Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS) Vol. 14 No. 4

African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS-4)

VOL. 14 NO. 4 ISSN: 2110-2086 MARCH 2019



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Challenges and Solutions to Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Case Study of Boko Haram, Fulani and Farmers Crises


*Sajo, Abdullahi Muhammad **Sajo, Abdullahi Muhammad

*Faculty of Arts Department Religion and Philosophy University of Jos **Department of Religions and Philosophy, University of Jos



This paper set out to assess the challenges of Ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria, A detail investigation of the subject matter revealed that Boko Haram is a so-called Sunni Jihadist Organization based in the North East of Nigeria that has carried out violent attacks against the Nigerian public, taken hostage foreign workers, destroyed strategic installations and perpetrate other acts of terrorism.  The paper also revealed the root cause of Fulani Herdsmen conflict that they were denied their grazing land “Burtali and Mashekari: Lakes and rivers because of Dry season farming. The study’s findings include the conflicts are serious thereat to economic security in Nigeria, and the states affected have confronted with declining economic activities, industrial output, dwindling internally generated revenue, declining tourism industry and job losses.

Keywords: Ethno-Religious, Challenges, Solutions, Conflicts and Farmers Crises.




Safety and Worry about Crime in Igbesa Community of Ogun State


Matthias Olufemi Dada Ojo (Ph.D.)

Department of Sociology, Federal University Gashua, P.M.B. 1005, Gashua Yobe State Nigeria.



Problem of safety and worry about crime is a serious one for many Nigerians. Several studies have examined the problem of safety and worry about crime in city areas with less attention on semi-urban and rural areas. This study, therefore, investigated safety and worry about crime in semi-urban area of Igbesa community in Ogun State. Survey design was utilized and both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. These involved questionnaire survey of seventy-two community residents and five sampled photographs took in the different areas of the community. Quantitative data were analysed using frequency distribution and percentage tables. The photographs were analysed using ethnographic summaries and content analysis. Age of the respondents ranged from 15 years to 64 years and above; 50% were male; 86.1% were Christians; 29.2% were bachelor degree holders and 84.7% were full time workers. A total of 31.9% said their neighbourhoods were safe in the night; while 37.5% of them confirmed that their neighbourhoods were safe in the day. An aggregate of 29.2% of respondents were very worried about the safety of their children; while 26.4% them were a little worried when strangers stopped them to ask for directions in the night. Data show that 30.6% of respondents were worried hearing footsteps behind them at night in their neighbourhoods. Respondents’ attitude towards crime shows that 20.8% of respondents said it varies between anxiety and fear. A total of 52.8% were very worried becoming victims of crime, while 27.8% of them confirmed that crime has affected their quality of life but 27.8% said fear of crime has little effect on the quality of life they live. The five photographs show physical incivility of neighbourhood that can cause problem of safety and worry about crime. The study recommends increase in surveillance, control of access to the neighbourhoods, reduction in incivility and disorder in the neighbourhoods, street policing, good police-community relation and erection of barriers to wade off intruders to enhance safety in the community.

Keywords: Safety, Worry, Crime, Neighbourhood and Community.




The Role of Nigeria-Benin Boundary Commissions in Resolving Border-Conflict in West Africa: The Case of Lolo and Madecali Borderland*


*Muhammad M. Nurudeen and **Abdulrahman Dangana Lukman*

*Department of political Sciences and International Studies Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, **International Relations, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria



This study examines the role of the Nigeria-Benin Boundary Commissions in resolving the 2009 community cross-border conflict between Lolo and Madecali. The border conflict over “Tungan Kungi” area threatened the long history of interactions that hitherto existed between the two settings; weaken socio-economic activities; and introduces various claims to land. The study employs the qualitative research method through an empirical survey by conducting specialized interviews (with staffs from the NBCs of Nigeria and Benin; and Security officials) and focus group discussions with the affected communities. The study adopts some of the ideas of the Neo-Functionalist Theory (which underscore the significant role of actors in inter-state relations). Findings showed that, due to the arbitrary nature of the boundary designed by the French and British colonialists, the towns of Lolo and Madecali were designed unilaterally in favour of the two powers without taking into cognisance the dynamics of the affected communities. However, strong mechanisms which include regular joint border visits; regular sensitization campaigns; bilateral summits’ of Presidents and Trans-border Cooperation Workshops etc. were put in place. This study recommends that the NBCs should reflect clearly on the appropriate instruments to be adopted in delimiting the Lolo-Madecali border; identify local peace-building priorities that would address the strategic issue of farmland; and also adopt the culture of prevention, while mechanisms for dialogue and peaceful resolution of the border conflict must be made more appealing and accessible.

