey type, as questionnaire were developed to elicit responses from staff of polyconsult and the community (stakeholder) to get the primary data for the study, while textbooks, internet and journals were used as secondary data. SPSS Version 20.0 was used for Data analysis. It was revealed that corporate social responsibility plays a significant role in the survival and growth of a firm. It was also found that the CSR activities impact positively on the image of the organization. It was recommended among others that the organization should carry out periodical review of its’ CSR functions for it to be abreast of competition.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Image, Strategy, Customer.




Employee Voice and Corporate Survival in Selected Oil and Gas Firms in Port Harcourt Rivers State


Enyindah, Charles Wele (Ph.D) and Ledee, Friday

Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Management Sciences, Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers State.



This paper x-rayed the congruency between employee voice and corporate survival oil/gas firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.  A cross sectional research design was utilized in this study. A tripartite research questions and a concomitant trio hypotheses were developed in the study. The reliability of the variables was determined using the Cronbach Alpha coefficient in which all the variables for the study exceeded 0.7.Research questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The validity of instrument was determined by experts in the field of study. The study employed SPSS version 20 in the analysis of collated data. The result of the investigation indicated that employee voice correlates with service quality improvement, organizational adaptability and cost saving in the selected oil/gas organizations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The policy thrust of this paper is that the voice of employees in decision making in their organizations will galvanize corporate survival. It is expedient therefore that managers to co-opt employees in decision making in order to enhance corporate survival in selected oil/gas firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

Keywords: Employee voice, organizational survival, service quality improvement, organizational Adaptability, cost saving.




A Review on Strategic Planning as Tool for Effective Management of Educational Institutions


*Ibrahim Abubakar Mikugi *Mohammed Bagudu Waziri **Mohammed Abdullahi

*Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria **Department Of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria



We are in highly competitive environment, organisations must engage in strategic planning and management that clearly defines objectives and assesses both the internal and external situation to formulate strategy, implement the strategy, evaluate the progress, and make adjustments as necessary to stay on track towards the realization of general and specific objectives. Sustaining, improving performance and challenges in the technological institutions will depend crucially on the ability to attract, re- train and support staff and students of good character and behavior who are committed to norms, values and guiding principles. This can be achieved through recruitment and admission in a conducive environment. Strategic planning has become critical for the overall survival of every organization. Globalization has brought about not only local competition but international competition in the face of which every organization must strategically plan in other to survive. Tertiary institutions in Nigeria must continuously review their strategic plans in other to meet up with global standards of education. The emergence of powerful educational hubs such as Malaysia and Singapore has constituted a major challenge to tertiary institutions around the globe. These countries with a large revenue generation from educational tourists flooding the countries from around the world have set standard for others to follow. To this end, tertiary institutions in Nigeria must plan strategically to compete with these emerging powers. In the light of the findings of this study, we recommend that; tertiary institutions in Nigeria develop realizable strategic plans, benchmark using top ranking tertiary institutions across the globe, continuously review their strategic plans to ensure they are always on the path of success, provide enabling environment for the realization of the plans as well as monitor and evaluate the strategic plans with a view of improving on them where necessary.

Keywords:  Review, Strategic, Planning, Effective, Management.




Youth Motivation and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria


1Chukwuezi Franklin Nzubechukwu, 2Ani Anthony Ejike, 3Osuagwu Cajetan Ikenna, 3Agunenye Joy,I

1Department of Business Administration and Management, Imo state Polytechnic Umuagwo. 2Entrepreneurship Development Unit, Tansian University, Umunya. 3Department of Public Administration, Imo state Polytechnic, Umuagwo.



This research is done to establish the relationship that exists between youth motivation and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. The problem of this study stems from the high unemployment rate caused by the crazy desires of youths for white collar jobs rather than embrace entrepreneurship. The researchers reviewed literatures conceptually, theoretically and empirically and it led to the conclusion that entrepreneurship is a feasible path to economic recovery. However our youths are not motivated to embrace entrepreneurship. The researchers recommended that practical entrepreneurship be made mandatory in our schools and encouraged government to create the enabling environment for businesses to thrive.

Keywords: Motivation, Entrepreneurship Development, Unemployment, GDP, Economic Development.




A Longitudinal View of the Professional Secretary in the Administrative Assistant Job Family


Abraham-Ibe, Ifeoma Georgina

Department of Office Technology and Management, School of Management and Business Studies, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos



The paper examined the peculiarity and distinctiveness of the position of the secretary in the administrative assistant job family.  The paper identified who actually should be addressed as “secretary” in the administration assistant job bracket.  Organization Administrative assistants were sampled for the study.  Questionnaire was the instrument used in this survey exercise.  The Likert rating method was employed for the data analysis.  Findings revealed that any organization employee who is not skilled secretarially, or cannot perform basic secretary function is neither a “secretary” nor describable as ‘secretary’, an administrative assistant whose primary functions encompass those of others in the administrative assistant job family, an office worker those duties and responsibilities conform to the basic functions of the secretary position and an administrative assistant formally groomed, skilled and competent in secretarial duties and so assigned such duty.  The paper offered suggestions, based on the findings, and calls the attention of organizations to the proper and appropriate categorization of administrative assistant designations, for the objective conceptualization of who a secretary is.

Keywords: Administrative assistant job family, support staff, secretary, front desk employee.




Adoption of Treasury Single Account (TSA) by Kaduna State Government Nigeria: Benefits, Challenges and Prospects


Farayola, Ayo Ade, Alhaji Kawugana & Faruna Simon Faruna

Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 0231 Bauchi, Bauchi



Nigeria’s Public Funds at all levels have been wrongly accounted-for by previous administrations. But to avert this threat coupled with the present country’s dwindling economy, Federal government of Nigeria has implemented Treasury Single Account (TSA) to properly manage the scarce financial resources but State Governments of Nigeria have been left-out only few adopt it. Treasury Single Account is primarily to ensure accountability of government revenue, enhance transparency and avoid misappropriation of public funds. Treasury Single Account helps to ensure proper cash management by eliminating idle funds usually left with different deposit money banks and in a way enhance reconciliation of revenue collection and payment.  TSA is an essential tool for consolidating and managing governments’ cash resources, thus minimizing and misappropriation of funds among others. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits, challenges and prospects of adoption of Treasury Single Account (TSA) by Kaduna State Governments of Nigeria. Descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of 200 staff of ministry of finance Kaduna State. Taro Yamane’s statistical formula was used to select sample size of 133. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the 133 respondents/samples. The data obtained from questionnaire administration were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test statistics. The finding reveals that, TSA adoption and full implementation by the state governments will be of greatest benefit as showed in the weighted means scores of 4.20 and tcalof 24.87; there will be challenges in a short-run but the benefits at a long-run will definitely out-weight the challenges. It is the conclusion in this study that, State Governments of Nigeria should adopt and fully implement TSA for successful control and accountability of public funds so as to avoid bailout funds always from any source. State governments should enlighten all stakeholders on the benefits of TSA adoption as well as professional and regulatory bodies (ICAN, CBN, IMF, etc.) should help in designing, conceptualizing and road-mapping of TSA for the states.

Keywords: Treasury Single Account (TSA), State Governments of Nigeria, Adoption, Benefits, Challenges, Prospects, Public Funds, MDAs




The Public Service Demeanor in Nigeria


Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim, Sulaiman Shehu, Wakili Joel Binam (Mrs) & Nasiru Salisu

Public Administration Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



The concept of ethics is now gaining grounds in public administration. Ethics are values and set of laws that are meant as guiding principles for institutions in public and private life (organizations). The research assesses the ethical happenings in the public sector of our country, Nigeria. This work is a conceptual one trying to find answers to unethical attitude in public service amongst the public officials in Nigeria. Utilizing the literature review methods (qualitative approach), the paper examined through secondary sources of data the historical experiences of the Civil Service of Nigeria; showcasing specific unethical actions within the Civil Service as a system, including gratification for service provided, calculated deception, compromise of Information and or espionage, and unlawful behavior. All these appear under the banner of corruption and even indiscipline. The research recommended possible solutions to improve ethical standards in the service such as reward for exceptional conduct and appropriate punishment for unethical conduct among others. 