Keywords: Border Conflicts, Territorial Claim, Boundary Commission, Nigeria and Benin, Lolo and Madecali




Linguistic/Stylistic Study of Helon Habila’s waiting for an Angel


Philip Darshak’a Lar, PhD

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State



This study is a linguistic stylistic analysis of Helon Habila’s Waiting for an Angel. It investigates the linguistic and stylistic features in the texts and the stylistic significance of Habila’s choice of style. The framework adopted for this study is the functional perspective of language as developed by Michael Halliday (1985) with particular reference to the metafunctions of language such as ideational, interpersonal and textual. The textual metafunction is considered more appropriate for this study because it centres on language analysis in a text.  For analyses of excerpts from the text for this study the linguistic method adopted was guided by a checklist of linguistic categories adopted from Leech and Short (1981:74-90). The primary data analysed in the study consist of excerpts randomly extracted from the book. The study reveals that Habila is consistent in his style of writing. The implication is that a consistent use of linguistic forms brings about linguistic proficiency which eventually results in competence. Habila’s style conforms to the concept of style as a choice and as a deviation.  This study therefore establishes  occurrence in the novel such as the use of complex and compound complex sentences, distinct choice of words and register, allusion, use of dash, coherent paragraphs, the use of poems, pidgin English, expressions from Nigerian languages, and reminiscences. This strengthens the point that style is a choice. The concept of style as a choice is justified in Habila’s writing in terms of consistency of occurrence of those forms since consistency is arguably a manifestation of choice. On the other hand, style as deviation is justified in Habila’s writing in terms of non-conformity with standard usage of the language. Since language and its use is dynamic, sticking to a given form is arguably a deviation from the norm. This study confirms that linguistic-stylistics is a useful tool in the interpretation of literary texts and by extension needs to be understood by authors as a requirement in the composition of original texts.

Keywords: linguistic, stylistic, style, 




A Stylistic Analysis of Yorùbá Political Songs on the Campaign Rallies in Some Towns in Osun State.


Bámgbóse Omobonike Bolájí (Mrs)

School Of Languages, Osun State College Of Education, Ìlá – Orangun.



Song is as old as the world itself. It originates right from the presence of the Almighty God where the angels sing Holy! Holy!! Holy!!! Round his throne ceaselessly (Rev. 4:8-11) song is created with human being. This paper examined a stylistic analysis of Yorùbá political songs in the campaign rallies in some towns in Osun State namely Osogbo, :d; and Ila Orangun. Also the place of songs among the Yorùbás was as well examined. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primarily, there was the researcher’s personal observation. Secondarily, the researcher visited different libraries to collect data. One the findings is that the usage of the stylistic devices makes campaign songs appealing. One of the recommendations is that politicians should desist from using abusive songs in rallies.  

Keywords: Songs, Stylistic Devices, Political Songs, Campaign, Yorùbá.




Politics and the Struggle for Democracy in Nigeria: An Appraisal


Osunyikanmi Pius Olakunle, Ph.D

Ministry Of Foreign Affairs, Abuja.



The paper takes an incisive look at the way politics is being played in Nigeria since her independence in 1960. The fact that politics has all along being played along ethnic lines under different political cultures is fully discussed, not losing sight of the fact that democracy is still in its infancy in the country. The efforts of pro-democracy groups to chase the military back to the barracks paid off when after a long chain of military rule, democracy was finally established in 1999. It is recommended that the only way to sustain democracy in the country is for successive political leaders to imbibe the culture of servant leadership devoid of corruption and sit tight syndrome.

Keywords:   Political participation, Ethnic politics, Pro-democracy groups, Military intrusion.




Towards a Desirable Peace and Development in the Niger Delta: The Role of Urhobo Proverbs


Udi, Peter Oghenerioborue,

Department of English, College of Education, P. M. B. 2090, Agbor, Delta State.