Keywords—Ethics, Nigeria, Public Administration, Public sector, Rules. 




The Relevance of Finance in Business (A Review Approach)


*Nashe Ridley Teneke & **Usoko Samuel

*Department of Business Administration and Management, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola **Department of Public Administration, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola



All facets of global economy depend upon an orderly process of finance. Financial markets provide the money to support businesses, and businesses provide money to support individuals and institutions who in turn invest the excess into the businesses. This review approach really looks at finance in terms of its types, functions, and roles it plays in the life of individuals and institutions alike and the associated financing decisions. Attempts have been made to bring the activities of the various divisions of the financial markets to fore. Activities of the capital markets as the provider of the long term funds, and that of the money market as the provider of the medium and short term funds was reviewed so as to make it easier for potential investor to know and take advantage of which market to source the needed funds/money for business. Some elements of finance processes which as a result of their breakdown, cause companies go out of business and subsequently the economy goes into recession have been reviewed. Finance is one of the functions of business activities that guarantee its sustainability alongside other functions. The question is at what point is finance relevant to the business, since it cannot wholly be relevant in the business processes in the face of other functions? Other business functions have also been reviewed to determine the extent of their effect on businesses. In the light of these business functions, is finance really relevant? Whatever impact other functions have on businesses, all investments aim at returns.

Keywords: Types of finance, Finance function, Role of finance, Investment Decision, Working Capital, Financial Markets




Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting and Financial Performance of Listed Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria


Yusuf Nuhu and Muhibbat Abdullahi

Department of Accounting and Finance, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi



This study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the financial performance of listed oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The study examines the influence of three CSR dimensions (environment, social and economic) on the Financial Performance (FP) of the sampled firms. The study utilized documentary data collected from annual reports and accounts of the sampled companies for the periods 2007 to 2016. Data was first analyzed by means of descriptive statistics to provide summary statistics for the variables and subsequently, correlation analysis was carried out using Pearson correlation technique for the correlation between the dependent and independent variables. A panel data regression technique was employed for the analysis. The study reveals that two of the three CSR dimensions (environment and economic) have significant positive effect on the Financial Performance while one dimension has a positive but insignificant effect on FP. Furthermore, the study finds an overall significant positive association between CSR and FP. This means that the higher the level of CSR, the higher the FP. Management of listed oil and gas companies in Nigeria should increasingly approach CSR and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD) issues with positive mind set thereby recognizing it as investment rather than liability. Finally, Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN) should come up with reporting standard on CSRD since CSR is beneficial to the government, the listed oil and gas companies and their stakeholders.

Keywords: Economic growth, Financial policy, Financial sector development, Capital market. JEL Classification: G32, O23




An Assessment of the Impact of Non-Oil Import (NOI) on Nigerian Economy


1Salisu Umar 2Habu Shehu 3Lawali Bello Zoramawa 4Garba Ibrahim Tanko, Ph.D

1&2Department of Economics Aminu Saleh, College of Education, Azare, Bauchi  State 3Department of Curriculum Studies Sokoto State University. Sokoto 4Department of Public Administration Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto



The study examines the effect non-oil import on economic growth in Nigeria over a period of thirty six years (1980-2016). The Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillip Perron tests were applied to ascertain the stationarity of the variables. The study employed Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model as the method of data analysis. The result revealed that non oil import had a negative but not significant relationship with economic growth.. The Granger causality test revealed that non oil import cause economic growth.  The study therefore recommends that: Government should abandon policies promoting non oil imports and urgently execute various trade policies aimed at putting a ceiling on non oil imports. Thus, only the importation of capital goods that are necessary should be encouraged, since not all importations are essential for economic growth.

Keywords: Economic Growth. Non-oil import, trade, Causality test ,Auto- regressive




Information Technology and Office Management: Prospects and Challenges for Students in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria.


*Nuradeen Yakubu Mohammed **Yahaya Shehu Mohammed **Muhammad Sani Musa

*Registry Department Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Business Administration and Management Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The current trend in Office Management has made Information technology indispensable in this modern age. Though, new innovations and technologies are being introduced on daily basis, there are still certain challenges that are being faced in Nigeria and generally, the developing countries, in the course of coping with the global demand. Also, considering the expectations required of students studying Office Technology Management in tertiary institutions by the larger society. There is the need for a review paper that will bring to fore the various prospects of IT and challenges in Office management.

Key Words: Challenges, Information,, Management, Prospects, Technology




Political Marketing Ideology and Nigerian Democratic System


1Ogah, Arome Victor, 2Akinkuotu, Felix, 3Ajayi David Oluropo

1&2Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State 3Department of Purchasing and supply, Federal, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State




The study examined the effect of political marketing ideology on Nigeria democratic system. The specific objectives of the study are: to ascertain the effect of good governance on Nigerian democratic system, to examine the effect of transparency on Nigerian democratic system. The study adopted survey research design. The study utilized primary source of data to acquire reliable data. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample of 300 respondents for the study but 280 respondents were used due to the number of questionnaire returned. 4-point likert scale option of structured questionnaire was used. Content validity was used to determine the validity of the instrument and test-retest reliability method was utilized to measure the consistency of the instrument.  Simple linear Regression Analyses was used to test the hypotheses.. Two hypotheses were tested and it revealed that both good governance and transparency as proxy of political marketing has significant effect on Nigerian democratic system. Due to the findings from this study, recommendations were giving, among are: Political marketing  should be enforce to create utility by identifying the needs and want of electorate to enhance their standard of living and also political marketing must be adhere to, in order to promote good governance in Nigeria. Good governance boosts reputation of the parties and its stakeholders.

Key words:  political marketing, ideology, democracy, system, politics.




 Practical Evaluation of the Economic Impacts of the Channel of Distribution on Enterprise Performance of Bread Production in Niger State


Dr. Julius Adima Osaremen

Dept. Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, PMB 55 Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.



The impacts of distribution channels on products, producers, consumers, and the society as a country can be felt and measured in satisfaction of customers on efficient and effective delivery (JIT), to the producer, it is evaluated in performance with regards to profitability, a steady increase on the profit margin. The consumption of bread has gone high than before in Niger State. However, the ineffective distribution of this consumable product (bread) has often reduced the sales volume of such product and perhaps changes the taste of consumers towards another similar product. Over time, bakeries have failed to see the importance of intermediaries as a prime factor in the supply of their product and also to effective distribution of their product as it also increases their productivity and profitability. Moreso, some part of Bida have over-time experience perpetual unavailability of bakery products as most managers are unable to notice the distribution gap wrecking their distribution strategies used against expected sales. This problem of distribution makes the product less available in some local government in the Niger state and Bida particularly. The objective focus of the study is to empirically evaluate the significant direct economic impact of the channel of distribution on enterprise performance of bread production in Niger State. The study employed primary and secondary data, hypotheses, extensive literature review, adopted questionnaire, and 103 sample size as sample size using stratified random sampling — partial Least Square SEM analytical methods to analyze the collected data. The study revealed that Process distribution method and Product distribution methods are positively related to enterprise performance and profitability, and the researcher recommends the practical adoption of process and product distribution strategies in bread product distribution in all the corresponding local governments in Niger state.