The discourse of peace and development will continue to receive attention globally because scholars are conscious of the fact that the absence of peace and security hinders economic growth and development. Besides security agencies that are entrusted with the maintenance of law and order, individuals and communities should also show a sense of commitment since a society that lacks peace is bound to experience economic retrogression. This paper therefore examines the role of proverbs in sustainable peace and development particularly in Urhobo society and Niger Delta in general. The study adopted the qualitative method of data collection and analysis. The data were gathered from direct interactions with participants who have profound knowledge of peace and development related proverbs in traditional society. Apart from the in-depth interviews which were conducted in the field, some data were also collected from audio recordings which were later transcribed and translated from Urhobo language into the English version. A total of twenty-seven proverbs that are thematically relevant to this work were purposively selected, codified and qualitatively analysed. The study found that proverbs contain themes and images that can activate mental consciousness of hearers to maintain peace and harmony in society. Some of the proverbs help in inhibiting the hormonal glands responsible for violent reactions of people especially the youth in every Urhobo community and their infusion into social discourses on regular basis help to de-escalate tension and promote peace and security for societal growth and development. They are suitable for addressing the causes and consequences of conflicts, averting looming security threats or re-occurrence of conflicts, and promoting peace and harmonious co-existence in a traditional society, hence they are often infused into peace and security discussions by elders and conflict facilitators in traditional African societies, particularly Urhobo.

Keywords: proverbs, peace, violence, development, society.




Internally Displaced Persons and Media Impacts in Nigeria towards Conflict Resolution: Issues Causes, Challenges and Prospects


Mustapha Ayodele Haruna

Department Of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.



Arguments and issues degenerate into quarrel, crisis and even war depending on the magnitude and enormity of its scale between and among people over scare resources, ideology and the struggle for power. War and armed conflict all have at least one thing in common: violence which like no other means destroys everything from people, crops, infrastructures, material resources to institutions and displaced people from their ancestral homes as refugees or internally displaced persons with no certain ray of hope of their return to the natural base. Consequently, camps for internally displaced persons have been built in different locations in Nigeria by the Government to sustain their lives there under the watch of the National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons saddled with such responsibility. Media has played significant roles in crisis and conflict resolution as it informs the public in the level of crisis or war in a community where involved. It carries different shades and colours of information both positive and negative, it increases the capacity to influence debate and shape public opinion. Despite all these provisions for internally displaced persons and the media impacts, cases of food shortages/shortchanges, rape cases, suicide bombing and insecurity have been recorded in various camps across the country, while the media has not been totally immune from being instrumental in formenting conflict and violence in low intensity conflict and troubled spot areas. The paper recognizes the nexus between crisis and information with relations to conflict resolution. The paper posits that internally displaced persons can be better managed with proactiveness of the media. The paper recommends constructive and good welfare policies/packages with utmost diligence on the part of the government officials managing it and the media upholding objectivity, perception and surveillance. The paper adopts development media theory to x-rays the use of media as a support to national development programmes aimed at improving the quality of lives of people struggling under camps conditions with accurate, informative and objective information.

Keywords:   Refugees, Citizenship, National Security, Communication, Conflict Management.




A Historical Appraisal of the Pre-Colonial Economy of Ondo Province in the Theoretical Praxim of Agrarianism and Conservatism.


Adu-Peters Raliat Olusola Ph.D

History Department, Adeyemi College Of Education, Ondo.



The traditional economy of Ondo Province was characterised by sufficient production and consumption of indigenous food items prior to modern interference. The 19th Century Yoruba wars and the 20th Century’s colonial economic policies engendered serious structural changes of modern misconceptions within the traditional economy. On this premise were the roles of agrarianism and conservatism theories germane to assessing the nature, method, factors and practices of production in pre-colonial Ondo Province. Forces of production in pre-colonial Ondo Province were all encompassing, there were two opposing economic phases which produced two different patterns of feeding among the people (feeding on food items classified as indigenous and exotic). Agrarianism theory explicitly positioned the beauty of the indigenous productive forces and practices which eluded the modern economy of unfamiliar food items. This study examined the trends of food production and consumption during the two periods and discovered that the modern people of Ondo Province were in a dilemma of making decision about whether they should live permanently on the indigenous or foreign food items. Oral interview and Archival materials served as primary source of data collection, data collected were interpreted from historical perspective. Hence, Conservatism theory was adopted in making alternative decisions about the items they consumed.