Keywords: Bread-production, Distribution-channel, Economic-impact, Enterprise performance. Practical-evaluation, Profitability,




Assessment of consumers’ preference of fish species in Maiduguri fish Markets, Borno State, Nigeria


1Mshelia, M. B., 1Muktar I. 1Ndirmbita, W. L. and 2Garba, U

1Department of Fisheries Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno state 2Federal Department of Fisheries, Lagos, Lagos state



Assessment of consumers’ preference of fish products in Maiduguri fish markets, Borno state, Nigeria was investigated with the aim of assessing consumers’ needs of fish products in Maiduguri fish Markets, Nigeria. 100 Structured questionnaires were administered to consumers in Maiduguri fish market. The 100 questionnaires were shared 33 each and administered equally in Gomburu, Baga road, and Monday fish markets. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics. The results revealed that out of the number of consumers interviewed 60% preferred tilapia fish due to its availability, lower price and sufficient protein content and most of the consumers interviewed were within the age limit between 20 to 29 years old majority of which were Kanuri by tribe. It is then concluded that tilapia fish is considered to be the consumers’ preference in Maiduguri.

Keywords: Fish, Tilapia species, Consumers’ preference, Market, Questionnaires




Marketing Functions and Entrepreneurial Roles for National Development in Niger state, Nigeria.


*Mamman, Zacchaeus Ndaba, **Ibrahim Garba Kagara and ***Audu, Alice Asabe

*Department of Business and Management Studies, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Bida Campus. **Department of Banking and Finance, Niger State Polytecnic, Zungeru Bida Campus. ***Department of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru, Bida Campus.



Marketing from the beginning entails interaction between the buyer and seller, in the process of transaction they most exchange ideas on the amount to buy and amount to sale a product that consumer have the need for while the seller is ready to transfer the tittle ownership to the agreed buyer of the commodity. While entrepreneurial venture offer an innovative products, process a service, a successful entrepreneurs have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by proper planning, to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and weakness. The researchers employed the observation method because of concomitant of everyday contact in watching, listening to the observation of marketing of Agricultural products that are consumable and easily bought by people in Bida town, the analyses or the interpretation using the path agoras theory its show that Usman Zaki market is customers preferred, because is in the centre of Bida town with 100km North and East than Etsu-Masaba, Etsu-Umaru Majigi and Gwadabe market in the environs. The paper concluded that people who sale agricultural products help many people to overcome hunger as they are able to get the things they needed from the market and it was recommended that a successful new product should breaks even, and cross into profitability during the introduction phase.

Keywords: Marketing, Market, Customers, Products, Raw material, Entrepreneurial, Development, Business, Seller and Buyer.




The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurship between External Environments of Public Tertiary Institutions and Organizational Performance


Alhaji Adamu saidu, Saidu Ali & Musa Ibrahim Abubakar

Department of Public Administration, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi State



The contribution of entrepreneurship in the increase of organizational performance was generally accepted beyond any matter of doubt; this has made scholars, corporate organizations and policy makers gives reasonable consideration in research, practice and creates an enabling environment for entrepreneurship. Initially literatures in this area focused on private driven organization. Even though extant researches gain little contribution on public sector entrepreneurship. However, to this moment there wasn’t any specific model that explained public entrepreneurship. In this study, public entrepreneurship was examined by testing developed hypotheses of an integrated model. Data was collected from 160 academic administrators of public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The findings indicate a positive significant relation between the external environment of the public tertiary institution and organizational performance in terms of effectiveness and alignment through the mediation process of entrepreneurship. In conclusion, discussion, implication and recommendation were made.

Keywords: external environment, entrepreneurship, organizational performance, public tertiary institution and PLS




Assessment of the Effects of Managing Workplace Conflicts and Organisational Performance


*Sani Mustapha Kura **Mohammed Alhaji Yusuf ***Kaumi Alkali Kalli

*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri **Department of Business Education, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri ***Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri



Conflict is a statement process and inevitable consequence of transactional relationship manifesting in disagreement and conflict with and between people and groups in the work situation. In an attempt to explain the nature of conflict, many scholars have postulated theories to guide in the understanding of conflict. Conflict in organisations sometimes could be counter-productive; therefore, thoughtful managers must consider how much time, effort, and money they are investing in such conflict, and whether they are dealing with it as well as they can. Before we can manage conflict, we must manage ourselves. to be able to create a dialogue aimed at resolving the conflict, we need to understand the root of the disagreement. Among the common causes of disagreement are differences over goals, interests or values. In this situation, workplace conflict is a fact of life in any organization as long as people will compete for jobs, power, recognition and safety. If not properly managed, conflict in the workplace can become a complex matter having damaging effects on the organisation’s employees’ physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing rising into unmanageable statures, thus harming the mission and goals of an organisation Therefore, organisation is not to overcome or resolve all conflicts, but to manage in order to enhance and not to undermine from organizational performance. The most vital conflicts are the ones that, when managed well, lead to positive results in teams are the ones in which people feel personally invested in their positions or are transporting something of themselves as human beings into the contact.

Keywords:  Assessment, Effects, Managing, Workplace, Conflicts.




Effect Of Parking Space On Commercial Property Rental Value In Bauchi Metropolis (A Case Of Central Market Bauchi)


Hamisu Abdulkadir Noma & Hafsat Jidere Bala

Department Of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The need for adequate parking space  in Bauchi Central Market cannot be over emphasized, because the more adequate the parking spaces are on commercial property areas the more the rental value it would command and vice verse. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of parking space on commercial rental value in Bauchi Central Market, to achieve this, the following objectives were employed: to determine the adequacy of parking space in the study area, to know the condition of parking space in the study area and to find out the impact which shortages has on parking space on commercial rental value in the study area. The methodology adopted for this research was mixed method approach where questionnaires, observation and interviews were used for data collection. The respondents for the study were randomly sampled where 230 shop owners and shoppers were sampled. The data for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics through cross tabulation with aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings show that parking problems are as a result of inadequate provision of parking facilities, indiscriminate parking by some road users and developing of illegal stalls at car park. The study recommended that all local planning authorities should specify and enforce the provision of sufficient and adequate management techniques of parking facilities in the commercial property rental value. It was also recommended that on-street parking should be restricted by using enforcement techniques such as installing no parking and no waiting signs to discourage unnecessary parking in and around Bauchi Central Market.




Apparel Quality Influence on Tertiary Institution Students’ Loyalty to Nigerian Made Apparel in Edo State, Nigeria


Abiri Ibrahim Zuberu

Department of Marketing, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo-State



This paper examined the apparel quality influence on the loyalty of students in selected tertiary institutions in Edo State students to buy made in Nigeria fashion apparel. The objectives of this study is to ascertain and determine if these qualities have positive effects on customer perception and choice to buy made in Nigeria apparel products. A research survey method (simple random sampling method) was used to select the three institutions under study from the tertiary institutions in Edo State. The data were collected from primary sources using questionnaires and secondary sources such as textbooks, journals etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 200 respondents randomly selected from each of the three institutions in Edo State under study (Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma and University of Benin) using the convenience and face-to-face methods. The data were analyzed using the simple percentage to determine the relative importance of each of the questionnaire items while the hypotheses was tested electronically using the STATA software package to determine the level of influences of colour, style, fit and price on student loyalty to made in Nigeria apparel. The results revealed that colour influence had negative impact on students’ loyalty but was considered insignificant. Style, fit and price had positive impacts and significantly influences the students’ loyalty to buy made in Nigeria apparel. The researcher concludes that apparel qualities (colour, style, fit and price) have desirable level of influences and impacts on tertiary institution students loyalty to patronage made in Nigeria apparel products. The researcher recommended that apparel makers should research into students apparel wants and desires to capture their right choice of apparel qualities and preferences. The government should create the enabling environment and financial support to local apparel manufacturers to enable them make standard and quality apparel products that can be compared to foreign made to discourage importation of apparel and conserve foreign exchange.




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