Keywords: Agrarianism, Conservatism, unfamiliar food, indigenous food and modern interference.




Global Peace and Security in the 21st Century: The Role of Language in Promoting Peace and Security in Nigeria


Hafsat Usman Kasim

Department Of Languag^ Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, Zaria



Language is the focal point around which every human activity revolves. It is in recognition of the ‘unbreakable bond’ between language and security that motivates our professional implicit commandment that, “thou shalt not teach language without infusing security”. It is in this light that this paper examines the concepts of peace, security and language. It further identifies security threats as abject poverty; biting hunger, ignorance and disease etc. it also looks at how language through its structural and functional properties could be used in tackling security challenges. It recommends solutions to the basic threats to peace and security. It concludes by advocating for English language to be lifted beyond basic proficiency level to the high-order level.

Keywords: Global, Peace, Security, Language, Promoting.




Enhancing the Role of the Secretary in an Information and Communication Technology (Ict) Era towards Meeting the Challenges of Vision 20:2020


Irorakpor, Helen .T. (Mrs.) and Ifesi Cecila

Department of Office Technology and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This study examined enhancing the role of the secretary in and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) era towards meeting the challenges of vision 20:2020. A total of 41 respondents comprising 28 female and 13 male students from the target population were used for the study which was designed as descriptive survey design.Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a 23 item validated questionnaire. The mean of the collected data were ascertained while the null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using student’s t-test statistic on Minitab computer software. The findings reveal that while the respondents attest to their preparedness to take on new challenges in the core secretarial and administrative duties, they are deficient in ancillary duties. It was therefore recommended among other that secretaries should find time to enhance their capability to perform ancillary services as training institutions might consider such courses an encumbrance on their core curriculum.

Keywords: Secretary, Information, Communication, Technology, Meeting.




A Contrastive Analysis of the Structures of Selected Hausa and English Proverbs


*Abubakar Sadiq Musa, **Eric Oghene Ochuko Bosin, **Esther Iowar,

*Department Of Languages, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria, **Department Of Languages, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.



This study is a Contrastive Analysis of English and Hausa proverbs in selected texts. The study considers three (3) research questions which are based on the similarities and differences between the English and Hausa proverbs. The sample population covers collections of several proverbs. The data collected were subjected to comparison at different levels using Quirk and Wilson’s models while Banathy’s contrastive model is then used to describe the selected proverbs according to their form, patterns, distribution and variations. Overall findings on the similarities and differences of English and Hausa proverbs were stated based on the forms, patterns; distributions and varieties. The findings of the study reveal that Proverbs that are culture-bound are those that posed difficulties for learning and translation from Hausa language to English. On this basis, the study recommended that the English and Hausa proverbs should be given adequate consideration during teaching and learning so as to improve students’ performance on the use of English proverbs.

Keywords: Kingship; Governance; Proverbs; Akan; Yoruba.




Strategies of Conflict Resolution in Ecowas Sub-Regional States


*Musa Baba Abubakar **Safwan Sani Mikaila

*Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Political Science, Federal University, Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria.



ECOWAS, established in originally as a regional organization to essentially promote the economic integration of the fifteen members states, The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has been gradually transformed, under the pressure of political events, into an organization also responsible for finding solutions to armed conflicts and other political crisis which were undermining peace and security within the community space. The 1990 decade saw ECOWAS, spurred by its most powerful member country by far Nigeria, intervened beyond the conventional diplomatic field by sending thousands of soldiers to try to restore peace in Liberia, then in Sierra Leone and more modesty in Guinea Bissau. The efforts of ECOWAS monitoring Group, ECOMOG, the peace keeping force of the organization and the strategies or mechanisms used by ECOWAS finally helped in ending the conflicts in the sub-regional continent.

Keyword: ECOWAS, Conflict, Resolution, Strategies, Sub-regional




Concepts of Global Social Thought, Globalization and Globalizing Social Sciences- An Empirical Review


*Ven. Jonathan Chidomere Egesi & *Uchechi Dike **Ihebom Sharon El-Benita

*Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo Ohaji **Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri



Globalization has attracted and won a myriad of definition over the past few years since its coming into cognizance. For our purpose here we take it for the process by which business or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. Let the above definition be as it may our interest here is how social thought can be made global. It will not be out of place to establish that social thinking have of late come into limelight because of its imperativeness nowadays as it attempt explanations on the causes of given social phenomena and equally proffer solutions to those problems. It is also true to mention that before now social sciences were relegated to the background and nothing much was made out of them. This research is necessitated by the healthy growth recorded in the social sciences since the turn of the 21st century in order to promote and enhance such growth and even make them much more important. Such social science courses or disciplines include political science, sociology, Geography, Economics among others. Given data collection techniques were adopted to garner detailed data for analyses and included, oral interviews, use of questionnaires, journals, textbooks, and the internet. Some social science theories were incorporated to make the work tangible. The work concluded with the scholars suggesting ways that social science courses or disciplines can be made global .

Keywords: Globalization, Globalizing, social sciences.  




Analysis of Use of JSTOR Database by Students of the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Jos


Jacob, Emmanuel Eneojo & Musa John Iyakwari

Library and Information Science Unit, Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos.



This research examined the Use of JSTOR Database by students of the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Jos. Survey research method was the research method adopted for this investigation. The instrument used was questionnaire. Frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the data generated through the research instrument. The findings revealed among others that the students were computer literate, and aware of the existence of the JSTOR Database on the University of Jos website. The findings further revealed that the students’ source of awareness of the existence of the database was through friends, seminars, internet and lecturers. As they are aware of the existence of the JSTOR, they used it frequently and to a large extent. The students were partially satisfied with the JSTOR. Based on the findings of this research, it was recommended among others that sensitization programmes like seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized for the students to create more awareness on the availability and use of the database, students are encouraged to use this database to retrieve information for their academic activities, there should be provision for more computers, steady electricity supply and good network connectivity. The research therefore, concludes that JSTOR database is a very useful database for research. However, the students of Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Science, University of Jos appeared not to be familiar with the database hence, more sensitizations are needed.

Keywords: JSTOR, Electronic Database, Awareness, University of Jos, Department of Sociology




Perceived Effect of Sex Preference on Girl-Child Dropout in Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria


Hadiza Mohammed Bello (P.hD)

Department of Educational Psychology, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria



This study focused on the perceived effect of sex preference on girl child drop out in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna State. Two research objectives, questions and hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The study was carried out in some selected senior secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna State. The population of  the study was girls in some selected senior  secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis with a population of one thousand, three hundred (1,300) students, three hundred and sixty (360) teachers and a cross section of parents purposively within the study area. Three hundred and seventy-three (373) participated formed the sample for the study. The self developed instrument titled “Influence of Sex Preference on Girl-Child Dropout in Secondary Schools” questionnaire (ISPGCDOS) was used for data collection. The research instrument was validated by five experts in Educational Psychology, faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. The Cronbach Alpha was used to test the consistency of the instrument and reliability co-efficient of .821 was obtained. Mean and Standard Deviation  were used to discuss the descriptive data, while one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test were used to test the hypotheses developed for the study. The study revealed that, there was significant difference between the perception of parents, teachers and students on influence of sex preference on girl-child dropout in senior secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. However, there was no significant difference between the perception of male and female respondents on the influence of sex preference on girl-child dropout in senior secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. Thus, it was recommended that, parents should be sensitized by the government and other stakeholders on the importance of girls’ education so as to understand their role and involvement in their girl’s child education this will go a long way in reducing the rate of dropout resulting of unwanted pregnancy, socio-economic status among other; Every school should be mandated by the government to organize general parent meeting to enable the parents to meet teachers and discuss problem affecting their girl’s education due to sex preference that eventually leads to dropout. These parents should be advised on the need to motivate and encourage their child girls to remain in school among others.

Keywords: Sex Preference, Girl-child, Education and Dropout




 Influence of Competitive Intelligence in the Promotion of Information Delivery in Agricultural Libraries in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria


Unobe, Elameyi Susan

Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U. Zaria



This paper discusses the influence of competitive intelligence in the promotion of information delivery in Agricultural Libraries in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Library and librarians’ knowledge and adaptation of competitive intelligence in library service is considered a very important requirement for efficient and effective information delivery in libraries because a library is an essential element in the educational and research endeavour of research institute most especially a agricultural research institute that require painstaking research activities considering the needs for food self-sufficient and source for country income. Therefore, agricultural librarians should understand their clients’ needs make the best use of their competitive intelligence, plan service provision, promote the available services, and deliver them efficiently and effectively. However, the paper discover that agricultural librarians are yet to maximize their potentials as information requirement in agricultural institutions are becoming increasingly complex and competitive. The paper then concludes that agricultural librarians should acquire the technique and skill of competitive intelligence to promote information delivery services to agricultural libraries.

Keywords: Agricultural Libraries, Competitive Intelligence, Promotion, Information Delivery 




Assessment of Activities of the Military in Curbing Insurgency in       Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.


*Aishatu Musa *Sani Mustapha Kura & **Adda Gana Bukar

*Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria **Department of Industrial and Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



In the late 1970s to the present date, there has been a persistent outbreak of ethno-religious violent ttacks across the country.  Notable among is the recent Boko Haram insurgency of 2009 to date in Maiduguri and other North Eastern parts of Nigeria.  All these crises in military parlance are regarded as internal security and low intensity conflicts (IS-LOC), which is the primary responsibility of the Nigerian Police Force and other para-military forces.  As experiences have shown, however, these forces have had difficulties in curtailing and containing these civil disorders and disturbances in the past.  Hence, the intervention of military is required to “assist civil power in times of civil disturbances, insecurity and conduct counter-insurgency operations as enshrined in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. A lot of human and financial resources are geared toward bringing the insurgency to an end, but despite all these human and financial resources invested in curtailing the insecurity, the incident of insurgency is still prevailing, and at alarming rate, most especially going by the recent development such as abduction of several school girls, university lecturers and other related kidnappings and abductions for ransoms. The question that one will asked is: why is the military not succeeding in curtailing the insurgency? It is against this backdrop that this paper intends to analyses the issue and provide possible solution to the menace.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Counter-Insurgency, Military




Impact of Civil Society Organizations on Nigerian Socio-Political Development


Sadeeq Launi (Ph.D) & Bala Umar

Department Of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi-Nigeria



The study critical assessed the impact of civil society organizations on socio political development in Nigeria; a case study of civil liberty organizations. A vibrant civil society is sine qua non to the sustenance of nation’s development. The study adopted secondary and primary methods to data collection of sourced information regarding the subject matter. The data were analyzed based on the opinions of 141 respondents administered questionnaires. The data were presented and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The researcher found out that civil society organization had impacted significantly on socio-political development of Nigeria. Despite certain factors bedeviling it operational objectives such as political interference, poor funding, lack of internal democracy, corruption, a disconnection from rural organization etc. The study concluded that the civil society organizations or civil liberty organizations have sacrificed their existence goals and objectives to the course of the fight towards socio-political development of Nigeria. Far reaching recommendations were made in this study as it involves the successes of civil society organizations in a democratic dispensation in Nigeria. All the scholarly opinion adopted in the study were accordingly acknowledge in the references. 

Keywords: Impact, civil, society, socio-political, development.




Leadership and Ethics Relationship: Strengthening Human Resources and Organisational Capacity for Development


Sapwavi Jerry Kane

NIHOTOUR, Bauchi Campus-Nigeria.



The aim of this study is to present a practical and rational perspective of leadership and ethics relationship. Specifically, this study explored the concept of leadership and ethics relationship to corporate governance. Leadership and ethics are concepts which are seen as important factors in human resources and organizational capacity in a developmental state. Leadership is necessary within the context of decision making and organizational performance whilst ethics refers to the particular conduct of those within organizations who are responsible for decision making. The socially constructed reality of this study is represented by individuals who were categorised as experts and corporations known to have a high standard of corporate governance. Views from the subjects about ethics in the perspective of corporate governance were gathered. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Triangulation techniques of data collection were adopted to provide richness and thickness to the data. Interviews, document analysis and observations were used to understand the reality of the research issue. Triangulation techniques support the validation and reliability of data. The research found several attributes that relates to leadership and ethics which are also essential to guide corporate governance practices. They are fundamental elements that have emerged from the data. This paper developed a framework around the dimensions of leadership and ethics relationships relative to the Nigerian business environment. The study advanced an understanding of the relationship between leadership and ethics in strengthening human resources and organisational capacity for development and proffers an agenda for future research in human resource field.

Keywords: leadership; Ethics; Relationship; Ethical Leadership; Human resource; Ethical Structure; Ethical Management.



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